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ST. LAWRENCE RIVER 

PROJECT 



FINAL REPORT 

1942 



3S 



GENERAL DATA 



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DOCUgyuuspr»^^vQaro~a^ 
CORPS OF ENGINEERS, U.S. ARMY 



U.S. ENGINEER OFFICE • MASSENA, NEW YORK. 



APPENDIX A -a 



ST. LAWRENCE RIVER 



PROJECT 

***** 

PINAL REPORT 
1 9 *+ 2 



GENERAL DATA 



CORPS OP ENGINEERS, U.S. ARMY 
U.S. Engineer Office - Massena, New York 
July , 19U2 



■tt.d y- ^^ 



APP&TPIX A-2 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



PART ONE - Officials • Employees, and Consultants Associated with 
the Investigation of the St* Lawrence River Project, 
October, 1940 to June, 1942* Page 1 

PART TWO - Hydraulic Channel Studies* Page 17 

EXHIBIT I - "Lake Ontario - Levels, Outflows, Supplies and 

Regulation" - Dept* of Transport, Ottawa, Sept* 1940* Page 91 

PART THREE - Horizontal and Vertical Control Data* Page 153 

PART TOUR - Land Acquisition, Status of Preliminary 

Investigations* Page 191 

PART FIVE - Power Distribution for Construction - Analysis of 

Design and Estimate of Cost* Page 211 

PART SIX - House Document No* 978, 76th Congress, 3rcU Session* Page 217 
House Document No* 153, 77th Congress, 1st* Session* Page 219 



PART ONE 



OFFICIALS, EMPLOYEES, AND CONSULTANTS ASSOCIATED 

WITH THE INVESTIGATION OF THE ST. LAWRENCE RIVER 

PROJECT, OCTOBER, 1940 TO JUNE, 1942 



Appendix A-2 



Appendix A-2, Part 1 



OFFICIALS, EMPLOYEES, AND CONSULTANTS ASSOCIATED WITH 
THE INVESTIGATION OF THE ST, LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 
OCTOaiR 19*K) TO JUNE 1942 



1. The following list gives the names of the principal people 
connected with the work "between October 19*K) and June 19^2. The list 
is not intended to be exclusive but contains the names of the principal 
people whom it may be desirable to consult at some future date regard- 
ing details of the investigations. The names on the list are under 
five headings as follows: 

a. Members of the Advisory Committees. 

b. Department Employees of United States and Canada. 

c. Consulting Engineers. 

d. Employees of Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario. 
e_. Employees of St. Lawrence River District. 



a. The Advisory Committees. 

MEMBERS OF THE UNITED STATES ADVISORY COMMITTEE : 

Berle, Hon. Adolph A. 
Assistant Secretary of State 
State Department 
Washington, D. C. 

Cruise, Gerald V., Executive Secretary 
Power Authority of State of New York 
State Office Building, 80 Centre Street 
New York, N. Y. 

Olds, Leland B. , Chairman 

United States-St. Lawrence Advisory Committee 
Chairman, Federal Power Commission 
Washington, D. C. 

Robins, Major General Thomas M. 
Office, Chief of Engineers 
Washington, D. C. 



MEMBERS OF TEE CANADIAN ADVISORY COMMITTEE : 

Hogg, Dr. Thomas H., Chairman 
Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario 
620 University Avenue 
Toronto, Ontario, Canada 

Lefebvre, Dr. Olivier 0., Vice-President 
Quebec Streams Commission 
Montreal, Quebec, Canada 

Lindsay, Guy A. 

Chairman, Canadian Temporary Gxeat Lakes-St. Lawrence Advisory Board 

Engineer in Charge, General Engineering Branch 

Department of Transport 

Ottawa, Ontario, Canada 

Read, John E., Legal Advisor 
Department of External Affairs 
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada 



-2- 



b. Department al Officials and Other Employees . 
OFFICE, CHIEF OF ENGINTP1T? MEN WHO FTBLPED: 



Giroux, Carl H., Head Electrical Engineer 
Office, Chief of Engineers 
Washington, D. C. 

Care, William K. 

Office, Chief of Engineers 

Washington, D. C. 

McAlpine, W. A., Chief Engineer 
Office, Chief of Engineers 
Washington, D. C. 

McFarland, Head Engineer 
Office, Chief of Engineers 
Washington, D. C. 

Middlebrooks, T. A. 
Office, Chief of Engineers 
Washington, D. C. 

Shepard, E.E. , Senior Physicist 
Office, Chief of Engineers 
Washington, D. C. 

Steele, Byran W. , Head Engineer 
Office, Chief of Engineers 
Washington, D. C. 



(Electrical & Mechanical) 



(Electrical) 



(General Engineering) 



(General Engineering) 



(Soil Mechanics) 



(Seismic) 



(Dams & Concrete) 



OTHER UNITED STAITES PEOPLE WHO HELPED : 

Bennett, C. E. , Electrical Engineer 
Federal Power Commission 
Washington, D. C. 

Bostwick, T. J. Chief Electrical Engineer 
Aluminum Company of America 
Gulf Building 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

Bucher, Palph D. 

New York State Power Authority 

State Office Building, 80 Centre Street 

New York, N. Y. 



(Powerhouse) 



-3- 



OTHER UNITED STATES PEOPLE WHO EELPET lCoj 



Crane, C. C. , Electrical Engineer 
Federal Power Commission 
Washington, D. C. 

Davidson, Maurice P., Trustee 
New York State Power Authority 
State Office Building 
80 Centre Street 
New York, N. Y. 

Freestone, Fred J. 
New York State Power Authority- 
State Office Building 
80 Centre Street 
New York, N. Y. 

Goetz, Charles M. , Attorney 
Federal Power Commission 
Washington, D. C. 

Grimm, C. I,, Head Engineer 
North Pacific Division 
500 Pittock Block 
Portland, Oregon 

Hough, Benjamin K. Jr. , Senior Engineer 
U.S. Engineer Office 
Ithaca, New York 

McWhorter, Soger B. , Chief Engineer 
Federal Power Commission 
Washington, D. C. 

Paige, Sidney, Senior Geologist 
North Atlantic Division 
270 Broadway 
New York, N. Y. 

Parker, Colonel T. B. , Chief Engineer 
New York State Power Authority 
Tennessee Valley Authority 
Knorville, Tennessee 

Peden, C. W. 

Aluminum Company of America 

Massena, New York 

Heed, George E. 

New York State Power Authority 

State Office Building 

80 Centre Street 

New York, N. Y. 3^ 



(General Engineering) 



(Soil Mechanics) 



(Powerhouse) 



(Geology) 



(Powerhouse) 



OTHER UNITED STATES PEOPLE WHO HELPED: Cont'd 

Schultz, S. E. (Transformers and Switch- 

Bonneville Power Administration ing) 

1300 Union Avenue 
Portland, Oregon 

Whitzel, E. T. t President 
Aluminum Company of America 
Massena, New York 

Wuerpel, Charles E. (Concrete Aggregate) 

Central Concrete Laboratory 
320 Washington Street 
Mount Vernon, New York 

Youngman, William S. , Junior General Counsel 
Federal Power Commission 
S00 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W. 
Washington, D. C. 



CANADIAN MEN WHO HELPED : 

Atkinson, M. B. , Asst. Suptg. Engineer 

We Hard Canal 

St. Catherines, Ontario, Canada 

Boulton, B. K. Operating Engineer 
BeauharnoiB Light, Heat and Power Company 
Beauharnoi8, Quebec, Canada 

Hara, L. D. , Officer in Charge 

Ontario Canal 

Cornwall, Ontario, Canada 

Haverhill, H. W. 

Montreal Heat, Light & Power Company 

Montreal, Quebec, Canada 

Hodgson, Earnest, Dominion Seismologist 
Dominion Observatory 
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada 

Knapp, E. W. 

Beauharnois Heat, Light & Power Company 

Beauharnois, Quebec, Canada 

Marr, Norman (Powerhouse) 

Dominion Water & Power Bureau 
Department of Mines & Resources 
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada 

-5- 



CANADIAN MEN WHO HELPED; Cont'd 

Moore, T. E. 
Department of Transport 
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada 

St rat ton, L. E. 
Department of Transport 
Cornvallls Hotel 
Cornwall, Ontario, Canada 

St. Laurent, J. A. G. 
Department of Transport 
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada 

West, C.W. , Supt. Engineer 

Welland Canal 

Department of Transport 

St. Catherines, Ontario, Canada 

Wilson, A. E. (Miss) 
Geological Surrey 
Department of Mines & Be sources 
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada 



(General Engineering) 



(Contact with Canadian 
Officials) 



(Dredging Plant) 



(Seismology) 



-6- 



c. Consultants 



Carlberg, H.A. 
Haxza Engineering Co, 
205 W. Wacker Drive 
Chicago, Illinois 

Clark, Dr. David G. 

Supt., Presbyterian 

Hospital 

New York, N. Y. 

Cothran, Prank 

U30 South Church St. 

Charlotte, North C. 



Creager, William P. 
9th Floor, Electric Bg. 
Buffalo, Few York 

Crosby, Irving B. 
6 Beacon Street 
Boston, Mass. 

De Young, I saac 
Sault St. Marie 
Michigan 

Eldredge, Alburtus J. 
3^35 Broadway Place 
Columbus, Ohio 

Field, William T. 
Flower Building 
Watertown, N. Y. 

Floor, Erik 
Harza Engrg. Co. 
205 W. Wacker Drive 
Chicago, Illinois 

Gibbon, Harold 
Harza Engrg. Co. 
205 W. Wacker Drive 
Chicago, Illinois 

Gilboy, Dr. Glennon 
Lincoln, Mass. 



Consultant associated 
with Harza Engrg. Co. 



Expert Consultant on 
hospital design. 



Consultations on design 
and layout of power plant 
on St. Lawrence. 



Consultations on hospital 
design. 



Formerly Vice-President Consultations on design of 

and Chief Engineer of structures and on river 

Beauharnois Power & hydraulics. 
Light Company. 



Consultant Engineer 



Consultant-Geologi st 



Sr. Engr., U.S.E.D. 
(Retired) 



Expert obi cableways. 



New York State Power 
Authority 



Chief Engr., Harza 
Engineering Company 



Consultant Engineer 
Harza Engrg. Company 



Professor, Soil 
Mechanics, Consultant 
Engineer 



Consultations on design of 
structures and river 
hydraulics. 

Consultations on foundation 
conditions for structures 
St. Lawrence River District 

Consultations on lock 
design. 



Installation of cableway tc 
Barnhart Island. 



Contact with New York 
Power Authority. 



Consultations on designand 
layout of power plant on 
St. Lawrence. 



Consultations on design 
and layout of power plant 
on St. Lawrence. 



Consultations on Soils 
mechanics this district. 



-7- 



Growdon, James P. 
SOI Gulf Building 
Pittsburg, Pa. 

Gustafson, A. P. 
Cornell University 
Ithaca, IT. T. 

Hamilton, George W. 
20 North Wacker Drive 
Chicago, Illinois 

Harza, leroy P. 
Harza Engrg. Co. 
205 West Vacker Drive 
Chicago, Illinois 

Hogan, John P. 
1^2 Maiden Lane 
New York, N. T. 

Justin, Joel D. 
1520 Locust Street 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Neergaard, Charles P. 
kl E. l+2nd Street 
New York, N. T, 



Chief Engineer 
Aluminum Company 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Prof. Soils Mechanics 
Cornell University 



Consultant Engineer 
elebtrical Engrg. 



Pres. Harza Engrg. 
Co. - Contractor 



Consultant Engineer 
N.Y. firm 



Consultant Engineer 



Specialist in design 
of hospitals 



Oliver, Balph H. Harza Engrg. Co. 

Harza Engineering Company Consultant Engineer 
Chicago, Illinois 



Consultations on design of 
structures and river hy- 
draulics. 

Consultations on seeding 
dikes. 



Consultations on electri- 
cal engineering. 



Consultations on design 
and layout of power plant 
on St. Lawrence. 



Consultations on design 
of structures and river 
hydraulics. 

Consultations on design of 
structures and river hy- 
draulics. 

Consultations on design 
and layout of proposed 
hospital. 

Consultations on archi- 
tecture of powerhouse. 



Peacock, Prank E. 
Harza Engrg. Company 
Chicago, Illinois 

Sahin, L. C. 
Lake Carriers Assn. 
905 Rockefeller Bldg. 
Cleveland, Ohio 

Scharff, Maurice H^ 
Consulting Enginee'r 
285 Madison Avenue 
New York, N. Y. 



Consultant Engineer 
Harza Engrg. Company 



Lake Carriers Assn, 



Consultations on power- 
house. 



Consultations on locks 
and canals. 



-g- 



Sverdrup, Leif Jack 
Srerdrup & Parcel 
St. Louis, Missouri 



Wadsworth, Wm. J. 
Consulting Engineer 
Harza Engineeringpo. 
205 v ©st Wacker Drive 
Chicago, Illinois 



Member, Technical 
Advisory Board, 
Am. Inst, of Steel 
Construction. 

Consultant Engineer 
Harsa Engineering Co, 



Consultations on "bridge 
construction. 



Consultations on design 
and layout of power plant 
on St. Lawrence. 



-9- 



d. Employees of the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario 

Aberli, A. 

Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario 

620 University Avenue 

Toronto, Ontario, Canada 

Black, S. W,, Assistant Engineer 
Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario 
620 University Avenue 
Toronto, Ontario, Canada 

Dibble e, John, Assistant Chief Engineer 
Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario 
620 University Avenue 
Toronto, Ontario, Canada 

Prampton, A. H., Electrical Engineer 
Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario 
620 University Arenae 
Toronto, Ontario, Canada 

Hendry, M. C., Assistant Engineer 
Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario 
620 University Avenue 
Toronto, Ontario, Canada 

Holden, Otto, Chief Hydraulic Engineer 
Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario 
620 University Avenue 
Toronto, Ontario, Canada 

Hull, A., Chief Electrical Engineer 
Hydro-Eleetric Power Commission of Ontario 
620 University Avenue 
Toronto, Ontario, Canada 

Simson, G. P. 

Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario 

620 University Avenue 

Toronto, Ontario, Canada 

Wood, E. M. , Electrical Engineer 

Hydro -Electric Power Commission of Ontario 

620 University Avenue 

Toronto, Ontario, Canada 



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-15- 



PART TWO 



HIDRAULIC CHANNEL STUDIES 



Atroandlx A-2 



St. Lawrence uiver Project 



HYDRAULIC CHAitoEL STUDIES 



INDEX 



Section Subject Pa^re 

I. Scope of this Appendix 19 

II. Hydraulic Characteristics of St. Lawrenoe River 21 

III. Hydraulic Data Used in the Studies ............ 36 

IV. Criteria for Desi^jn of Channel Cuts e 41 

V« Methods of Backwater Commutations, o .......... . 52 

VI. Hydraulic Studies by Reaches.., 57 

VII. Model Tests 87 

PLATES 

Mo . Abbreviated Title 

I Jeueral plan 

2-9 Standard Low Tfater Profile 

10 Rating Curves 

II Backwater profiles 

12 JJ-avi Ration Channel >/elocities for Recoimiienued x'lan 

13 Frequency of 4 Ft. per Sec. Velocity (Alternate Flan) 

14 Jikvi^ucion Channel Velocities for Alternate Plan 

15 Effect or Q&aezi Island Guts on Water Surface at Look 25 

IS Effect of C^den Island and point Three points Cuts on 
Water Surface at i-ock 25 

- 17 - 



Index (cont'd.) i lates 

No» Abbreviated Title 

17. Ofeden Island North Channel Velocities 

18-22 Surface Current Conditions 



- 18 - 



SECTION! SCOPE OF THIS APPENDIX. 



I* The hydraulio studies whioh were made in oonneotion with this 
report may be grouped under the following headings j 

a. Studies relating to the design of the struotures, principal- 
ly the dams, looks and powerhouse » 

b. Studies relating to the design of cofferdams and diversion 
channels and the determination of oonstruotion sohedules 
and procedures* 

j?» Studies relating to the design of the navigation ohannel. 

d. Studies relating to the design of ohannel enlargements in 
oertain reaches of the river upstream from the Barnhart 
Island powerhouse where it is required that velocities be 
lowered to insure the formation of an ioe cover in the 
winter time. 

2. This appendix is oonoerned with the last two subjeots only. The 
first two subjeots, relating to the design and oonstruotion of the struc- 
tures, are covered in the design analyses of the particular structures in- 
volved. 

3* Place 1 of this appendix shows the reoommended project plan. On 
this plate may be seen the many ohannel outs whioh will be neoessary to 
make the river satisfaotory for navigation and to insure the formation of 
an ioe cover in the winter time. It is the design of these outs with 
whioh this appendix is oonoerned and for whioh the studies referred to in 
items o_ and d above were made. The particular outs oovered by this appen- 
dix are those at the upper end of the project between Chimney Point and 
Morrisburg, with the exoeption of the Point Rookaway Canal, and those at 
the lower end between the head of Cornwall Island and St. Regis Island. 
The other outs shown are either slaokwater oanals or outs made for diver- 
sion during oonstruotion. 

4. In this appendix, therefore, are desoribed the many hydraulio 
studies whioh were made in oonneotion with the design of the above ohan- 
nel outs. The hydraulio oharaoteristios of the river affeoting the 
design are disoussed. The basio data used are listed and desoribed. The 
methods used in the computations are explained together with the important 
design assumptions made in oonneotion therewith. Lastly, the results of 
the studies are presented by reaches. 

5. Time did not permit a detailed study of all reaohes. The most 
important reaohes however, those having high priority in the oonstruo- 
tion ^rogram, were studied and definite plans of improvement prepared. 
The less important reaohes were left for future study. Where detailed 
studies were not made, a design olosely approximating the Canadian plan 
was used. 

- 19 - 



6. It is intended that the results of the computations shall even- 
tually be oheoked by model tests* Analytioal methods alone oannot be 
depended upon to insure a satisfactory navigation channel . An attempt 
has been made to solve analytically suoh problems as the division of 
flow among; the various ohannels making up the International Rapids Section 
of the St* Lawrenoe River and the determination of the maximum velocity 
in the portion of the ohannel whioh will be used for navigation, but at 
best these solutions oan be considered only rough approximations since it 
is impossible to put into equation form all of the faotors influencing 
the design* Some problems, suoh as the determination of the location and 
magnitude of oross currents and eddies are not even susoeptible of an 
analytioal solution. The sizes of outs oan be determined approximately 
by analytioal methods, but the detailed shape and proper looation of these 
cuts oannot* To insure a satisfactory navigation ohannel , therefore, it 
is considered desirable that all of the oritioal reaches be oheoked by 
model tests and that the details of the ohannel outs be worked out in the 
model. Canadian engineers assooiated with this projeot have also expressed 
their desire that this be done* 

7* Plates 1, 2, 3, 4 and 34 of Appendix III-O (1) show the detailed 
layout of the ohannel outs and enlargements whioh are oovered by this 
appendix* 



- 20 - 



SECTION II. HYDRAULIC CHARACTERISTICS OF ST. LAWRENCE KIVER 



8, Description of St. Lawrenoe Riv er. Plate M of the main report 
contains a small soale map and ^profile of the whole St. Lawrenoe River 
system. On this map it may be seen that the St. Lawrenoe River system 
oonsists basically of three parts, - the Great Lakes (Lake Superior, Lake 
Michigan, Lake Huron, Lake Erie and Lake Ontario), the St. Lawrenoe River 
proper, and the Gulf of St. Lawrenoe. The City of Quebeo marks the head 
of the gulf and the lower end of the river. Kingston on the Canadian side 
and Tibbetts Point on the American side mark the upper end of the river, 
and the beginning of the lake. 

9. The Sto Lawrenoe River proper is 342 miles long. The upper 114 
miles, between Lake Ontario and St. Regis constitute the International 
Boundary between the United States and Canada. Downstream from St. Regis, 
the river is entirely within Canadian Territory. Between Chimney Point 
and Montreal, also a distance of 114 miles, the river is generally con- 
stricted and steep. Forty-six miles of this steep portion is in the in- 
ternational section and 68 miles in the Canadian seotion. Looks are 
necessary for navigation in this steep portion, as may be seen on the 
profile on Plate M of the main report. The 68 miles above the steep por- 
tion and the 160 miles below, are quite flat and looks are not necessary 
in these reaches. 

10. The river above Montreal may be divided into five more or less 
distinct seotions as follows: (1) the deep lake-like reaohes of the Thou- 
sand Islands Seotion, 68 miles in length from Lake Ontario to the first 
swift water near Chimney Point; (2) the International Rapids Seotion em- 
bracing the 46 miles of rapids and swift water between Chimney Point and 
Lake St. Francis; (3^ the Lake St. Franois Section extending 27 miles 
through that lake to the end of deep water at its foot; (4) the Soulanges 
Seotion embracing the 18 miles of rapids and shoal waters from Lake St. 
Francis to Lake St. Louis; and (5) the Lachine Seotion inoluding Lake St. 
Louis and the rapids and to Montreal harbor, a distanoe of 23 miles. 
These 5 seotions are indicated on the insert map on Plate M referred to 
ahove. 

11. Descri ption of International Rapids Seotion . The International 
Rapids Seotion is indioated on the general map on Plate M of the main 
report. It will be noted that there are no major tributaries in this 
seotion. One small tributary, the Grass River, enters the Seotion near 
the lower end. Another small tributary, the Oswegatohie River, enters 

a few miles upstream from the upper end of the Seotion. The natural flow 
from these tributaries has very little effect u_-on the large flow of the 
St. Lawrence Biver, and for the purposes of this report have been negleo- 
ted. Diversions for power are often appreciable, however, and must be 
considered. The most, important diversion is at Massena, New York, where 
about 25,000 o.f.s. is diverted. This flow returns to the Section through 
the Grass River. 

12. Plate 1 of this appendix shows the International Rapids Seotion 

- 21 - 



in detail. It will be rioted that this seotion of river contains numer- 
ous islands of all sizes. These islands break the river into many chan- 
nels, which ohannels are themselves quite crooked and irregular. The 
Seotion oonsists mostly of rapids and reaches of swift, smooth-flowing 
water. Velocities are generally high and water surf aoe slopes steep. The 
total fall through the entire 46-mile Section is about 92 feet, 

13, The steep slope starts at the head of Galop Island, The north 
and south ohannels past Galop Island are called the Galop Rapids, the 
north ohannel being oalled the Canadian Galop Rapids and the south chan- 
nel, the Amerioan Galop Rapids, Below Galop Island the river flows through 
an irregular ohannel with varying reaohes of swift and relatively slower 
flow to the Rapide Plat in the upper end of the Ogden Island north channel. 
Most of the fall in the Ogden Island north ohannel occurs in the Eapide 
Flat, while most of the fall in the Ogden Island south channel take plaoe 
at Utaddington near the lower end of the island where the channel is ob- 
structed by a oauseway and the remains of an old dam. Below Ogden Island 
the river flows through a series of islands to Chrysler Island, whenoe the 
ohannel is unobstructed to Steens and Cat Islands at the head of Croii 
Island, Here Croil Island and Long Sault Island again split the river in- 
to two principal ohannels. The largest of the rapids, the Long Sault 
rapids, begins near the middle of Long Sault Island north ohannel and ends 
at the foot of that island. The Long Sault Island south channel is a 
series of minor rapids throughout its entire length. Below Long Sault 
Island the main ohannel (Barnhart Island south ohannel) is a section of 
swift water. The final rapids oocur at the lower end of the Barnhart 
Island north ohannel. Below Barnhart; Island the river flows swiftly to 
the head of Cornwall Island where it is again split into two ohannels 
whioh enter into Lake St. Pranois near the foot of that island. Of the 
total fall of 92 feet in the International Rapids Seotion, 10 feet are 
conoentrated in the Galop Rapids, 12 feet in the Rapide Plat, 29 feet in 
the Long Sault Rapids and 9 feet in the Barnhart Island (north channel) 
Rapids, A profile 6f the natural river ohannel for a flow of 240,000 c£s 
is shown on Plate M-III of the main report. Profiles for 216,000 and 
280,000 ofs are shown on Plate 11 of this appendix, 

14, Present Navigation Chan nel, The International Rapids Seotion 
has been developed for 14-foot navigation on the Canadian side of the 
river. Lateral oanals, by -passing the steeper portions of the seotion, 
were oonstruoted by the Dominion of Canada early in the present century. 
At the head of the section, the Galop Canal by-passes the Galop Rapids 
and swift water downstream to Iroquois j near the head of Ogden Island the 
iiorrisburg Canal by-passes the Rapide Plat and swift water to Morrisburg; 
the Parran' s Point Canal oarries navigation around the swift water at the 
head of Croil Island; and the Cornwall Canal system goes around the Long 
Sault Rapids and swift water downstream to below Cornwall. These oanals 
are shown in plan on Plate 1 of this appendix and in profile on Plate 
M-III of the main report. The controlling dimensions of the looks arei 
length 252 feet; width 44 feet; and depth over sills 14 feet. Further 
data on the looks may be ' found in a publication of the Department of Trans- 
port of Canada, entitled' "Canals of Canada". 



- 22 - 



15, Disoharge Charaoteristios of River . The St, Lawrenoe liiver is 
unique among the rivers of the world in that the tremendous storage oapa- 
oity of the laices regulates the flow to an unusual extent. The average 
monthly outflow of Lake Ontario, from I860 to 1940, was 237,000 cubio feet 
per seoond; the maximum, 314,000 oubio feet per second; the minimum, 
144,000 oubio feet per seoond. The drainage area above St. Regis, N« Y» , 
located at the foot of the International Rapids Section, is approximately 
303,000 square miles, of which 95,000 square miles are water surfaoe. 
This large disoharge and drainage area make the St. Lawrenoe River one of 
the larger rivers of the world, 

15. The disoharge oharaoteristios of the St. Lawrenoe River have 
been studied for many years by governmental and private agenoies in both 
Canada and the United States and by international boards. Many stream 
gages have been established in oonneotion with these studies, and many 
stage and discharge reoords obtained. The looation of the gages are 
shown on Plate 1 and on Plates 2 to 9 of this appendix. The latest study 
of the disoharge oharaoteristios of the river, incorporating the results 
of all previous studies, was made by the Canadian Department of Transport. 
The results of this study are presented in a report entitled "Dooument 
No. 2, Lake Ontario Levels, Outflows, Supplies and Regulation, General 
Engineering Branoh, Department of Transport, Ottowa, September 1940*. 
Extensive use was made of this report by this offioe and it is reproduced 
herewith as Part Two, Exhibit I of this appendix. 

17. The above report contains a tabulation of monthly average Lake 
Gncario levels at the Oswego, N»Y. gage for the 80-year period from 1860 
to 1940, together with the monthly average outflows of the lake for this 
period. Monthly averages were used in each oase, beoause the variation 
within the period of a month was not considered sufficient to affeot the 
results of the study. Baoause there are no large tributaries between the 
lake and the International Rapids Seotion, outflows of the lake were 
assumed to be the same as the flows in the Section. Tables 1 and 2, 
oopied from Document No. 2, show the results of an analysis of the above 
80-year stage and disoharge reoord. 



- 23 - 



TABLE 1. VtAiER LEVELS OF LAKE ONTARIO 



Water Levels at Oswego, N» Y. 
Aotuai With outlet conditions 
as at present and with 
oontinuous diversion 
of 3,200 o.f.s. at 
Chi cago 



Mean water level elevation 245.96 

Minimum monthly mean (Nov. 1934) 242.58 

Minimum daily mean (Nov. 2c3, 1934) 242.50 

Maximum monthly mean (May, 1870) 249.02 

Maximum daily mean (May 1, 1870) 249.19 

Minimum yearly mean (1935) 243.54 

Maximum yearly mean 247.63 

(1886) 



246.34 
242.93 
242.75 
249.66 
249.83 
243.78 
248.21 
(1870) 



Number of months. 



No. 



above elevj 


ition 249.50 





■ i 


• 249.00 


1 


N 1 


• 248.50 


9 


II 1 


• 248.00 


45 


below ' 


' 244.50 


99 


■ i 


• 244.00 


39 


a i 


■ 243.50 


18 


• i 


< 243.00 


5 



2 
8 
40 
85 
53 
25 
10 
3 



- 24 - 



i'jiBLE 2. OUTFLOWS FaQ^I L.iKS QNT^ivIO 



Outflows In 1,000 



Mean outflow - 



Mean 



1860 


- 


1869 


1870 


- 


1879 


1880 


- 


1889 


1890 


- 


1899 


1900 


- 


1909 


1910 


- 


1919 


1920 


- 


1929 


1930 


. 


1939 


1860 


- 


1939 



Actual 


Assuming 




continuous 




diversion 




of 3,200 




c.f • s. 




at Chicago 


261 


258 


249 


246 


252 


249 


231 


223 


237 


238 


233 


238 


224 


229 


207 


211 


237 


237 



Minimum monthly mean (Feb. 1936) 
Maximum monthly mean (May 1862 

and 1870) 
Minimum yearly mean (1934) 
Maximum yearly mean (1861) 
Monthly mean flow 75% of time 
■ ■ • 35% • " 
" " • 20% • » 



144 



148 



314 


311 


131 


136 


231 


277 


217 


218 


24 9 


249 


232 


263 



Number of months 



No, of months above 300,000 o.f.s. 

■ " " ■ 290,000 " 
» ■ • » 230,000 " 

No. of months below 210,000 o.f.s. 
» ■ ■ « 200,000 • 
" ■ " " 190,000 " 

■ • " ■ 130,000 " 



12 


9 


36 


30 


71 


69 


135 


178 


122 


112 


59 


55 


23 


20 



- 25 - 



18. It will be noted in Tables 1 and 2 that, in addition to the 
aotual values, values are also given for a continuous diversion of 3200 
c.f.s. by the Sanitary District of Chicago. Diversion has actually 
varied during the 80-year period from a minimum monthly mean of 14 00 c.f.s. 
in January, 1900 to a maximum of 10,800 c.f.s. in June 1924. In 1930, the 
Supreme Court of the United States deoreed that this diversion must be re- 
duoed to 1500 cf.s. In addition to this diversion by the Sanitary Dis- 
trict, there is at present an average pumpage for domestio purposes of 
about 1700 c.f.s. The total, 3200 c.f.s., was taken by the Department of 
Transport as the total diversion to be counted on in the future. Natural 
lake levels and outflows have been oorrected for this differenoe in diver- 
sion in order to show the effeots of diversion and projeot operation sep- 
arately. 

19. Tables 1 and 3 of Document Ho. 2 show actual lake levels and 
outflows and Tables 2 and 4 show the oorreoted values. The correoted 
values are snown in hydrograph form on 8 drawings numbered 2198, in this 
document. Plates 1 and 2 of the above dooument show 10-year average hydro- 
graphs for both the aotual and oorreoted values, in addition to duration 
ourves for both. 

20. Sinoe the lake levels change very slowly and sinoe tributary 
flow is relatively insignif ioant in the International Rapids Seotion, 
single line rating ourves oan be used at all gaging stations to represent 
present flow conditions. An analysis of all the gage and discharge reoords 
obtainable for this seotion of river was made by this offioe and rating 
ourves estadished for the most important gages. These ourves are shown 
on Plate 10 of this appendix. As previously stated, Plate 1 and Plates 2 
to 9 of this appendix show the location of the gages. It should be kept 

in mind when using the rating ourves on Plate 10 that they apply to open 
river conditions only. When the river is frozen, stage -discharge rela- 
tions change frequently and the preparation of useful rating curves is 
not feasible. Department of Transport Document No. 2 contains a chart 
(Plate 9 of Part Two, Exhibit I of this appendix) showing the rating of 
the outlet of Lake Ontario in terms of elevations on the Oswego gage. 

21. The discharge characteristics of the present river channel are 
also shown in profile form on Plates 2 to 9 inclusive and Plate 11 of this 
appendirx.' The first group of plates contains the standard low water pro- 
file prepared by this offioe from miscellaneous discharge data. The stan- 
dard low water disoharge estaolished by the U.S. Lake Survey - 197,000 
c.f.s., was used for this profile. Two other profiles are shown on Plate 
11 of this appendix, one for 216,000 o.f.s. and one for 280,000 o.f.s. 
These were prepared from elevations given on Canadian Department of Trans- 
port drawings No. 2136. The elevations for 247,000 c.f.s. are also given 
on drawings Ho. 2136. Water levels are also shown on the l" a 500' soale 
hydrographio maps prepared by this offioe. The elevations are shown on 
both sides of straight lines drawn aoross the river on these maps. The 
straight lines represent the ends of reaches to which the elevations 
apply. These elevations were used in transferring soundings to elevations 
and are the water levels corresponding to the U.S. Lake Survey standard 
low water. Other water level data on file in the District Office con- 
sists of surveys of short reaohes made by this offioe and other agencies. 

- 26 - 



22, The Rydro-Eleotrio Power Commission of Ontario has made dis- 
onai ge measurements at various oritioal points in the International 
Rapids Section to determine the division of flow at points where the 
ohannel is divided by islands. Some of these records have been copied 
by this offioe and are on file in computation file Sy-2-4/2. 

23. A survey of surface current conditions in the International 
Rapids Section was made by this offioe and maps prepared showing the re- 
sults (Plates 13 to 22 of this appendix). These maps show current direc- 
tions and magnitudes and also the location of surface boils and rapids. 

24, The above rating curves, profiles, disoharge measurements, and 
current conditions apply to the existing channel only. After the improve- 
ments are made conditions will be entirely different and the above data 
will not be applicable. Water levels will no longer be controlled by the 
natural characteristics of the ohannel, but by the operation of the Long 
Sault and Iroquois dams, and the Barnhart Island powerhouse. Also frio- 
tion losses between points will be ohanged by the channel, cuts and en- 
largements. The above data will be useful, however, in oonneotion with 
any ohannel models that are made. It will be needed in calibrating the 
models, that is obtaining the proper model roughness under existing con- 
ditions before emperimenting with the improvements. The data was also 
found useful in the design computations for the ohannel outs, desoribed 
later on in this appendix. The profiles were used to determine natural 
roughness faotors of the river, whioh could be applied in the backwater 
computations. 

25. Regulation Method No. 5. At present, outflows of Lake Ontario 
are controlled by the constriction and rapids at Galop Island. All plans 
of improvement oonsidered in this report contemplate the removal of this 
constriction in order to satisfy navigation requirements and the transfer 
of oontrol to a dam to be constructed at Iroquois point. The present oon- 
trol at Galop Island has resulted in certain variations in Lake Ontario 
levels, to which all improvements bordering the lake have adjusted them- 
selves. It would not be possible to ohange these levels appreciably with- 
out oausing considerable damage to riparian property. It was also de- 
sired to keep approximately the same seasonal variation in disoharge so 

as not to affect appreciably the present river onaraoteristios and fluctu- 
ations in lake levels. It was particularly desired that the minimum flow 
not be reduoed because of possible effects on water levels in Montreal 
haroor and reduoed power ^euefits. It was desired that the maximum spring 
dxsoharge not be exceeded in order that the flood problem downstream would 
not be aggravated. Also any inoresi&e in the maximum discharge would make 
larger navigation cuts necessary in order to keep velocities down. Like- 
wise, it was not desired to increase the winter flow a^preciaoly beoause 
larger outs would have to be made to insure the formation of an ice oover. 
It was therefore early recognized in studies of this project that, if the 
natural oontrol at Gwlop Island is to be removed and a variable control in 
the form pf a dam substituted, operating rules would have to be established 
for the dam whioh would insure the same ^.eneral seasonal variation in out- 
flows and lake levels cnat exist at the present time. 



- 27 - 



26. The subjeot of operating rules has been given much study by till 
oonoerned with this projeot over a period of many years. The Joint Board 
in oorjaection with its 1926 Report gave it considerable study. Sinoe 
that time the Canadian department of Transport has been studying the prob- 
lem, attempting to formulate definite rules for the operation of the dam 
and the regulation of lake levels and outflows. Several regulation methods 
were tried. Eaoh method was tried on the 80-year period of records from 
1860 to 1940 to see how it would work. The method found to be most sat- 
isfactory was the one designated "Method No. 5". This methods was de- 
signed to meet the following requirements i 

a. fo keep the fluctuations of the levels cf Lake Ontario with- 
in the levels that would have resulted in the past, assum- 
ing a continuous diversion of 3,200 o.f.s. at Chicago and 
present outlet conditions. 

b. To maintain, without impairment, the low water levels of 
Montreal Harbour. 

o. To maintain low flows during the winter period Deoember 15 
to March 31, in order that the difficulties of winter power 
operation may not be aggravated. 

d. To maintain flows during the first half of April no greater 
than would naturally occur, in order to avoid the danger of 
aggravating the spring rise during the breakup of the ioe 
below Montreal. 

e. To avoid any material inorease in the amount and duration 

of the high discharges during May, in order not to aggravate 
high v/ater levels in Lake St. Louis during the Ottawa floods. 

f . To k^ep the fluctuation in monthly mean discharges within 
the limits as existed in nature* 

gjj_ To hold baok the natural exoess outflow during the early 
summer months, in order to raise the ordinary levels of 
Lake Ontario. 

h. To secure trie maximum dependable flow throughout the year 
for power operation. 

27. Dooument No. 2 (Part Two, Exhibit I of this appendix) describes 
the extent to whioh each one of these requirements is satisfied by the 
operation of Method No. 5. Tables 8 and 9 and plates 1 and 2 of that 
document show in detail the results of applying Method No. 5 to the month- 
ly mean hydraulio faotors for the 80 years of reoord. For convenient 
referenoe a summary of these results is given herewith in Tables 3, 4 and 
5. In all this work it was assumed that a diversion of 3200 oubic feet 
per seoond was made at Chicago and that 5000 cubio feet per second was 
added to the supply of the St. Lawrenoe River by diversion into Lake 
Superior of that amount from Long lac and Ogoki River, both of whioh are 

- 28 - 



in the Hudson Bay drainage area. (See Artiole VIII, Paragraph (b) of 
the International Agreement of Maroh 19, 1941.) 



- 29 - 



TABLE 3. MONTHLY MEAN DISCHARGES 



( in 1,000 o.f.s. ) 



IN 


NATURE 


UNDER REGULATION 


Aotual 


Continuous 


Method No. 5 




diversion 


Div. 3200 c.f.s. 




of 3,200 


Add. 5000 o.f.s. 




e.f.s. 




314 


311 


310 


144 


148 


180 


237 


237 


242 


249 


249 


253 


226 


227 


223 



Maximum 
Minimum 
•Mean 

35% of time 
65% of time 



Number of Months 



At maximum 
300 and above 
Below 200 

■ 190 

" 180 



2 


2 


44 


12 


9 


59 


122 


112 


44 


59 


55 


15 


23 


20 






♦NOTEi 



This line not in Dooument No. 2; 
data obtained from Tables 3, 4 & 8 
of Dooument No. 2. 



- 30 - 



TABLE 4. MONTHLY MEgN LxKE LEVELS 
(Oswego, N. Y») 



IN NATUKB 



UNDER xlE'JULATION 



Aotual 



Continuous 
diversion 
of 3,200 

c.f . s. 



Method No. 5 

Div. - 3200 c.f.s. 

Add, - 5000 o.f.s, 



Maximum 
Minimum 
Minimum during 

navigation season 



249, 


,02 


249, 


,66 




249. 


10 


242. 


,68 


242, 


,93 




243. 


77 


242, 


,68 


242, 


,93 




244. 


03 






Number 


of 


Months 







Total Period. 



Above elev. 


249.5 


• « 


249.0 


1 N 


248.5 


II * 


248,0 


Below elev. 


244.5 


■ n 


244.0 


a « 


243.5 


■ i 


243.0 






2 


1 


8 


9 


40 


45 


85 


99 


53 


39 


26 


18 


10 


5 


3 





3 

14 

50 

17 

3 







Navigation Season Only. 



Below elev. 


244.5 


■ H 


244.0 


<t • 


243.5 


M H 


243.0 



40 


23 


18 


11 


7 


4 


2 


1 



4 






- 31 - 



TABLE 5. WATER LEVELS IN MONTREAL HARBOR 



IN NATURE UNDER REGULATION 

Aotual Continuous Method No. 5 

diversion of Div. 3200 o.f.s. 
3,200 o.f.s. Add. 5000 o.f.s. 



Minimum monthly 

mean elev. 17,15 17.37 17.60 



26 

12 

6 









Number 


of Months. 


Below ©lev. 


18.99 




32 37 


■ 


18.50 




13 16 




18.00 




8 8 




17.50 




3 1 



- 32 - 



28. This offioe has aooepted the results of the above study and 
adopted Method No, 5 in its design computations. All power studies were 
based on the monthly mean regulated discharges summarized in the forego- 
ing tables* 

29. Backwater Curves for Use with Method No* 5 . In addition to 
establishing rules for the regulation of Lake Ontario, the Department of 
Transport made a oomplete baokwater study of the International Rapids 
Seotion under improved conditions. This was neoessary in order to deter- 
mine whether oontrol by dams at Iroquois Point and at the foot of Long 
Sault Island would be feasible and also to determine the range of water 
levels throughout the Seotion. The latter was neoessary in order to 
design the navigation channel and to enable sufficient oross-seotional 
area to be provided in the winter time to insure the formation of an ioe 
cover. This baok water study was made assuming the ohannel improved in 
aooordanoe with the latest plan" prepared at that time, the Controlled 
Single Stage Projeot 238-242, snown on Plate M-II of the main report. 
This plan will hereafter be reforred to as the "Original 238-242 plan" 

in order to distinguish it from the plans prepared by this offioe, whioh 
are als-^ controlled single stage projeots, but differ slightly from the 
Original 238-242 Plan (see plates M-I and M-IA of the main report). 

30. The results of the above baokwater study are given in a report 
entitled, "Document No. 4, Controlled Single Stage Projeot, Backwater 
Calculations and Hydraulios, Department of Transport, General Engineering 
Branoh, Ottawa, November 15, 1940" • A oopy of this report is available 
in the files of this offioe. This report contains a brief description of 
the methods of baokwater computations used and a presentation of the 
results in the form of gage relation curves. Relations were prepared for 
the following points: Lake Ontario at Oswego, N.Y. ; Butternut Island; 
Below Lotus Island; Above Iroquois Dam; Below Iroquois Damj Barnhart 
Island powerhouse. Curves are given for both ioe cover and open river 
conditions. In oomputing these ourves the assumption was made that all 
b ates in Iroquois Dam are wide open. By means of these curves, the water 
level at any of the above points on the river can be determined from a 
given level at the Oswego gage in Lake Ontario, for any disoharge pos- 
sible under Method No. 5 operation. It should be kept in mind however, 
that these ourves apply to improvement in acoordanoe with the Original 
238-242 Plan only. 

31. Since the plans prepared by this offioe are practioally ident- 
ical with the Original 238-242 Plan used in the preparation of the above 
curves as far as ohannel cross-section area is conoerned, in all reaches 
except the Galop Island reach between Butternut Island and Lotus Island, 
all of the above baokwater relationship ourves except this one oould be 
applied direotly to the plans prepared by this office. This greatly sim- 
plified the backwater computations of this offioe. It was neoessary only 
to oorreot the Butternut Island - Lotus Island relationship to make it 
conform to the computations of this offioe. This was done by computing 
the loss between these two points for the maximum flow of 310,000 c.f.s. 
and then making the loss for other flows proportional to the squares of 
the discharges. This will be explained in more detail in Section V. 

- 33 - 



32. . All of the baokwater computations of this office were fled into 
Canadian computations at Chimney Point, - the uwper end of the projeot» 
Sinoe this was not one of the points used in the gage relationship curves, 
it was neoessary for this office to compute the loss between the Butternut 
Island gage and Chimney Point. This could be done without any appreciable 
error beoause the drop in water surf aoe between these points is extremely 
small, - only about 0.3 of a foot for the maximum discharge. The water 
levels used by this office and those used by the Canadians in the compu- 
tations of the Original 238-242 flan, therefore, are the same at Chimney 
point. Below this point they differ due to the difference in improvement 
plans in the Galop Island reach* Sinoe the plans of this offioe contem- 
plate more extensive enlargement in the Galop Island reaoh, the losses in 
this reach will be smaller and water levels below Galop Island will in 
general be higher than in the Original 238-242 Plan. 



33 • plater surface profiles for six seleoted disoharge conditions and 
for improvement acoording to the Original 233-242 Plan are shown on Plate 
11 of this appendix* These levels were taken directly from Dooument No.4, 
Corresponding levels at Lotus Island and the Barnhart Island Powerhouse 
under the plans prepared by this offioe are shown on Table 9 in Seotion 
VI« The higher levels under the plans prepared by this offioe are clearly 
apparent in this table, 

34. Ioe Conditions in the St. Lawrence River. Ioe is usually pres- 
ent on the St. Lawrenoe River from about the middle of Deoember to the 
end of March, during whioh period navigation has to be suspended. Al- 
though this ioe cover is a hindrance to navigation, it is expected to be 
an advantage to power, as it will prevent the formation of frazil ioe in 
the area whioh it oovers and will also prevent floating ioe from reaohing 
the powerhouse intake. Any reduction in frazil and floating ioe reaohing 
the powerhouse will mean much less trouble with clogged raoks and turbine 
passages, with resulting inoreased power generation. Experience with 
other hydro-plants in this latitude shows that oonsiderable expense is war* 
ranted in maintaining an ioe oover on the pool in the winter time. These 
faotors undoubtedly influenoed the Joint Committee to include in its 1941 
recommendations a provision that oonstrioted seotlons of the ohannel up- 
stream from the powerhouse be enlarged to lower winter velocities to the 
point where an ioe oover will be secured. The exaot criterion set up for 
carrying out this provision is discussed in more detail in Seotion IV. 

35. The basis for the or iter ion for ioe oover was a study made by 
the Joint Board of Engineers in their 1926 report (Appendix E). This 
board found that an ioe oover, or bridge, will form completely across the 
surf aoe of a ohannel having an average velocity of less than l£ to l£ 
feet per seoond. Floating ioe and slush will paok upstream therefrom 
a ainst an average velooity of about 2& feet per seoond before the float- 
ing slush is drawn under the ioe cover and will form downstream with ve- 
locities up to about 2 feet per seoond. As a result of this study it was 

oonoluded thatj 

a. "Smooth ioe oovers may be expeoted to form in rivers with 

velocities up to 1.25 feet per seoond in zero weather pro- 
vided there is no high wind preventing suoh aotion". 

- 34 - 



b. "Ioe oovers may be expeoted to pack upstream up to a ve- 
locity of 2,25 feet per second without danger of ice going 
under the cover". 

These findings were aooepted by the Joint Committee in their 1941 report 
and were made the basis of the present design (see Seotion IV). 

36. Power and Industrial Developments. Several off-ohannel power 
and industrial developments draw water from the river. The largest of 
these, the hydro-eleotrio power plant of the St. Lawrenoe River Power 
Company as Massena, New York, draws a nominal maximum of 25,000 o.f.s., 
although the demand is inoreased at times to 27,000 o.f.s. or more if the 
stage of the river is suoh that no interference with navigation levels will 
re suit • This diversion, however, does not affeot the design of the ohannel 
cuts covered by this appendix, because this water leaves and enters the 
river in a reach of river in which there are no suoh cuts. A weir has been 
plaoed across the Long Sault Island south channel near the head of the 
island to divert, the required flow into the Massena power Canal, through 
vvhioh it is delivered to the power plant. The tailrace discharges into 
the Grass Fiver which flows into the St. Lawrenoe at the head of Cornwall 
Island well below the sites of the Lon^ Sault Dam and Barnhart Island 
Powerhouse. The new St. Lawrenoe projeot has been so designed that its 
construction will not interfere materially with the operation of this plant 
but it is contemplated that the plant will ultimately be abandoned beoause 
the water can be more advantageously utilized at the new Barnhart Island 
Powerhouse. 

37. Other developments take water from the river through the Cornwall 
Canal system. The powerhouse at Sheek Island takes water from Bergen Lake 
and returns it to the Barnhart Island north ohannel above the Barnhart 
Island powerhouse site. This powerhouse must be abandoned shortly after 
the beginning of projeot construction. The developments looated below the 
Barnhart Island powerhouse site, and whioh will continue in operation for 
an indefinite period after completion of the projeot are as follows j 

a. Cornwall Street Railway, Light and Power Co.; 57 o.f.s. 
taken from above Lock 17 and returned to river. 

b. Howard Smith Paper Mills Ltd.; 1800 o.f.s. taken from above 
Look 18 and returned to canal below Look 18. 

o* Canadian Cottons Ltd. j - two licenses - 780 o.f.s. and 1220 
c.f.s. taken from above Lock 17 and returned to river. 

d. Corporation of the Town of Cornwall; 120 o.f.s. taken from 
above Lock 18 and returned to river. 



- 35 - 



SECTION III. HYDRAULIC DATA USED IN THE STUDIES 



38. The following is a list and description of the more important 
hydraulio data contained in the files of this offioe : 

a. Canadian Souroes. 

(1) Department of Transport * 

(a) Document No. 2, Lake Ontario, Levels, Outflows, 
Supplies, and Regulations, Department oV Transport, Ottawa, 
September 1940. (Contains tables, hydrographs, duration 
curves, and other analyses of monthly mean outflows of 
Lake Ontario and the effeot on these flows of Regulation 
Method No. 5). Printed as Part Two, Exhioit I, of this 
appendix. 

(b) Document No. 3, Disoharge, Stage, and Water Level 
Relationships, Department of Transport, Ottawa, November 
1940. (Contains rating curves at Oswego, Kingston, Pres- 
cott. Looks 28, 27, 25, 24, 23, and 21 and gage relation 
curves. ) 

(c) Dooument No. 4, Controlled Single 3ta e projeot, 
Backwater Calculations and Hydraulios, Department of Trans- 
port, Ottawa, November 15, 1940. (Contains gage relation 
curves of oom^le-ced Original 238-242 Projeot and description 
of methods used in baokwater oaloulations) 

(d) Drawings No. 213i, Sheets 1 to 5, scale 1" s 10J0 1 
(Show topography, hydrography, tabulation of water levels 
for 21«5,000, 247,000 and 280,000 o.f.s., and Original 238- 
242 Plan; hydrography is bused on U. S. Survey data obtained 
prior to 1926.) 

(2) Department of Mines and Re souroes t 

(a) Monthly mean wacer levels at Cornwall (Lock 15), 
1900-1941; Summertown, 1920-1941; and Coteau Landing, 1919- 
1941. 

(3) Hydro-Electrio power Commission of Ontario. 

(a) Automatio gage hydrographs, 1919-1921 (incomplete) 
at North Channel, Look 27, Lock 25, Rockway point, Morris- 
burg (Look 23), Pruuner's point, 3radford Point, Farran' s 
Point, Richards Landing, Dickinson Landing (Look 21), and 
Cornwall (Lock 15). 

(b) Tabulations of daily rcean wacer levels for short 
periods in 1919 and 1920 at various portable automatic gage 

- 36 - 



stations from Chimney Island to Leishman Point. 

(o) Daily staff gage readings at various points, 
Chimney Points to Iroquois (1918-1921); Murphy Island to 
foot of Croil Island (1919-1921); and Rapide Plat (1915 
and 1919), 

(d) Disoharge measurements (1918-1920) showing dis- 
tribution of flow in various channels from Galop Island to 
Croil Island, 

(e) Map showing looation of gages. 
(4) Miscellaneous Canadian Souroes. 

(a) 5 sheets (8"»xlo£*) Slopes from Polly' s Gut to 
foot of Cornwall Island (North and South Channels) and 
through Polly's Gut - both natural and improved conditions, 

(b) H.E.P.C. Map-looation of gages, Look 21 to Look 
15. 

(0) H.E.P.C. Profile-water surface profile Look 21 
to below Cornwall Island. 

(d) Unolassified map - water levels around Cornwall 
Island May 26-28, 1921 and tabulation to aooompany same. 

(e) Unolassified blueprint map - water levels around 
Cornwall Island May 26-28, 1921. 

(f ) Unolassified blueprint - water levels Mille 
Roohes to Cornwall - November 1920. 

(g) Unolassified blueprint - water levels around 
Barnhart Island Sept. 13 and 14, 1921 

(h) Unolassified blueprint - water levels - Cornwall 
to Johnstown - June 14 to 24, 1921. 

(i) Unolassified blueprint - water levels around 
Long Sault Island - October 1-8, 1919. 

(j) Unolassified blueprint - water levels around 
Long Sault Island, Sept. 15-20, 1921. 

(k) Unolassified blueprint - water levels around 
Ogden Island - September 8-10, 1921. 

(1) Unolassified blueprint - water levels around 
Ogden Island - November 1920. 



- 37 - 



(m) Unolassif ied - blueprint - water levels Chimney 
Point to head of Galop Island - Sept. 6-7, 1921. 

(n) Unclassified blueprint - water levels Galop 
Island to Iroquois - Nov# 1920. 

(o) Dept. of Transport - Winter water levels at 
tailraoe of Sheeks Island powerhouse (1912-1941), Also 
winter water levels vicinity of Cornwall and Barnhart 
Island 1924-27. 

(p) Unclassified - One roll of blueprints showing 
ice conditions vioinity of Cornwall for various periods. 

b. American Souroes. 

(1) U. S. Lake Survey . 

(a) Report entitled, "Discharge of St. Lawrenoe 
River", by H. P.' Lawhead dated May 6, 1937, (Presents 
equations expressing river disoharge in terms of water 
surface elevations at Oswego, Cape Vincent, Ogdensburg, 
Locks 27, 25, and 24 $ Waddington, Tracy Land (South Sault 
Channel); readings. at all gages for several discharges; 
data for standard low water profile (197,000 o.f.s.). 

A study of the accuraoy of the above equations was made 
by this office and was reported in a memorandum by Mr. 
H.A. Keith. 

(b) Pour reports entitled, "Hydraulios of the St. 
Lawrence River* , dated 1913, 1914, 1915 and 1917, the first 
three by W. S* Riohmond and the last by Sherman Moore. 

(o) Daily mean water levels at Oswego, 1940, 1941; 
Cape Vincent, 1941; Ogdensburg, 1940, 1941; Waddington, 
1941. 

(d) Monthly mean water levels (oomplete) at Oswego, 
1860-1940; Cape Vinoent, 1916-1940; Ogdensburg, 1901-1907 
and 1920-1940*; Waddington, 1938-1940. 

(e) Monthly mean water levels (incomplete) at Oswego, 
1837-1859 and 1941; Cape Vinoent, 1898, 1914, and 1941; 
Ogdensburg, 1900, 1908, 1911, 1913, 1914, 1919, and 1941; 
Waddington 1936, 1937 and 1941. 

(f) Discharge records. 

(g) Soundings of St. Lawrence River, 1939-1940, re- 
duced to M. S. L. by this offioe. 



- 38 - 



(2) Aluminum Company of America (Massena) 

(a) Daily staff gage readings for various years be- 
tween 1907 and 1920 at various points from Look 24 to mouth 
of Grass River. Also at Tracy Landing from 1937 to 1941. 

(b) Winter high water elevations of Grass River at 
powerhouse tailraoe (hourly tailraoe elevations available 
at Alcoa plant offices), 

(3) Hugh L« Cooper Engineering Company. 

(a) Set of prints from report of survey and investi- 
gations (includes rating curves, baokwater data, and chan- 
nel coefficients). 

Reports of International Joint Boards and International 
Agreements 

(1) St. Lawrenoe Waterway, Report of the United States 
and Canadian Government Engineers on the Improvement of 
the St. Lawrence River from Montreal to Lake Ontario made 
to the International Joint Commission, dated June 24, 1921, 
Senate Doooment No. 179, 76th Congress, 2nd Session. (Some- 
times Galled •Wooten-Bowden Report") 

(2) St. Lawrenoe Waterway, Report of the International 
Joint Commission concerning the Improvement of the St. 
Lawrenoe River between Montreal and Lake Ontario for Navi- 
gation and Power, dated Deoember 19, 1921, Senate Document 
No. 114, 67th Congress, 2nd Session. 

(3) St. Lawrenoe Waterways project, Report of Joint Board 
of Engineers, dated November 16, 1926, with Appendices. 

(Contains design criteria for original ^rojeot and special 
report on ice studies.) 

(4) St. Lawrence Waterway Project, Report of Joint Board 
of Engineers (Reconvened) on the International Section of 
the St. Lawrence River, dated April 9, 1932. (Contains 
good detail majs of Internationa} Section.) 

(5) St. Lawrence Deep Waterway, InuernatioDal Rapids Sec- 
tion, Joint Report of Canadian Temporary Great Lakes - St. 
Lawrenoe Basin Committee, and the United States St. Law- ' 
renoe Advisory Committee, dated Jan. 3, 1941. (Contains 
design criteria for present project.) 

(6) Text of an Agreement between the Governments of the 
United States and Canada pertaining to the St. Lawrenoe 
River, dated March 19, 1941, House Document No. 153, 77th 
Congress, 1st Session. 



- 39 - 



d. Hydrauiio computations, memoranda, and drawings made in 

connection with this report by the Distriot Office and the 
Office, Chief of Engineers. (Only important hydrauiio 
drawings listed.) 

(1) St. Lawrenoe River Project, International Rapids Seo- 
tion, Plan and profile (8 drawings; scale 1* ■ loOO' ) 
Shows river stations t location of gages, and standard low 
water profile. 

(2) St. Lawrence River Project - Tentative Baokwater Pro- 
files, Drawings 3D - A - l/D, Plate XIV - D. (Shows nat- 
ural profiles for 216,000 and 280,000 c.f.s. and pool con- 
ditions after completion of Original 238-242 Plan.) 

(3) St. Lawrenoe River Project, International Rapids Sec- 
tion, Profiles (1 drawing; scale 1» = 1 miles). (Shows 

3 profiles, one in main ohannel of river, one along navi- 
gation ohannel, and one in existing 14-foot navigation 
ohannel. ) 

(4) St. Lawrenoe River Project, International Rapids Sec- 
tion, Rating curves (1 drawing). Shows rating ourves for 
all rated gages in the International Rapids Section. 

(5) St. Lawrenoe River Disoharge - Method No. 5 from 1860 
to 1939, Months of April through November of eaoh year only. 
(Graph showing monthly average flows of Method No. 5 for the 
navigation season only). 

(6) Monthly Mean Outflows of Lake Ontario for Deo. & Jan. 
I860 - 1940, Method No, 5 (Graph showing monthly average 
flow of Method No. 5 for the months of December and January). 

(7) Galop Rapids - Canadian Plan, Maximum Velocity in Navi- 
gation Channel vs 'Width of Galop Cut. (Graph from which 850- 
foot width of cut was obtained). 

(8) U.S.S.0. Plan, Galop Island Canal Showing Canal TTidth 
Neoessary to Limit Maximum Velocity Shown at Critical Method 
No. 5 Conditions and Number of years During 7/hioh One Month 
Will Exoeed 4' /sec (Graph from whioh 1600-foot width of 

cut was obtained). 



- 40 - 



SECT ION IV CRITERIA FOR DESIGN OF CHANNEL CUTS. 



39. Development of Design Criteria. Beoause of the great amount of 
study whioh had been given this projeot previously, the rules and criteria 
of design had been fairly well established before the present studies were 
begun. Engineers of this offioe, therefore, first familiarized themselves 
with the results of previous studies. Conferences were held with engineers 
of the various government departments and private oompanies whioh had been 
oonoerned with the project. Since the design of the channel outs was pri- 
marily a navigation problem and since the Canadian Department of Transport 
had been studying this problem for the past several years, the most valu- 
able assistance was obtained from engineers of that Department. Many con- 
ferences were held between engineers of this offioe and those of the Depart- 
ment of Transport, both before and during these hydraulic studies in order 
to make sure that the personnel of this offioe fully understood all of the 
faotors influencing the design of the ohannel outs. The purpose of this 
section of the appendix is to set forth these faotors. 

40. Although most of the faotors, or criteria as they are oalled be- 
low, apply to all reaches where ohannel outs were made, it was not neces- 
sary to make a detailed study in order to apply eaoh one to a particular 
reaoh. Usually two or three of them would be the controlling ones and the 
others would be automatically fulfilled by designing for the controlling 
criteria. It was neoessary sometimes, however, to baok check to see that 
all applicable oriteria had been satisfied. The detailed application of 
oriteria to particular reaohes of the river is oovered in Seotion VI of 
this appendix. 

41. The Design Criteria . The following are the important criteria 
used in the design of the ohannel outsj 

a. General Flan . The International Agreement of March 19, 
1941 adopted the recommendations contained in the Joint 
Report of the Canadian Temporary Great Lakes - St. Lawrence 
Basin Committee and the Uniced States St. Lawrenoe Advisory 
Committee, that: 

■ the development of the International Rapids 

Section of the St. Lawrenoe River — - be undertaken 
in general accordance with the plan of the 233-242 
Controlled Single Stage Projeot — -*. 
The "238-242 Controlled Single Stage Project" is the plan 
shown on Plate M-II of the main report and is the one des- 
ignated "Original 238-242 Plan" in this appendix. A com- 
parison of this plate with Plate M-I of the main report 
will show that the plan recommended by this offioe is 
almost identioal with the above plan. Minor changes in 
looation of structures and outs have been made but these 
only as a result of more complete foundation explorations 
or hydraulio computations. The Original 238-242 Plan is 
shown in more detail on 5 drawings. No. 2135, of the Can- 
adian Department of Transport. Details of the plan recom- 

- 41 - 



mended "by this offioe are shown on Plates 1, 2, 3, 4, 19 
and 34 of Appendix 111-0(1 )• 

b» Minimum Dimensions of Navigation Channel, 

(1) The Joint Board of Engineers, in its report dated 
November 16, 1926, used, the following oriteria for the mini- 
mum dimensions of the navigation channel (Appendix C t Par. 
13); 

"In general, navigation ohannels are not less than 
200 feet bottom width when flanked by two embankments, 
not less than 300 feet when flanked by one embankment, 
and not less than 450 feet when both sides of the channel 

are submerged. The minimum radius of curvature 

adopted is 5,000 feet with at least one-quarter miles 
of tangent between reversals. The alignment is drawn 
so as to eliminate oross-ourrents wherever possible." 
The above ohannel dimensions are based on a 25-foot deep 
channel, whioh was the projeot depth at that time. In 1332, 
the Joint Board of Engineers (reconvened) recommended an 
inorease in projeot depth to 27 feet. The Original 233-242 
Plan is based on this depth. This depth was again reoo;umend- 
ed in the Joint Committee report of 1941 and incorporated 
in the International Agreement of 1941. The following is 
quoted from the Annex of the International Agreement; 

"All navigation channels to be excavated to 27 -foot 
depth" • 
In the preparation of the Original 238-242 Plan, Canadian 
engineers decided to keep the same width at the 25-foot 
depth, there oy making the new bottom widths less than the 
above values. Thus additional side excavation was avoided. 
Side slopes of 2;1 were assumed throughout. Therefore bot- 
tom widths decreased 8 feet in all oases, - from 200, 300, 
and 450 feet to 192, 292, and 442 feet, respectively. These 
reductions in bottom width were also adopted by this offioe. 

(2) Very little ocoasion was found, however, to use the 
minimum dimensions or radius of bend given above, as an 
inspection of Appendix 111-0(1) will show. It was generally 
felt that the above dimensions were too small for the large 
vessels and inexperienced crews likely to use the channel, 
exoept possibly in very quiet water. Crews of ocean-going 
vessels are not used to navigating in a limited space or 
against an appreciable current. Also experience on the 
Great Lakes has sriown that widened and sx:raigntened channels 
pay dividends in increased capacity and reduced mishaps. It 
was considered advisable, therefore, to increase the above 
minimum dimensions for all except slack -water channels. In 
the open river and in cuts where appreciable velocities are 
enoountered, bottom vvidths considerably greater than ^he above 
have been used, as will be noted on the plans. In saost cases, 
however, these greuter widths were needed for additional dis- 

- 42 - 



charge oapacity so that very little additional expense was 
involved in using wider and straighter channels. So far as 
possible the navigation channel has been laid out as & series 
of straight oourses, rather than as a series of curves, be- 
oause experience has shown that it is easier for pilots to 
follow straight courses than sinuous ourves. At the bends, 
however, channels have been widened on the inner side to 
provide ample maneuvering space. 

o. Maximum Velocities in Navigation Channel. 

(1) The oriterion for navigation ohannel velocities used 

by the Joint Board of Engineers in its 1926 report was as 

follows (Appendix C, Paragraph 13): 

"In oases where navigation is oar r led through 
restricted stretches of river, a sectional area of 
65,000 square feet is provided at mean stage. This 
is equivalent to a sectional area of about 70,000 
square feet at high stages, and a maximum velooity 
somewhat less than 5 feet per second in suoh chan- 
nels." 

This oriterion was used by the Canadians in the design of 

the Original 238-242 Plan. 

(2) The International Agreement of Maroh 19, 1941, ohanged 
this oriterion slightly. The following is quoted from the 
Annex of the International Agreement: 

"Channel enlargement from the head of Galop Island 
to below .Lotus Island designed to give a maximum veloo- 
ity in the navigation ohannel south of Galop Island 
not exceeding four feet per second at any time." 
The reason for mentioning the Galop Island reaoh especially 
was th&t this is the only reach above the LO-ag S&ult D*m 
whore this oriterion controls. There is another reaon "be- 
low the dam, the Cornwall Island reaoh, where this criterion 
should also be applied but it was not so stated in the 
agreement. It has been assumed that the intent of the 
above paragraph was that at no place in the International 
Rapids Seotion is the velooity in the navigation channel 
to exoeed 4 feet per second. 

(3) In applying this oriterion, it was felt that undue 
expense should not be inourred to prevent this velooity 
from being exoeeded by a small margin for a short period 
of time at a few points in the channel. An understanding 
was reaohed with engineers of the Department of Transport 
to the effect that velocities in excess of 4 feet per 
second »oui '. be allowed to occur during about 3% of the 
navigation season, provided that the maximum did not go 
over 4.5 feet per second. 



- 43 - 



(4) The discharge whioh is of interest in oonneotion 
with this oriterion is the maximum to "be expected during 
the navigation season. Since the greatest flows in the 
International Rapids Seotion ooour during the navigation 
season, the maximum flow to be allowed during that period 
is the oritioal one to be considered. In Table 3 it may 
be seen that maximum flow to he permitted under Method No. 
5 is 310,000 o.f.s. This flow will ooour at several lake 
levels as Tables 8 and 9 of Department of Transport Docu- 
ment No. 2 (Part Two, Exhibit I f of the appendix) show. 
Sinoe the lowest lake level will result in the highest 
velocities in the International Rapids Seotion, it is the 
lowest level that is of interest in connection with this 
criterion. The lowest level acoording to Tables 8 and 9 
is El. 246.78. Sinoe the Canadian engineers had used a 
lake level of El. 246.5, a slightly more conservative fig- 
ure, in the design of the Original 238-242 Flan, it was 
decided to use the same elevation in the computations of 
this offioe to make the results oomp arable. The above 
lake levels refer to the Oswego, N»Y», gage. The design 
of the Salop Island reaoh, therefore, was based on a dis- 
charge of 310,000 o.f.s. and a lake level of El. 246.5. 
Cuts were designed to reduoe velocities in the navigation 
ohannel for this condition to about 4.5 feet per second. 

d. Maximum Velooity on January 1st. 

(1) The findings of the Joint Board of Engineers on the 
subjeot of hydraulic conditions whioh induoe the formation 
of an ioe cover on the water surface of a river suoh as the 
St. Lawrence were presented in paragraph 35 above. As a 
result of these findings, a clause was included in the 
Joint Committee Report and again in the International Agree- 
ment of March 19, 1941, as follows; 

"Channel enlargement between Lotus Island and the 
oontrol dam and from above Point Three Points to below 
Ogden Island designed uo give a maximum mean velooity 
in any oross seotion not exceeding two and one -quarter 
feet per second with the flow, and at the stage, to 
be permitted on the 1st of January of any year, under 
regulation of outflow and levels of Lake Ontario." 
The reason for including the speoific reaches in this re- 
quirement was that previous studies by the Canadians had 
shown that these reaohes were the only ones above Long Sault 
Dam where it was economically feasible to fulfill this re- 
quirement. This left two shorter reaohes where it was con- 
sidered uneconomical to meet the requirement, as follows: 

(a) Galop Island reach, from Chimney Point to below 
Lotus Island, where the preoeding oriterion of 4 feet per 
second is to be used. 



- 44 - 



(b) The short narrow reach of river just below 
Iroquois Dam, which will not be used for navigation. It 
is reoognized that frazil ice may form in these two reaches 
but the exposed area is not considered large enough to 
oause trouble at the power plant. 

(2) All of the channel outs within the reaches mentioned 
in the quotation above were designed for this oriterion as 
this was the controlling one for these reaches. Aooording 
to this oriterion, a velocity of 2.25 feet per seoond must 
not be exoeeded on January 1st of any year. Inspection of 
the hydrograph of regulated flow in Department of Transport 
Dooument No. 2 (Plate 12) will show that on January 1st the 
flow is always decreasing. The largest flow that will exist 
on January 1st will be the worst condition as far as veloc- 
ities are concerned, the reason being that the stages are 

so nearly the same for all of the winter flows in the Inter- 
national Rapids Section. A plot of January flows and lake 
levels given in Tables 8 and 9 of Dooument No. 2 shows the 
maximum flow to be 221,000 c.f.s. An enveloping line pass- 
ing through the lowest lake levels shows the lowest lake 
level for each flow. This line passes through El. 247.0 at 
a flow of 220,000 o.f.s., whioh is the condition seleoted 
for design. 

(3) It is assumed that the Department of Transport used 
ioe cover conditions in computing January elevations. 
Therefore, the above oondition is probably for full ioe 
cover. The criterion of 2.25 feet per second must also 

dp fulfilled for the open river oondition which exists just 
prior to the start of the formation of an ioe cover, in 
order that the ioe sheet will start to form. In order to 
determine the water surfaoe level whioh will exist with 
this open river oondition, the December flows and lake 
levels were plotted on a graph and an enveloping line 
drawn through the lowest lake levels. The largest Deo- 
ember flow is 268,000 c.f.s., but it is assumed that it 
will always be possible to reduoe the flow to about 
220,000 o.f.s. on January 1st, sinoe the maximum January 
flow is 221,000 o.f.s. The lowest lake level for a flow 
of 220,000 o.f.s., as indioated by the enveloping line, 
will be about El. 245.7. The worst flow condition at the 
start of the formation of the ioe sheet will be an open 
river condition with a flow of 220,000 o.f.s. and a lake 
level of El. 245.7. Aooording to the preoeding paragraph, 
the worst flow oondition at the oompletion of the ioe 
cover will be an ioe oover oondition for the same flow and 
a lake level of El. 247.0. At any time during the forma- 
tion of the ioe oover, therefore, a oondition somewhere be- 
tween these two conditions will prevail. If the velocity 
oriterion for these limiting conditions are satisfied, it 
is assumed that all conditions between will be satisfied. 

(4) The water levels throughout the International Rapids 
Seotion for the above two conditions were oom^uted using 

- 45 - 



the baokwater ourves of Department of Transport Dooument 
No. 4 and oorreoting the results so as to be applicable 
to the improvement plan reoommended by this offioe for 
the Galop Island reaoh. The following results were ob- 
tained. 

Minimum January 1st Water Levels for 220,000 o.f.s. 

Condition Lake Butternut Lotus Above Below Barnhart Is. 
of River Ontario Island Island Iroquois Iroquois Powerhouse 

Ioe oover 247.0 244.55 244.15 243.15 242.82 239.1 

(242.12) (238.0) 

Open river 245.7 244.42 243.8 243.5 243.2 241.6 

( 240.0) ( 238.0 ) 

The figures without parentheses are for the condition of 
an unlimited pool height at Long Sault Dam (or Barnhart 
Island Powerhouse). The figures in parentheses are for 
the oondition whioh will exist during the initial period 
when the pool at Long Sault Dam is limited to a maximum 
of Bio 238.0 in aooordanoe with the provision of the Inter- 
national Agreement of 1941 (Article IV), as follows: 
■(e) Upon the completion of the works provided 
for in the International Rapids Seotion, the power 
works shall be operated, initially, with the water 
level at the power houses held at a maximum ele- 
vation 238.0 for a test period 

of ten years or suoh shorter period as may be pro- 
vided by any board or authority designated ----—.■ 
The underscored numbers are the oritioal water levels 
whioh should be used in the design of the ohannel outs 
"between Lotus Island and the oontrol dam and from above 
Point Three Points to below Ogden Island", as speoified in 
the first quotation above. The ohannel cross section in 
these reaohes should be made large enough to reduoe the 
average velocity to 2.25 feet per seoond with a flow of 
220,000 o.f.s. at these levels. 

(5) The variation of the water level between Iroquois Dam 
and the Barnhart Island Powerhouse is not shown in the 
above table because the backwater ourves in Dooument No. 4 
do not show levels for aiy intermediate points. This vari- 
ation should be oomputed, however, when work on the projeot 
is again resumed, so that the water levels in the reaohes 
where outs have to be made will be more aocurately known. 
The cuts shown on the plans were aotually designed for a 
level grade of El. 242 above Iroquois Dam and a level grade 
of El. 241 downstream from the dam, whioh is conservative 
above the dam but not sc below the dam. 



- 46 - 



e. Water Levels at Chimney point to Remain Unohan^ed. 

(1) The 238-242 Controlled Single Stage Project to whioh 
all plans oonsidered in this report in general conform, 
provides for two dams, - Long Sault Dam and Iroquois Dam. 
Long Sault Dam is the main power dam, while Iroquois Dam 
is merely an auxiliary dam to insure the proper regulation 
of Lake Ontario levels and outflows. The water level at 
Long Sault Darn will be raised about 70 feet by the dam. 
The drop through the Iroquois Dam will ordinarily be a few 
feet* It will be less than a foot when all gates are open. 

(2) A level pool from Long Sault Dam, at either El. 238 
or El. 242, would extend upstream to the foot of Galop 
Island. Assuming existing ohannel conditions to prevail, 
the baokwater slope would be such as to raise the water 
level at Chimney Point and in Lake Ontario 2 or 3 feet 
above existing levels. This would be contrary to the first 
requirement of Method No. 5, given in Section II, as fol- 
lows! 

•To keep the fluctuations of the levels of Lake 
Ontario within the levels that would have resulted 
in the past, assuming a continuous diversion of 
3,200 o.f.s. at Chicago and present outlet condi- 
tions. • 

(3) It will be seen, therefore, that it would not be sat- 
isfactory to leave the ohannel in its present oondition 
even if velocities were satisfactory for navigation and 
ice conditions. There must be some channel enlargement in 
any plan of improvement in order to satisfy this baokwater 
oondition. Aotually, none of the channel outs were de- 
signed for this oondition but the extent to whioh this oon- 
dition is met by the cuts of the Original 238-242 plan may 
be seen on Plate 11 of this appendix. On this plate, the 
backwater curves for 5 oritioal Method No. 5 disoharge con- 
ditions are shown. These backwater curves show the vari- 
ation in pool level at Long Sault Dam and the Barnhart 
Island powerhouse neoess ry to make lake levels and outflows 
conform to Method No. 5, and hence remain within the bounds 
of existing conditions. Table 4, in Section II of this 
appendix, shows the extent to which Method No. 5 conforms 

to existing conditions. 

(4) With improvement in aooordanoe with the Original 238- 
242 Plan, the minimum and maximum headwater levels at the 
Barnhart Island Powerhouse would be El. 231.0 and El 242.2, 
as may be seen on Plate 11 and Table 9 of this appendix. 
This minimum is for ice oover conditions. For open river 
conditions, the minimum would be E. 235.5. These values 
were taken direotly from the baokwater- curves of Depart- 
ment of Transport Document No. 4. Corrections were later 

- 47 - 



applied to these values to make them comparable to the 
values obtained for the plans prepared by this offioe. 
The oorreoted values are El. 232.5, El. 242.5, and El. 
237.0, respectively. These values are also shown on 
Table 9 under the oolumn heading *0rig. 238-242 Plan 
(adj)". In the next oolumn on this table, are shown the 
corresponding values for the reoommended plan of this 
offioe, which has larger cuts in the Galop Island reach 
than the Original 238-c42 Plan. The main fluctuation in 
the oase of the recommended plan would be from El. 235 to 
El. 242.7, with a minimum for open river conditions of El. 
238.2. 

(5) A comparison of the elevations given above will show 
that a saving in power head can be realized by enlarging 
the channel and reducing the water surface slope. This 
factor is treated separately in the next oriterion, cri- 
terion f , although it will be readily seen that the two 
factors, - limiting lake levels and saving power head, are 
interrelated and must of necessity be disoussed together. 
The two factors have been separated beoause there are two 
distinctly separate objectives to be accomplished. The 
major objeotive, which is oovered by this oriterion, is to 
see that a general pool level of about El. 240 is possible 
without affeoting lake levels. The seoond objeotive, 
covered by Criterion _f , is to see whether or not any addi- 
tional excavation would be warranted in view of the power 
head saved. The latter is more of a refinement of the 
first. 

(5) The above elevations show that the first objective 
has been met in the oase of the reoommended plan of this 
office and the Original 238-242 plan. That is, the channel 
outs in these plans are sufficiently large to permit the 
maintenance of a pool level of El. 240, plus or minus, at 
Long Sault Dam without affeoting Lake Ontario levels or 
outflows. Continuing the above line of reasoning, the 
next step would normally be to determine the optimum amount 
of excavation considering power benefits. Another faotor 
oomes into the picture at this point, however, the amount 
of excavation required for reduotion of navigation channel 
velocicies. This makes an eoonomio comparison of the above 
two plans unnecessary because the larger cuts of the reoom- 
mended plan are neoessary to satisfy the velocity require- 
ment. However, all of the increased cost of the larger 
outs is not chargeable to navigation. A benefit to power 
is also accomplished, as represented by the inoreased power 
head available. Tnis economic factor would also come into 
the pioture if it should be desired to oonsider a plan with 
still larger outs in the Galop Island reaoh. As will be 
seen later in Seotion VI under the disoussion of the Galop 
Island reaoh, this factor was considered in oomparing the 

- 48 - 



two plans developed by this offioe for this reaoh, one of 
whioh had a larger cut than the reoommended plan. 

(7) There is no upper limit to the amount of channel ex- 
cavation that oan be carried out above Long Sault Dam, 
other than eoonomios. If the pool at Long Sault Dam tends 
to get too high, the gates of Iroquois Dam can be lowered 
and lake levels and outflows controlled from that point. 
The above elevations cited are based on a wide-open Iro- 
quois Dam. Also, with Iroquois Dam in operation the pool 
at Long Sault Dam can be lowered to any desired level 
without affecting lake levels or outflows. 

(8) It will be noted that "Chimney Point" was used in 
the heading of this criterion, instead of "Lake Ontario". 
Kegulation Method No. 5 is given in terms of Lake Ontario 
elevations but since no improvement is oontemplated between 
Lake Ontario and Chimney Point, Method No. 5 oould just as 
well have been expressed in terms of elevations at Chimney 
Point, the head of the projeot. Aotually what was done in 
the computations was to determine equivalent Method No. 5 
elevations at Chimney point and work from these elevations, 
holding Chimney Point elevations oonstant. Hence the use 
of "Chimney Point" in the heading. 

(9) This criterion is obviously not applicable to im- 
provements below Long Sault Dam, since conditions below 
the dam oannot affeot Lake Ontario levels or outflows. 

f. Reduotion in Friotion Slope go Increase Power Head . 

(1) Under the preoeding criterion, it was brought out 
that any channel enlargement upstream from the Barnhart 
Island powerhouse will result in higher pool levels at the 
powerhouse and hence inoreased power head. Channel en- 
largement below the power house will likewise result in 
increased power head, due to decreased tailwater elevation, 
power benefits, therefore, are a faotor to be considered 
both upstream and downstream from the powerhouse. 

(2) This factor is important in connection with uhe 
design of ohannel outs in the Galop Island reach because 
this reach is at the upp«r end of the pool where the slope 
is steep and any reduction in friction loss in this reach 
js magnified at the powerhouse. It is not likely that 
this would be the aeciding factor in a choice of plans, 
however, unless the saving was quite reat. On the other 
hand if it should be found that two plans for this reaoh 
were equally desirable from a navigation standpoint, the 
power benefit might be the deciding factor. The importance 
of this faotor however cannot be determined until the model 
studies are completed and the importance of the navigation 

- 49 - 



faotors are known. It must be remembered that most of 
this inorea^e in power will become available only if and 
when the International Commission authorizes the operation 
of the projeot with an elevation greater than 238 in the 
Barnhart Island Pool. 

(3) This factor will also be important in oonneotion with 
the design of the Cornwall Island reaoh beoause the sizes 
of outs in this reaoh will affeot tailwater elevations at 
the Barnhart Island powerhouse. However, as will be ex- 
plained later, this is one of the reaches whioh this office 
had to leave for later study and there was no opportunity 
to bring this faotor to bear. The exoavation direotly 
below the powerhouse is speoifioally for the purpose of 
lowering tailwater levels and should be oonsidered along 
with the Cornwall Island cuts in any future study. 

g. Maintenance of 14-Foot Navigation During Const motion . 

(1) It is important that the existing 14-foot navigation 
shall not be interfered with during the oonstruotion of 
any part of the projeot, either structures or ohannel outs. 
It was neoessary, therefore, to make a hydraulic cheok of 
the effect of oonstruotion on water surface elevations at 
the various locks and canals on the Canadian side of the 
river. Where the use of a look or oanal was interfered 
with, an alternate route hud to be provided. 

(2) During the oonstruotion of Long Sault Dam, the pool 
above the dam will be raised to various intermediate 
stages before reaching the initial pool elevation of 238. 
Appendix 111-22(3), Seotion XIV oontains a detailed des- 
cription of the oonstruotion and closure sohedule. It is 
briefly as follows$ 

(a) During the first and oeoond stages of oonstruo- 
tion, the water level at the dam is to be kept at about 
El. 195. 

(b) During the olosure period the water level ut 
the dam will be raised suooessively to elevations 201, 209, 
225, and 235. 

(3) Navigation in the 14-foot canals will not be inter- 
fered with until the pool level reaches about EL» 207, at 
whioh elevation the Parran' s Point Canal will be drowned 
out and navigation will have to use the river. When th® 
pool at the dam is raised above El» 209, the Cornwall 
Canal will be drowned out. However, in this case naviga- 
tion will be able to use the new Long Sault Canal, whioh 
will be suitable for 14-foot navigation at a pool level of 
El. 225. During the rise from El. 209 to El. 225, the 

- 50 - 



Morrisburg Canal will also be drowned out and navigation 
■will have to use the river in this reach. In the last 
oase, channel outs proved to be neoessary to lower veloci- 
ties sufficiently to permit 14 -foot navigation. Sinoe cuts 
in this reaoh had already been shown to be neoessary to 
satisfy criterion d above, no additional cuts were neoes- 
sary. However, this meant that the cuts must be oompleted 
early enough in the construction program to permit their 
use when the pool at the dam is raised to El. 225. 

(4) There is on« instance where a out must be delayed in 
order to avoid interference with 14 -foot navigation. Com- 
plete exoavation of the point Three points out must await 
the rise of pool level to El. 225 in order not to lower 
stages too much at Lock 25 to permit use of the look by 
14 foot navigation. Sinoe the low water depth on the low- 
er sill of Look 25 is 16 feet, some exoavation at Point 
Three points oan be done without reducing this depth below 
14 feet. 

h. Eoonomios. 

(1) In laying out the channel cuts, economics also played 
an important part. Differences in amount and class of 
excavation, in method of exoavation and inavail ability of 
spoil areas influenced the detailed looation of the cuts. 
Advantage was taken of the latest soundings of the Lake 
Survey and the foundation explorations of this offioe. An 
actempt was made to obtain the least oostly solution con- 
sistent with the other oriteria. 

(2) Criterion f_ will also enter into the eoonomios, par- 
ticularly in the Galop Island and Cornwall Island reaches. 



- 51 - 



SECi 1 ION V, METHODS OF BACgWAT&t COMMUTATION. 



42. General, The computations made in conneotion with the design 
of the ohannel cuts oonsisted mostly of baokwater computations. The prob- 
lem was usually one of finding water surface slopes and velocities for 
oertain improved ohannel conditions and oertain oritioal pool levels at 
Long Sault Dam. Ordinarily such a problem would be relatively simple. 

In this oase, however, the river is so out up with islands and individual 
ohannels are so irregular in oross seotion that speoial methods had to be 
used in ,the solution of most of them. A brief description of the methods 
used is given below. 

43. Division of Flow. The large islands in the International Rapids 
Section divide the river into two main ohannels. In some seotions, small 
islands split the flow still further. The improvement oalls for cuts 
through the islands in some places, producing additional channels of flow. 
Because of this complicated pattern of flow, it was necessary in most 
reaches to guess or approximate by rough methods the division of flow among 
the various channels before starting the baokwater computations. After 
the backwater had been oomputed with this assumed distribution, the drops 
between common points had to be oheoked to see that they were consistent. 

If not, the flows would have to be adjusted to make them consistent. Fortu- 
nately, due to extensive previous work on this projeot, water levels oould 
be estimated very closely at the start and reoomputation of the hydraulio 
properties of sections or reoomputation of the backwater was not usually 
neoessary. In most oases, the disoharge could be adjusted by the simple 
relation, 

where Qi and S^ are the assumed flow and oomputed slope respectively and 
C^£ and Sg the oorreoted values for the same channel. This relation comes 
from the Manning Formula, 



V = 1 ' 486 R 2 / 3 s 1 / 2 
orQ=AV =A 1 ' 486 R 2 /3Sl/ 2 



where A, n, and R are assumed to be constant. When it is oonsidered that 
bottom sounding are given only to the nearest foot and that the first trial 
of baokwater computations usually oame within a few tenths of the oorreot 
answer, it will be seen that the assumption of constant A and R is not 
at all unreasonable. 

44. Baokwater Formula . The Baokwater computations of this offioe 
were based on the Manning Formula, 

v - 1.485 R 2 /3 s V 2 
v — n — 



- 52 - 



Canadian computations were based on the Chezy Formula, 

- nl — " 



with Bazin' s value of c, 



c = 157.6 
1+ m 



45. Cross Sections. Cross sections were looated on the large 
1" = 500' soale base maps prepared by this office from the latest Lake 
Survey soundings. Sections were taken at olose intervals in order to 
show eaoh major ohange in area or type of seotion. Seotions were looated 
at the extremes of area, i.e., at the narrowest and widest points. This 
permitted computation of expansion (or eddy) losses. The hydraulic prop- 
erties of the end seotions were averaged to obtain the properties of a 
typio-1 seotion for the reach. Cross seotions were plotted on graph 
paper and ourves of area and hydraulio radius drawn. "Where it was ob- 
vious that a part of the ohannel would be ineffective, this part was 
blocked out and omitted in the computation of the section properties. 
Maps showing the looation of the cross sections and the cross seotions 
themselves are oontained in the computation files of this offioe (SY-C-4/2). 

46. Roughness Factors and Eddy JLosses. The Canadians had deter- 
mined roughness factors for the natural channel based on the Bazin formula 
and applied them in the computation of Method No. 5 baokwater ourves for 
the Original 238-242 Plan given in Department of Transport Dooument IJo. 4. 
This offioe likewise undertook the commutation of roughness factors for 
the existing channel for use in oomouting baokwater. The commutations of 
this offioe, however, were bused on the Manning formula. Also, an attempt 
was made to separate friction losses from eddy (or expansion) losses. The 
Canadian roughness coefficients inoluded all losses. It was i'elt that a 
more aocurate answer oould be obtained for the improved ohannel and raised 
pool conditions if these losses were considered separately, beoause it is 
generally recognized Lhat if a channel is straightened and enlarged the 
eddy losses will be ohanged even though the surfaoe roughness remains 
about the same. Also, in the oomputa&lons of this offioe, the slope of 
the energy gradient was used instead of the water surfaoe in an attempt 

to obtain greater accuracy. 

47. The method used to separate the friction and eddy losses for 
the natural channel is described in detail in a memorandum entitled, 
"Memorandum on the Hydraulio Effect of the Bonneville 0am" by J. C. 
Stevens, Consulting Engineer. A copy of this memorandum is oontained in 
the computation files of this offioe ($Y - C - 4/2). Briefly, the method 
consists of plotting the energy gradient of the ohannel by adding the 
velooity head to the water surfaoe elevation at eaoh cross seotion; ad- 
justing this energy gradient to a continuous downward slope by connecting 
the high points with straight lines; figuring hypothetical discharges at 
eaoh seotion based on this adjusted energy gradient and the observed water 
surfaoe; subtracting the aotual disoharge from this hypothetical dis- 

- 53 - 



oharge to obtain an imaginary eddy flow; dividing the total drop between 
seotions into two parts proportional to this eddy flow and the aotual 
flowj and then oomputing the roughness factor (Manning's "n") for each 
reach from the portion of drop corresponding to the actual flow. The drop 
corresponding to the eddy flow was oalled the "eddy loss - and the drop 
corresponding to the aotual flow the "friotion loss. - 

48. In oomputing backwater with the above "n" values and eddy losses, 
the same principles were used in reverse order. In the oase of baokwater 
in a part of the ohannel in which there was to be no improvement, the same 
ratio of aotual velooity head to hypothetical velocity head was used, 
assuming the eddy loss to be the same proportion of the total loss. In the 
oase of a radioally improved ohannel the hypothetical velooity head was 
assumed to be the same as the aotual velooity head, assuming the eddy 

loss to be entirely eliminated by the improvement. In cases of partial 
improvement, the hypothetical velocity head was assumed to be somewhat 
between the above two values depending upon the degree of improvement* 

49. It was reoognized that the above method might not be reliable in 
the oase of the reaohes of river consisting largely of rapids, - suoh as 
the Galop Island reach. A check method was therefore applied to the Galop 
Island reaoh. This method oonsisted of finding a deep seotion of river 
whioh would closely represent conditions in the Galop Island reach after 
the pool is raised and then determining the friotion and eddy losses for 
this reaoh and applying the results to the rapids section. The Toussaints 
Island reaoh (from Lotus Island to Iroquois Point) was selected as being 
typical of the Galop Island reaoh after the pool is raised. A study of 
this roach showed the average "n* value to be about .025 and eddy losses, 
expressed in terms of the difference in velooity heads at the ends of ex- 
panding reaohes, to be on the average about .35£».h v . These values were 
considered to a^ply to Galop Island natural channels. In comparison, it 
was thought that an "n" of .020 and expansion losses of ,50^.h v would be 
about right for artificial outs. It was not so important that the "n" . 
values be absolutely correot as it was that they be relatively oorreot, 
that is, have about the same relative values as the oorreot values. This 
would give the oorreot division of flow among the various channels although 
the watersurfaoe slope might be incorreot. Since the division of flow was 
the most important problem in this reaoh, use of the above values was con- 
sidered safe. 

50. Check computations for the Galop Island reach were also made in 
the Office, Chief of Engineers, using the same general method of the one 
just described, exoept that expansion losses were assumed to be .50/^hy 

for both natural anc * artificial ohannels. This value was oonsidered more 
representative of present day practice in the computation of expansion 
losses in natural channels. The U. S. Geological Survey uses this value 
in its flood determination in natural ohannels by the slope-area method. 
This value was also used by J # C. Stevens in an example of a natural chan- 
nel in an artiole entitled "Computing Baokwater Curves for surfaoe slopes 
in streams" in the Ootober 1, 1925 issue of Engineering News-Record, page 
550. Values of . 5Q£Ja_ and greater were used for natural ohannels in the 
book "xtegulation of Elevation and Disoharge of the Great Lakes" by John R. 

- 54 - 



Freeman, 1926, pages 302-303, The Offioe, Chief of Engineers did not 
consider that enough is known about this factor for natural channels at 
the present time to use other than generally acoepted value of •50^h v . 

51. A very preoise method of computation was attempted by the Offioe, 
Chief of Engineers in its oheck of the Galop Island reach. Roughness 
factors were considered to vary from oross seotion to oross section, in- 
stead of being assumed constant for great lengths of channel. Different 
roughness factors were also used for different parts of a single oross 
section where the degree of improvement differed in the various parts. 
Manning's ■n* was varied between the limiting values of .020 and .025 
aocording to judgment. Where a single oross seotion consisted of two or 
more almost separated channels or where the hydraulio radii of the various 
parts were radioally different, the total disohar^e was divided among the 
parts in aooordanoe with the ratios of oonveyanoe faotors of the parts and 
the flow in eaoh part treated separately. Velooity heads and energy losses 
of the various parts were computed separately and weighted values determined 
for the ends of the reach. Because of the small sizes of these losses and 
velooity heads and the extremely flat slopes involved, computations were 
carried to the third plaoe beyond the decimal. 

52. As stated in a previous seotion of this appendix, this offioe 
made extensive use of the gage rela&ion curves in Department of Transport 
Dooument No. 4 in its baokwater studies. Check computations made in this 
offioe indicated that these ourves are essentially oorreot. As previously 
stated, these gage relation ourves are based on improvement in aooordanoe 
with the Original 238-242 Flan. Since the channel cuts in the plans pro- 
posed by this offioe are practically the same size as those in one Original 
238-242 Plan, except for the Galop Island reaoh, these curves have been 
adopted by this office as representing the correct baokwater relations for 
all reaches exoept the Galop Island reaoh and for all improvement plans 
considered in this report. 

53. The gage relation ourves in Document No. 4 are based on natural 
■n" values. As previously stated, natural *n* values are not considered 
applioable to baokwater in the Galop Island reaoh beoause of the rapids. 
Therefore, in using the ourves of Dooument No. 4, a oorreoti. on was always 
made for the difference in backwater slope in the Galop Island reaoh. The 
water surfaoe slope as computed by this offioe for this reach was always 
used. Table 6 of this appendix shows the differences in roughness faotors 
used by the Canadians and by this offioe in backwater computations of the 
Galop Island reach. 

Table 6. aOUGHNESS VALUES FOR GALOF ISLAND REACH 

Channel Department of Transport This Office 

Bagin' s ilyd. Rad. Eu.ui. Manning's Aver, ^otual Corrected 
m "n" "n w "n" "n* 

No. Channel 5.7 to 7.0 13 to 30 .034 to .043 
So. Channel 4.8 to 5.5 15 to Z6 .031 to .035 
Galop Cut 4.2 24 to 27 .030 

- 55 - 



.038 


.025 


029 


.034 


.025 


089 


.030 


.020 


023 



54 • It will be noted In Table 6 that the »n» values used by this 
office have been oorreoted for purposes of oomparison with the Canadian 
values. As previously stated, the Canadian ooeffioients include both 
friotion and eddy losses. Therefore, the ooeffioients of this offioe had 
to be inoreased to include eddy losses. By totalling all losses and the 
eddy losses alone in several reaches it was found that the eddy losses 
were on the average about 25% of the total losses* This faotor was used 
in correcting the ■n* values of this offi oe. Si nce n varies as S* t the 
aotual n* s were multiplied by the factor 7|£"=^> "to obtain the corrected 
values. 

55. It will also be noted that the Canadian values are higher than 
themlues used by this offioe. The slope through the Galop Island reaoh 
for identioal improvement plans will therefore be greater in the oase of 
the Canadian computations. The ourves in Document No. 4, may therefore 
be expeoted to show a greater drop through the Galop Island reaoh than 
the computations of this offioe. 

56. The following method was used to oorreot for this differenoe in 
slope through the Galop Island reaoh. If, for instanoe, it was desired 
to find the water level above Iroquois Dam for a given Lake Ontario level 
and outflow, the ourves in Dooument No. 4 showing the relation between 
Lake Ontario and Lotus Island would first be used, chen that showing the 
relation between Lotus Island and Butternut Island. Thus tne water level 
at Butternut Island would be determined. Then the loss oomputed by this 
offioe between Butternut and Lotus Islands would be subtracted from the 
Butternut elevation to obtain the oorreoted Lotus Island elevation. The 
curves showing the relation between Lotus Island and Iroquois Dam would 
then be used to find the water level above Iroquois Dam. Dooument No. 4 
oontains curves for both open river and ice oover conditions. Care must 
be taken, therefore, to see that the right ourves are used. The ourves 
showing the relation between Lake Ontario and the Barnhart Island power- 
house oannot be used because there is no way of making the Galop Island 
oorreotion with these curves. In making comparisons between the various 
improvement plans of this offioe and the Original 238-242 Flan, it is 
always neoessary to make certain that the plans being compared are based 
on the same backwater assumptions, on other words, that the above oorreo- 
tion has already been made. Otherwise, part of the differenoe noted may 
be due to a differenoe in method of oomputation rather than to differ- 
ences in the plans. 

57. More detailed desoriptions of the methods used in the backwater 
computations are contained in the oomputation files of this offioe 

(Sy - C - 4/2). Details of the Canadian methods are oontained in Canadian 
Department of Transport, Dooument No. 4. Check computations of the Galop 
Island reaoh by the Offioe, Chief of Engineers, are also oontained in the 
oomputation files of this offioe. 



- 56 - 



SECTION VI. HYDiiAJLIC STJDIES BY naACHES. 

58. General . In this section, the design of the individual reaches 
is taken up. The important hydraulic studies made in connection with the 
design of eaoh reaoh are desoribed in detail. Also important general 
studies af footing the design of more than one reach are discussed. In 
oases where general studies have been adequately covered in ^receeding sec- 
tions reference is made to the paragraphs where these previous disoussions 
may be found. The following order has been used in presenting the studies: 

a. General studies. 

b Galop Island reach and Galop Canal. 

o. Toussaints Island reach. 

d. Point Three Points reach. 

e. Ogden Island reaoh and Morrisburg Canal. 

f . Croil Island north channel and Farran* s Point Canal. 

g. Cornwall Canal. 

h. Cornwall Island reaoh. 

59. As previously stated, time did not permit a complete study of 
all reaches. All but the last one listed above, however, reoeived at least 
an approximate analytical analysis. Very little was done on the Cornwall 
Island reaoh. It will be neoessary to start from the beginning on the 
design of this reach when work on the project is resumed. The Galop Island 
reaoh reoeived the most study because hydraulio conditions in this reaoh 
are most severe and the oost of improving this »uoh will be considerably 
greater than any other reach. It is the only reach above the Long Sault 
Dam whioh will be designed for the maximum navigation velocity. All other 
reaohes upstream from the dam are designed for ioe oover conditions whioh 
result in lower navigation velocities. This will be readily seen, when 

it is realized that waterlevels will be about the same for all discharges 
when the projeot is completed and that a channel designed for a winter flow 
of 220,000 o.f.s. at 2.25 feet per seoond will have a velocity of about 
3.2 feet per second at the maximum summer dlsoharge of 310,000 c.f.s. This 
is considerably less than the maximum navigation velooity of 4.5 feet per 
seoond used in the design of the Galop Island reaoh. 

G£HEiiAL STUDIES 

60m The most important general studies which were made in connection 
with the design of the ohannel outs are the following: 

a. Natural roughness factors and eddy losses. 

b. Check of baokwater for Original 238-242 Plan. 

- 57 - 



c* Baokwater with no improvements above Iroquois Point* 

d* Analysis of Lake Ontario disoharges and levels* 

e* Standard low water profile* 

f . Rating ourves at important gages in International Rapids Seotion 

61* Natural Roughness Faotors and Eddy Losses. As stated in the 
preoeding section (par. 45), natural roughness faotors and eddy losses were 
determined for the existing river ohannel for use in the baokwater studies* 
The natural water surfaoe profile for a disoharge of 247,000 o.f.s* was 
used for this purpose. The reaoh oovered in this study was from Chimney 
Point to Doran Island (below Canada Island), whioh is the oritioal reaoh 
as far as the channel outs are oonoerned. The methods used in these cal- 
culations are explained in par. 47 of the preoeding seotion. The calcula- 
tions are on file in computations files SY - C - 4/2* 

62* Cheok of Baokwater for Original 238-242 plan. In Seotion II, 
it was stated that the Canadian Department of Transport had oomputed baok- 
water for the Original 238-242 Plan and expressed the results in the form 
of gage relation ourves in Document No. 4. It was also stated that this 
offioe made extensive use of these ourves in its baokwater studies but 
that a few oheok computations were first made to determine the aoouraoy 
of these curves* These computations are desoribed below* 

63* The Galop Island reaoh was used for this oheok* The drop be- 
tween Lotus and Butternut Islands was oomputed and oompared with the value 
obtained from Canadian drawing No. 2329 in Dooument No* 4* Two methods 
of computation were used, - one, the method desribed in Par. 47 of the 
preoeding seotion where a hypotheotical energy gradient is constructed 
and friotion and eddy losses oomputed and the other, a method similar to 
that used by the Canadians where only roughness faotors are considered* 
In the latter method average *n* values equivalent to the Canadian ■m* 
values were used* A fairly good oheok was obtained by both methods. It 
was oonoluded therefore, from this cheok of the Galop Island reaoh, that 
all of the gage relations are essentially oorreot, based on the assumption 
that roughness factors of the improved ohannel will be identioal with 
those of the existing ohannel. 

54* As to the reesonableness of the last assumption the following 
may be said. This offioe used the Canadian ourves below Lotus Island only* 
Below Lotus Island ohannel improvements are not very extensive* There- 
fore ■n" v-dues of the ohannel may be expected to remain about the same 
and from this standpoint no greater error is introduced by using natural 
values. On the other"hand, there are some rapids below Lotus Island and 
as previously mentioned (par. 45 above) natural "n" values determined 
fro.a rapids are not reliable when applied to deep and quiet flow. Also, 
in the lower end of the pool depths are inoreased to suoh an extent that 
it is questionable whether any roughness faotors determined from natural 
conditions would be reliable. However, since there are no preoise methods 
for oomputing backwater under extremely deep pool conditions, this offioe 

- 58 - 



considered the Canadian ourves to be about as accurate a solution as 
could be obtained. The Canadian ourves may be considered conservative, 
also, in that their use probably resulted in showing steeper slopes than 
will aotually prevail sinoe the effect of the improvements and the quiet- 
er flow should be to reduce the roughness factors below those existing 
under natural conditions. 

65. Baokwater Vfith No Improvements Above Iroquois Point. In Section 
IV t under the discussion of Criterion e^, paragraph 41 e^_ it was pointed 
out that a oertain amount of ohannel enlargement is necessary in the upper 
reaches of the pool of Long Sault Dam to prevent baokwater from affecting 
Lake Ontario levels. It was also stated that a study had shown that lake 
levels would be raised 2 or 3 feet above their present levels if no ohan- 
nel enlargements were made. The study made to determine this increase in 
lake levels is desoribed below. 

65. The study consisted of 2 baokwater computations, - one for a 
pool level of El. 238 at Long Sault Dam and one for El. 242. A discharge 
of 247,000 o.f.s., which is close to the average discharge of the river 
(see Table 3 in Section II), was used in both computations. The computa- 
tions were started at Iroquois Point, assuming Method No. 5 elevations to 
prevail at this point. Iroquois Dam was assumed to be out and t:he river 
upstream from the dam to be in its natural state. The computation method 
described in paragraph 47 of the preoeding section was used, — the one 
where a hypothetical energy gradient is used and friction and eddy losses 
are considered separately, 

57. The results of the computations are shown in profile form on a 
sheet of graph paper in computation file ST - C - 4/2. With pool El. 238, 
the lake was raised 1.8 feet above the natural elevation or 2.9 feet above 
Method No. 5 elevation. With pool El. 242, the lake was raised 3.2 feet 
above the natural elevation and 2.1 above Method No. 5 elevation. Hence 
the statement in Section IV, that the lake will be raised 2 or 3 feet if 
no ohannel enlargements were made. 

68. Analysis of Lake Ontario Discharges and Levels. An analysis of 
Lake Ontario levels and discharges was made for use in determining the most 
severe hydraulic conditions upon which to base the design of the cuts in 
the Salop Island reaoh. All of the monthly average discharges and lake 
levels given in Tables 8 and 9 of Department of Transport Document No. 2, 
for the months of April to November inclusive, were plotted on a graph en- 
titled H iic. Lawrence P.iver Discharge - Method No. 5, From 1360 to 1939, 
Months of April through November of each year only" (computation file 
Box D - 16 J. An enveloping line drawn through the lowest points on this 
graph would represent the severest combinations of lake level and discharge 
during the navigation season. Such a line would show the lowest water sur- 
face for a given discharge cr the greatest discharge for a given water 
level, whioh are the conditions which result in the highest velocities in 
the navigation channel. It may be seen on this ^raph that the condition 
of 310,000 c.f.s. discharge and a lake level of E^o 24:,. 5 falls praotically 
on this line. This is the condition recommended by the Department of 
Transport and adopted by this office for the design of the Galop Island 

- 59 - 



reaoh (see par, 4l_o (4) of Section IV)« 

69. Table 7 shows the severest combinations of lake levels and dis- 
charges which will prevail during the navigation season (April thru Nov- 
ember) under regulation Method No. 5. A line drawn through these points 
would be the same as the lino referred to in the preceding paragraph. 



- 60 - 



Table 7. L<-"ft^st Lake Levels for Navigation Season (A,, r. thru Nov.) 



Discharges According to Method No. 5. 1 



Year 
1869 
1885 
1869 
1876 
1866 
1383 
1884 
1904 
1832 
1374 
1893 
1367 
1930 
1921 
1901 
1891 
1932 
1939 
1935 
1933 
1935 
1934 
1933 
1935 
1934 
1934 



Month 
Oct. 

Nov, 
if 



Sept, 

Oot. 

Nov, 

Aug, 

Nov, 

Apr, 

Oot. 

Nov, 



Discharge (o.f.s.) 
310,000 
305,000 
302,000 
238,000 
280,000 
276,000 
251,000 
249,000 
243,000 
239,000 
236,000 
234,000 
232,000 
224,000 
221,000 
216,000 
214,000 
211,000 
202,000 
201,000 
198,000 
193,000 
190,000 
187,000 
183,000 
130,000 



Lake Level 
246.78 

6.26 

6.18 
6.14 
6.08 
6.05 
5,90 
5,80 
5,74 
5.70 
5.67 

5.52 
5.49 
5.46 
5.38 
5.14 
5.11 
4.93 
4.91 
4.85 
4.78 
4.72 
4.52 
4.28 
4.20 
244,03 



•Note; Taken from Tables 8 and 9 of Dept. of Transport Dooument No. 2. 



- 61 - 



Table 8. Lowest Lake Levels for Winter (Dec thru Mar.) 





Month 


Discharges According to Method No. 


5.* 


Year 


Discharge (c.f.s.) 


Lake Level 


1861 


Dec. 


268,000 


247.02 


1878 


n 


254,000 


6.57 


1876 


Mar. 


250,000 


6.52**** 


1860 


Dec. 


22*6,000 


6.19 


1885 


n 


21*4,000 


6.31 


1890 


H 


234,000 


6.03 


1917 


n 


231,000 


5-92 


1929 


ii 


227,000 


6.08 


1876 


it 


221,000 


5.87 


1868 


Jan. 


220,000*** 


4.94 


1901 


Feb. 


217,000 


5.74 


1904 


Dec. 


212,000 


5.53 


1911 


Feb. 


209,000 


5.41 


1872 


n 


206,000 


5.08 


1875 


ii 


204,000 


5.01 


1872** 


Mar. 


200,000 


4.89 


1934 


Jan. 


195.000 


4.40 


1936 


n 


192,000 


4.07 


1935 


Mar. 


189,000 


4.00 


1935 


Jan. 


188,000 


3-98 


1935 


Fee. 


186,000 


3.9/ 


1936 


n 


185,000^ 


3.77 



* Taken Prom Tables 8 and 9 of Dept. of Transport Document No. 2. 

** Also in Mar. 1895 and Feb. 1897- 

*** Appears to be an error; probably meant to be 200,000 

**** Appears to be an error; probably meant to be 7«52. 



- 62 - 



70. Table 8 shows the severest combination of lake levels and dis- 
charges whioh will prevail during the winter months (Deoember thru March) 
under regulation Method No. 5, A plot of the Deoember and January dis- 
charges and levels was made in order to determine the severest winter con- 
dition for the design of the ioe cuts. This graph is also in the computa- 
tion file of this offioe (3ox D - 15) and is entitled "Monthly Mean Out- 
flows of Lake Ontario for Dec. and Jan., 1860 - 1940, Method Ho. 5». An 
enveloping line "through the lowest January points on this gra-h will give 
the severest January oonditions. An enveloping line through the lowest 
Deoember points will give the severest December conditions. From these 
lines the severest January 1st conditions, upon whioh the design of the 
ioe outs is to be based, was determined. See paragraphs 41d_ (2) and (3), 
Section IV* 

71. Standard Low "flayer Profile. As previously stated (Par. 21 of 
Section II) a standard low water profile was prepared for use in any fu- 
ture model studies that may be made. This profile, together with a plan 
showing the stationing and location of gages, is shown on 8 drawigns, 
Plates 2 to 9 inclusive, of this appendix. The soale of this profile is 
1" - 1,000' horizontal, and 1* = 4' vertical. Continuous stationing was 
laid out on the oenterline of the main ohannel from Chimney Point to the 
foot of Cornwall Island. The stationing of secondary channels starts in 
each oase at the upstream intersection with the main ohannel centerline 
and terminates at the downstream intersection. The stationin of objects 
on the shore line, such as guges, was determined by perpendioular projec- 
tions to the oenterlines. 

72. toater levels were determined by a study of all existing data 
including surveys made by this office. The water level at principal points 
was determined from low water data given in the 1937 U. •»• Lake Survey 
Report, from Canadian Department of Transport racing curves, and from rat- 
ing curves constructed from data f urni shed by both the Department of Trans- 
port and the Hydro-Llectric Power Coirunission of Ontario, The levels at 
intermediate points were determined from profile surveys made by the 
Canadians in 1919, 1920, and 1921, and by this office in 1941, by oro- 
-portioning the losses between the main points in accordance with these 
profiles. Where water levels were available on both banks of a ohannel, 
separate profiles were shown for eaoh bank. 

73. Rating Curves at Important Ga-j,lfl;-. Stations in the International 
Rapids Seotion* B-ating curves for the prinoipal gaging stations were 
also constructed for use in conneotion with tho model tests. These curves 
are shown on Plate 10 of this appendix, as previously stated, (par. 20 

of seotion II) single line rating carves are applicable to this section 
of river sinoe the changes in stage are very s3ow due to regulation of 
the lakes. All available Canadian and American data were used in the 
preparation of these curves. 

GALOP ISL^D iteACH aUD GALOP CAKAL 

74. Galop Island neach. The Galop Island reach extends from 
Chimney point at the u^per end of the International Rapids Section, to 

- 53 - 



the lower end of Lotus Island at the foot of Galop Rapids. Plates 1 and 
1A of Appendix III - 0(1) show this reach of river in detail, together 
with two possible plans of improvement. Plate 1 shows the plan reoommended 
by this offioe and Plate 1A, a more expensive alternate plan. 

75. The Salop Island reaoh has a length of about 5 miles, extending 
from about mile 68 to about mile 74 (navigation channel mileages). The 
total fall in this reaoh is about 10 feet. About a foot of this fall oc- 
curs in the part from Chimney Point to the head of Galop Island. About 

7 feet of this fall oocurs between the head of Galop Island and the head 
of Lalone Island. The remaining 2 feet oocurs in the Lalone-Lotus Island 
part of the reaoh. The water level at the upper end of the reaoh is gen- 
erally about El. 244 and that at the lower end, about El. 234. The flow 
past Galop Island is in the form of rapids, the north ohannel being called 
the Canadian Galop Rapids and the south ohannel, the Amerioan Galop Rapids* 

76. An inspeotion of Plates 1 and 1A of Appendix III - 0(1) will 
also show that the natural channels are very tortuous and the banks very 
irregular in this reaoh. Also velocities are very high. Navigation is 
at present oarried past the Galop Rapids by the 14-foot Galop Canal and 
•North Channel* on the Canadian side of the river. Downbound traffic 
leaves the Galop Canal at Look No. 28. Unbound traff io uses the canal 
all the way. 

77. The head of Galop Island may be oalled the natural oontrol of 
Lake Ontario. When this control is removed by the improvement plans, oon- 
trol will be taken over by Iroyuois Dam. The water surface will then 
have very little slope through the Galop Island reaoh. The fall between 
Chimney Point and Lotus Island will be only a foot or two and water levels 
within the reaoh will vary between about El. 241 and El-247. In the up- 
per part of the reaoh these levels are not muoh higher than present levels 
as may be seen by oomparing the above elevations with those in paragraph 
75. Reduotion in velocities to meet navigation requirements, therefore, 
will have to be aooomplished through deepening and widening. Also, 
islands will still remain above water and will have to be out away in 
many places to obtain satisfactory alignment of the navigation channel. 
The extent to whioh these expedients are necessary may be seen on Plates 

1 and 1A already referred to. 

78. Original 238-242 plan . Improvement of the Galop Island reaoh 
under the Original 238-242 Plan oonsisted of deepening the Galop Island 
south ohannel for navigation and providing additional disoharge area 
through Galop Island in order to lower velocities in the navigation chan- 
nel. A cut 500-foot wide through Galop Inland was proposed in this plan. 
Other features of this plan included removal of Gut Dam between Adams and 
Galop Island and the removal of Looks Nos. 27 and 28 in order to increase 
the dischare capacity of the Galop Island north channel^ the removal of 
Spenser Island Dike, ohannel enlargement in the vicinity of Lalone and 
Lotus Islands and opposite Chimney Island in order to reduoe velocities 
in these reaohes, and the construction of ioe cribs across the various 
channels at the head of Galop Island in order to encourage the formation 
of an ioe sheet above this point. 



- 64 - 



79. Plate li-II of the main report shows all the improvements pro- 
posed under the Original 238-242 Plan. Details of the plan are shown 
on five Canadian Department of Transport drawings, No. 2135. The out 
through Grailop Island is 500 feet wide and has a bottom grade of El. 216. 
All other outs in the Galop Island reaoh have a bottom grade of El. 214, 
with the exoeption of the out between Chimney Point and Chimney Island 
whioh has a bottom grade of El. 212. The navigation ohannel outs in this 
reaoh have a minimum width of 600 feet. The out in Lalone Island ohannel, 
is about 500 feet wide. The out between Chimney Point and Chimney Island 
is about 1400 feet wide. 

80. Sinoe this plan was designed prior to oreation of the ^resent 
navigation velooity oriterion the first computation that was undertaken 
by this offioe in oonneotion with the design of the Galop Island reaoh 

was a check of the Original 238-242 Plan, to determine the maximum velooity 
whioh would prevail in the navigation ohannel with this plan. In aooord- 
anoe with oriterion (3), Par. above, the maximum velooity should not ex- 
oeed 4 feet per second for nore than about 3% of the navigation seuson nor 
should it exceed about 4.5 feet per seoond at any time during the navigation 
season. The maximum discharge of 310,000 o.f.s. and a lake level of El. 
246.5 were used in this oheok computation sinoe this combination will re- 
sult in the maximum velooity oonditions (see Par. 41o (4) above). Using 
the backwater methods desoribed in the preoeding seotion, the following 
division of flow was obtained: 



Galop Island 



Lalone and Lotus Islands 



North Channel 



68,000 o.f.s. 



North Channel (Navigation) 260,000 

o.f . s. 



500' Cut 



108,000 o.f.s 



South Channel 



50,000 
o.f. s. 



South Channel 

(Navigation; 134.000 o.f.s 



Total 



310,000 o.f.s. 



Total 



310,000 

O.f. So 



This division of flow may be oompared with the results obtained by the 
Department of Transport for 300,000 o.f.s. and a lake level of El.247.5 : 



Salop Island 
North Channel 76,000 o.f.s. 

500' Cut 93,000 o.f.s. 

South Channel 

(Navigation) 131.000 o.f.s. 



Lalone and Lotus Islands 

North Channel (Navigation) 262,000 

o.f. s. 



South Channel 



38,000 
o.f. s. 



Total 



300,000 o.f.s. 



Total 



300,000 

o.f.s. 



- 65 - 



The flow through •North Channel* was oomputed as 25,000 o.f.s. for the 
310,000 o.f.s. disoharge oondition. •North Channel^ in quotation marks 
is used in this appendix to designate the present 14 - foot navigation 
oanal between Dummond and Spenoer Islands, so labeled on Plate 1 of 
Appendix III -0 (1), and should not be oonfused with north channels in 
general whioh are merely channels to the north of islands* 

81. The maximum velooity in the navigation channel for the 310,000 
o.f.s. disoharge was oomputed as 5.4 feet per second by this offioe. 
This velooity ooourred in a oonstrioted section of the south ohannel near 
the lower end of Galop Island. It will be seen that this velooity is too 
high to satisfy the new oriterion of 4.5 feet per second. The fall through 
the reaoh was oomputed as 3.3 feet, the water level at Chimney point be- 
ing approximately El. 244,3 and the v/ater level below Lotus Island, about El. 
241.0. These elevations agree with the baokwater curves in Department of 
Transport Document No. 4, whioh should be the case since the computations 
were based on natural "n* values determined by this office and on average 

"n - values equivalent to the roughness faotors used by the Canadians 
(see Table 6 above). 

82. Recommended Plan. The above cheok of velocities in the Original 
238-242 Plan showed that the design of this reaoh would have to be ohanged 
if it is to conform to the velooity requirement in the 1941 International 
Agreement. The oheapest method oi lowering the velooity appeared to be to 
inorease the oross seotion of the out through Galop Island. Enlargement of 
the south ohannel would only tend to inorease the quantity of flow in this 
channel and thus neutralize any attempt to lower velooities. Computations 
were therefore undertaken to determine the width of the out through Galop 
Island required to lower the maximum velooity in the south ohannel to about 
4.5 feet per seoond, the velooity agreed upon jointly be engineers of this 
offioe and engineers of the Canadian Department of Transport as fulfilling 
the requirement of the International Agreement, provided that a velooity 
of 4 feet per seoond be not exceeded more than about 3% of the time. 

83. Various widths of out were assumed and the corresponding div- 
isions of flow and velooities were omouted* After muoh outting and trying, 
a width of 850 feet was arrived at as the width whioh results in the re- 
quired reduotion of velooity in the navigation ohannel. Plate 12, 
aocompanying this appendix, shows a curve of maximum velooity vs. width 
of out, whioh resulted in the determination of the 850 foot width. The 
following division of flow was found to prevail under this plan; 

Galop Island 

North Channel 48,000 c.f.s. 

850' Cut 150,000 o.f.s. 

South Channel (Navigation) 112.000 o.f.s. 
Total 310,000 o.f.s. 

The division of flow for Lai one and Lotus Islands or the "North Channel* 
were not oomputed for this oondition. The loss of head through the reaoh 
was found to be about 2.3 feet, the water level at Chimney Point being 

- 66 - 



about El. 244,3 and the level at Lotus Island about El. 242.0. The 
above value for loss is based on natural "n - values oomparable to the 
roughness faotors used by the Canadians (see Table 6 above). 

34, A somewhat more detailed oheok of this plan was made in the 
Offioe, Chief of Engineers with the following results: 

Galop Island Lalone and Lotus Islands 

North Channel 57,000 c.f.s. Galop Canal (est;. 3,000 c.f.s. 



850' Cut 

South Channel 

(Navigation) 

Total 



119,000 o.f.s. North Channel 

(Navigation) 274,000 o.f.s. 



124.000 o.f.s. South Channel 
310,000 o.f.s. Total 



33.000 o.f.s. 



310,000 o.f.s. 



The flow in the "North Channel* was oomputed as 15,000 o.f.s. The total 
drop through the reach was found to be about 1.55 feet, the water level 
at Chimney Point being about El. 244.3 and the level below Lotus Island 
about El. 242.75. As explained in the preceding seotion (par. 51 above), 
this offioe used "n" values varying between .020 for regular cuts to 
.025 for unimproved natural ohannels together with expansion losses of 
• 50Ahv. These roughness faotors being generally lower than the natural 
■n* values oomputed by this offioe or those oomputed by the Canadians 
a flatter slope would naturally be expeoted. The differenoe in division 
of flow obtained is due entirely to differences in methods of computation. 
A model study should be nelpf ul in determining the oorreot answer. 

85. The maximum velooity in the navigation ohannel aocording to 
the commutations made in the Offioe, Chief of Engineers, was found to be 
about 4.67 feet per seoond at a point near the lower end of Galop Island. 
At all other points in the navigation ohannel the velooity was below 

4.5 feet per seoond. The maximum velooity in the Galop Island out was 
found to be about 4.75 feet per seoond at the lower end of the ou-u. 

86. An idea of the effect of the various outs on the distribution 
of flow may be obtained by a comparison of the above figures with the 
natural distribution of flow as measured by the Hydro-Eleotrio Power 
Commission of Ontario. The following are average percentages of flow 

in the Galop Island reaoh as commuted by this offioe from the H.E.P.C. 
disoharge measurements and the division of flow for a total river dis- 
charge of 310,000 o.f.s. obtained by applying the computed percentages. 



Galop Island 
North Channel (50. 4%) 156,000 c.f.s. 

South Channel (4 9. 6%) 154.000 o.f.s. 
Total 310,000 o.f.s. 



Lalone and Lotus Islands 
North Channel (90. 9%) 282,000 o.f.s. 
South Channel (9.1%) 28.000 o.f.s. 

310,000 o.f.s. 



- 67 - 



87 • The outs used in the computations of the Recommended Plan 
were identioal with those in the Original 238-243 Plan with two exceptions. 
As already stated, the Galop Island out was made wider. The other differ- 
ence was in the width of the Lalone and Lotus Island north ohannel. This 
out was made about 450 feet wider at the narrowest point directly oppo- 
site the town of Cardinal before the computations were begun beoause it 
could be determined in advanoe that this out would be too small to sat- 
isfy the velooity oriterion of 4.5 feet per seoond. The extra width was 
provided on the south side of the Channel, cutting more deeply into 
Lalone and Lotus Islands* 

88, After i.t was determined that the maximum velooity oondition 
was satisfied, a study was made to determine what percentage of time a 
velooity of 4 feet per seoond would be exoeeded in the navigation chan- 
nel with the 850-foot wide Galop Island out. In this study use was made 
of the graph entitled ■St. Lawrence River Disoharge - Method No. 5, From 
1860 to 1939, Months of April through November of eaoh year only", on 
whioh graph the 638 monthly average discharges of the St. Lawrenoe River 
were plotted against monthly -aver age Lake Ontario levels. This graph 
is in the oomputation fixes of this offioe (Box D-16). Computations were 
made to determine a line on this graph whioh would represent a navigation 
channel velooity of 4 feet per seoond. In making this computation, how- 
ever, the Alternate Plan was used instead of the Reoornmended Plan. The 
Alternate Plan has a 1600-foot wide out through Galop Island designed for 
navigation, with no improvement in Galop Island south ohannel. It will 
be seen later that the Alternate Plan is oomparable to the Reoornmended 
Plan as far as maximum navigation ohannel velooities are oonoerned (par 
113 below). It has been assumed, therefore, that the computations based 
on the Alternate Plan will apply equally well to the Reoornmended Plan. 

89. The method of determining the 4-foot per seoond line on the 
above graph was rather indireot. When these computations were made an 
1800-foot wide Galop Island cut was being considered. Therefore the 
original computations for frequenoy were based on this width. Several 
flows and lake levels were assumed and the corresponding maximum velo- 
city in the navigation ohannel oomputed for eaoh. These values were 
plotted on the graph and lines of equal velooity drawn. Then in order 
to determine the 4-foot per seoond line for the 1600-foot width of out, 
one point on this line was oomputed and a line parallel to the others 
was drawn. This line is marked "4' per seoond with 1600* ohannel" on 
the graph. 

90. Having determined the line representing 4 feet per seoond, it 
was obvious that ail plotted points below this line (representing lower 
lake leve*Ls) would give higher velooities than 4 feet per seoond. The 
number of points below this line was determined. This represented the 
number of months in the total of 638 navigation months that a velooity 
of 4 feet per second would be exoeeded. Dividing this number by 638 
would give the portion of time during the navigation season that a 4-foot 
per seoond velooity would be exoeeded. The number of plotted points 
below the line was 21. The peroentage is therefore 3.3%, whioh fulfills 
the requirement that the percentage shall not exoeed about Z%. Approx- 
imately the same result was obtained by plotting the results in curve 

- 58 - 



form, as may be seen on Plate 13 of this appendix. The ourve showed 23 
points instead of 21 as determined above. 

91, Under the disoussion of Criterion e_ In Seotion IV, the ade- 
quacy of the ohannel outs in this reaoh to satisfy the oriterion of no 
raising of Lake Ontario levels was disoussed (par 41 e_ (3), It was 
shown that a oertain variation in pool levels at Long Sault Dam is re- 
quired in order to satisfy this oriterion. This required variation is 
not unreasonable however. In the oase of the Recommended Plan a vari- 
ation from £1. 235.0 to El. 242.7 is required, with a minimum of El. 
238.2 for open river oonditions. 

92* It was also pointed out, disoussion of Criterion f in Seotion 
IV, (paragraph 41 f (2) that the larger the outs in the Galop Island reaoh, 
the higher the power pool oan be maintained at Long Sault Dam and still 
not effeot lake levels. The subject of power benefits therefore enters 
into the design of the Galop Island reaoh. Baokwater oomputations were 
made to determine for the various plans of improvement proposed for the 
Galop Island reach, maximum pool levels whioh oan be maintained at Long 
Sault Dam (or the Barnhart Island powerhouse) and not to interfere with 
Lake Ontario levels* The results of this study are shown on Table 9 of 
this appendix* 



- 69 - 



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- 70 - 



93 • Six discharge conditions are shown in Table 9. These are the 
six oritioal discharge conditions shown in profile on plaue 11 of this 
appendix. The profiles, however, show only the conditions whioh will 
prevail under the Original 233-242 Plan. The table shows the conditions 
for all three plans considered in this report, the Original 238-242 Plan 
and the two plans prepared by this offioe. 

94« The figures in Table 9 have been obtained from the gage re- 
lation ourves in Department of Transport Dooument No. 4 with appropriate 
adjustments f or *the differences in losses in the Galop Island reaoh under 
the various plans of improvement proposed. The columns marked •Original 
238-242 Plan" were obtained directly from the baokwater ourves in Doou- 
ment No. 4. The columns marked "Original 238-242 Plan (adj.)" were ob- 
tained by reducing the loss through the Galop Island reaoh (from Butter- 
nut Island to below I*otus Island) in aooordanoe with the ratio of the 
squares of the effective "n" values used by the Canadians and this office 
for the Galop Island south ohannel, ( « 029 ) • The oolumns marked "Reoom- 

(.034) 

mended Plan" were obtained by making the loss between the above two points, 
1.2 feet for 310,000 o.f.s. and the losses for lesser flows proportional 
to the squares of the discharges. The loss for Condition 6 was reduoed 
still further by dividing by 1.2 to take oare of the higher water sur- 
face prevailing under thir condition. The oolumns marked "Alternate 
Plan" were obtained by making the loss between the above two points, 0.9 
feet for 310,000 o.f.s. and the losses for lesser flows proportional to 
tne squares of the discharges. The figures in the last line were fur- 
there oorreoted by the 1.2 factor as before. The figures in the last 
three oolumns were obtained by subtraction. 

95. The last three oolumns show the saving in power head aooom- 
plished by the various -lans. It will be seen that the larger Galop outs 
in the Reoommended and Alternate Plans result in savings in power head 
from 0.2 of a foot to 2.8 feet over the Original 238-242 Plan, depending 
on the oondition of flow* The oritioal oondition is the first one shown, 
as this oondition will determine the prime power available. The Reoom- 
mended and Alternate Plans will provide 2*2 feet and 2,o feet of addition- 
al power head, respectively, over the Original 233-242 Plan for this oon- 
dition of flow. It must be emphasised that only a portion of these power 
benefits will be obtained as long as the maximum elevation of the Barn- 
hart Island pool is restrioted to 238 under the provisions of Artiole IV, 
paragraph (e) of the International Agreement of March 19, 1941. 

96. After the computations for the Recommended Plan were oompleted, 
it was deoided to change the alignment of the navigation ohannel in order 
to make navigation of this reach easier. The ohange in alignment may be 
seen by oomparing Plates M-I and M-II of the main report, or comparing 
Sheet I of Canadian drawings Nos. ,2136 with Plate 1 of Appendix 111-0(1). 
It will be seen that the change was made in the lower end, principally 

in the Dead Man Rapids area, where the navigation channel goes through 
a reverse curve in switohing from the Galop Island south ohannel to the 
Lalone Island north ohannel. The southeast oorner of Galop Island was 
out off and the out through Lalone Island inoreased. Minimum areas were 

- 71 - 



not affeoted, however, thus leaving velooity oonditions praotioally the 
same as previously oomputed. This new alignment reduoes the total angle 
of ourvature in the lower end of the Galop reaoh from about 95° to about 
48°. 

97. Consideration was also given to easing the ourvature of the 
navigation ohannel at the upper end of the Galop Island reaoh between 
Chimney Point and Chimney Island, but it was decided not to change this 
alignment at the present time. Sinoe it is intended eventually to make 
a model study of the Galop Island reach, the neoessity for this change 
oan be determined at that time* 

98. Some thought was also given to deepening the 850-foot out 
through Galop Island so that this channel would also be available for 
navigation in the future if it should ever be desired. The bottom grade 
now proposed is El. 216 through the island itself and downstream from the 
island and El. 220 from the head of the island to deep water opposite 
Butternut Island. If this grade were made El. 214 throughout and the 
flare of the upper entranoe widened slightly * this ohannel oould be used 
for navigation. It might also prove desirable in the future in order to 
inorease the usability of this channel for navigation to make an addition- 
al out through the bar between Chimney and Orummond Islands, thus provid- 
ing a straight alternate ohannel all the way through the rapids section. 
This idea was not incorporated in the Recommended Plan, howevei , because 
of the additional oost involved and the unoertainty as to the suitability 
of this ohannel for navigation. The proposed model study is also expected 
to throw some light on this subjeot. If ourrents and velooities are found 
suitable for navigation, the above idea should be given consideration in 
the development of the final plan. 

99. The minimum water levels in this reaoh during the navigation 
season were also computed assuming improvement in accordanoe with the 
Reoommended Plan, as a oheok on the projeot grade of El. 214. Levels 
for several flows were computed but the water levels for the minimum 
flow of 180,000 o*f.s. were, found zo be the lowest - El. 242.9 at Chim- 
ney Point and El. 242.4 at Lotus Island. The grade of El. 214, therefore, 
more than satisfies the requirement of 27 -foot depth. The drop through 
the Galop Island reaoh as oomputed by the Qffioe, Chief of Engineers, was 
used in these computations, together with the baokwater ourves in Canad- 
ian Document No. 4. 

100. Alternate Plan . An Alternate Plan was prepared for the 
Galop Island reach whioh, although more expensive, is oon6idered more 
satisfactory from the standpoint of navigability. This plan was deve- 
loped for possible use in oase the model study should show the Reoom- 
mended Plan to be undesirable hydraulioally. As may be seen by an in- 
spection of Plate 1 of Appendix III-O (1), the alignment of the naviga- 
tion ohannel through the Galop Island Reaoh is none too straight. It 
was thought that difficulties might develop in navigating the bends with 
velooities of 4.5 feet per seoond* The presenoe of fog would also in- 
orease these difficulties. It was thought that a wider and straighter 
ohannel in this high-velocity reaoh would have decided advantages from 

- 72 - 



the standpoint of safe navigation. As has already been mentioned, the 
tendency in the Great Lakes is to provide wider and stralghter ohannels 
to make for more effioient and safe navigation. This alternate plan for 
the Galop Island reaoh is shown on Plate M-lA of the main report and, in 
more detail, on Plate 1-A of Appendix III-O (1). 

101. The prinoipal objeotive, in preparing the Alternate Plan, was 
to provide as straight a navigation ohannel as possible through the Galop 
Island reaoh without getting into unnecessarily deep outs and without en- 
tailing too muoh rook excavation. Subsurface explorations had shown that 
the rook surface rises rapidly in the south half of Galop Island. There- 
fore, it was desirable to looate the ohannel through Galop Island as far 
north as possible. Very little rook was enoountered elsewhere in the 
Galop Island reach. The remainder of the ohannel therefore, followed 
deep water as nearly as possible. The depth of the ohannel was made the 
same as the navigation ohannel of the Reoommended Plan with a bottom 
grade of El. 214. The 1600-foot width of the ohannel was determined by 
hydraulio computations, being the width neoessary to lower maximum velo- 
oities in the navigation ohannel to about 4.5 feet per seoond. 

102. Before deoiding upon a definite plan upon whioh to make de- 
tailed hydraulio computations, a general study of current directions was 
made. It appeared that there might be undesirable cross currents at 
oertain places in this ohannel. Without any dikes, it appeared that 
there would be a tendenoy for the main body of the flow to oontinue to 
follow the deep natural ohannel south of Chimney Island and across in 
front of Butternut Island, into the Galop Island north channel, thus 
produoing a decided oross ourrent at the upper entrance to the Galop 
Island out. Likewise, it appeared that there would still be a strong 
tendency for a large flow to pass from south to north between Galop and 
Lalone Islands, tnas produoing bad entranoe conditions at the lower end 
of the Galop Island out. Also the flow from the Galop Island north chan- 
nel would be entering the main channel at a sharp angle at the lower end 
of the Galop Island out. 

103. The best way to eliminate these undesirable currents appeared 
to be to olose off the side ohannels with dikes and completely confine 
the navigation ohannel. This oould be done without muoh additonal ex- 
pense by utilizing the spoil from the ohannel outs. On the north side 
complete confinement was possible from Chimney Island to below Bayoraft 
Island; on the south side, from Chimney Island to below Lotus Island, 

the full length of the reaoh. The opening of the north side below Bay- 
craft Island was neoessary in order to provide an outlet for the Galop 
Inland north ohannel. The little flow that oan get into this ohannel at 
the upper end with the dikes in place should not be notioeable at this 
junotion point. The reoommended dike looatiuns are shown on Plate 1A of 
Appendix III-O(l). 

104. The dikes parallelling the main navigation ohannel also 
serve another very important function, besides preventing oross ourrents. 
They inorease the friotion loss in the navigation ohannel and oause more 
flow to take the outside ohannels. This has the effeot of lowering velo- 

- 73 - 



oities in the navigation channel and permitting the use of a smaller 
out through Galop Island. The dikes will also be an aid to navigation 
in foggy weather, helping to outline the ohannel. 



105. It is proposed to make a model study of this plan also, to 
check the many assumptions made above. Some of the dikes may be found 
unnecessary, for instance, Dike No. 5 between Chimney and Butternut 
Islands. In the model it will be possible to study the effeots of the 
various dikes on navigation ourrents and thus determine their neoessity. 

105. As in the case of the Reoommended Plan, several out and try 
baokwater computations, assuming various widths of out through Galop 
Island, were neoessary to determine the final width of cut required to 
keep the maximum velooity in the navigation ohannel within the established 
criteria. The method used by this offioe in these computations was the 
oheck me choi described in Par. 51 of the preoeding seotion. A rough- 
ness factor of .020 was used for the entire navigation canal from Chim- 
ney Isluud to the lower end of the oonfined canal at Bayoraft Island, 
together with an expansion loss of .50&h v . A roughness faotor of .025 
was used for all other channels exoept the "North Channel" where the 
regular cut vulue, .020, was used. An expansion loss of .35^11^ was 
used along with the .025 value of "n". Balancing the flows was simpler 
in this case beoause the dikes definitely defined the ohannels and there 
were only three ohannels to oonsider. 









107. As in the preceding oase, the results of the various trial 
widths were plotted in graph form (plate 14 herewith). The maximum 
velooity in the Galop Island out was plotted against the out width 
assumed in each case and the width of out whioh would give a maximum 
velocity of 4.5 feet per second determined from this ourve. A out width 
of 1600 feet was required to meet this oriterion. The division of flow 
for this width was found to be as follows: 



Galop Island 

North Channel 25,000 o.f.s. 

16J0 1 Cut 

(Navigation)225,000 o.f.s. 



South Channel 
Total 



60,000 o.f. s. 
310,000 c.f.s. 



Lalone and Lotus Islands 



North Channel (Navigation) 282,000 

o. f * s. 



South Channel 



Total 



28,000 
o.f. s. 



310,000 
c.f . s. 



108. The flow through the "North Channel" in this oase is, of 
course, equal to 25,000 c.f.s., the flow through Galop Island north chan- 
nel. It will be noted that the flow through Galop Island south ohannel 
is not equal to the flow in the Lalone and Lotus Island south ohannel. 
The reason for this is that when these computations were made Dike No. 2 f 
between Lalone and Bayoraft Islands, was not in the plan and flow could 
pass from the south ohannel to the north ohannel at this point. 



- 74 - 



109. The head loss through the reach was found to be about 1*0 
foot, the water level at Chimney .point being about El. 244.3 and that 
below Lotus Island about El. 243.3. It wili be noted that this value 
of dro^ is quite low compared to the loss obtained by this office for 
the Recommended Plan (see Far. 83 above). This dii'ferenoe resulted 
from the use of lower "n* values, assumed *n" values and energy losses 
obtained from a study of the Toussaints Island reach were used in this 
oase, instead of the natural "n' s" and losses used in the computations 
of the Reoommended Plan. 

110. Cheok computations made in the Offioe, Chief of Engineers 
using the same methods as in the Recommended Plan (see par. 34) result- 
ed in the following division of flow; 

Galop Island Lai one and Lotus Islands 

North Channel 22,000 o.f.s. North Channel 

(Navigation) 262,000 o.f.s. 

1600' Cut(N*vigation)23Q,00Q c.f.s. South Channel 58,000 o.f.s. 
South Channel 58,000 o.f.s. 

Total 310,000 o.f.s. Total 310,000 o.f.s. 

It will be noted in this oase that the flow through the Galop Island 
south ohannel does e^ual the flow through the Lalor.e and Lotus Island 
south channel, Dike No. 2 being inoluded in these commutations* As be- 
fore, the flow through "North Channel" will be the same as the flow. in 
the Galop Island north channel — 22,000 o.f.s. 

111. The head los.s was determined as 1.2b feet, the water level 
at Chimney Foint being about El. 244.3 and the level below Lotus Island 
about El. 243.05. It will be noted that this loss is consistent with 
the 1.55 feet obtained for the Reoommended Plan, since the cut in this 
oase is larger. This is as it should be since identical methods were 
used in the computations. The maximum velocity in the navigation ohan- 
nel oocurred in the 1600-foot out through Oixon Island where a velocity 
of 4.75 feet per second was found to prevail. The maximum velocity in 
the Galop Island cut was found to be about 4.69 feet per seooni and the 
maximum velocity in the out between Chimney and Drummond Islands v/as 
found to be about 4»62 feet per seoond. All other maximum velocities 
were below 4.5 feet per second. 

112. Sinoe the computations of the Offioe, Chief of Engineers are 
based on the aotual Reoommended and Alternate plans shown on plates 1 
and 1A of Appendix III-O-(l) and since the computation methods of that 
office were identical for the two plans it is suggested that they be 
acoepted in preference to the earlier computations of this offioe which 
were not based on the exaot plans shown and wherein different methods of 
computation were used for the two plans. It must be kept in mind how- 
ever that none of the results oan be considered exact beoause of the 
many assumptions which had to be made in the computations. The proposed 



- 75 - 



model study of this reaoh is expeoted to throw more light on this sub- 
jeot» 

113. A comparison of the maximum velooities obtained for the two 
plans prepared by this offioe shows that the plans are essentially al- 
ternates as far as velooities are oonoerned. The maximum navigation ohan- 
nel velooity in the oase of the Reoommended Plan was found to be 4.67 
feet per second and in the oase of the Alternate Plan, 4.75 feet per seo- 
ond. By a small amount of additional exoavation in each oase these velo- 
oities oan both be lowered to 4.5 feet per second, if desired. It was 
not oonsidered neoessary to go to this refinement in design at the present 
time, however, because the results of the model study are not yet known. 
Velooities in exoess of 4.5 feet per seoond oocur at only one plaoe in 
the Reoommended Plan, at a oonstrioted point in the Galop Island south 
ohannel. The maximum velooity in the Alternate plan occurs in the Dixon 
Island out. The velooity in Galop Island out also exoeeds 4.5 feet per 
seoond in the Alternate Plan, being 4.59 feet per seoond. The velooity 
just upstream from Drumraond Island in the Alternate Plan may also be 
slightly higher than 4.5 feet per seoond. The velooity oomputed at this 
point was 4.62 feet per seoond. 

114» As mentioned under the Reoommended Plan (Par. 38), a study 
was also made of the Alternate Plan to determine the frequenoy of ocour- 
renoe of velooities greater than 4 feet per seoond. This study showed 
that a velooity of 4 feet per seoond would be exoeeded about 3.3% of 
the navigation season. An 1800-foot wide out was aotually used in these 
computations, as previously stated, and the results later converted to 
the 1600-foot width. The study of the 1800-foot width out showea the 
maximum velooity for this width of out to be about 4.0 feet per seoond 
instead of the 4.5 feet per seoond indicated for the 1600-foot ohannel. 

115. Sinoe the Alternate Plan has lees slope through the Galop 
Island reach than the Reoommended plan, it is obvious that Lake Ontario 
levels will not be affeoted by this plan any more than by the Reoommend- 
ed plan (see Par. Ill above). 

116. Also, as pointed out under the discussion of the Recommended 
Plan (Par. 92), the larger cuts of the Alternate Plan will result in a 
small saving in power head at the Barnhart Island powerhouse over the 
Recommended Plan. This saving is small, however, varying from only .1 
to .4 of a foot depending upon the disoharge oouditions of the river. 
Table 9 contains the detailed figures upon whioh this statement is 
based. 

117. Treatment of Galop Canal. In the Reoommended Plan, it is 
proposed to remove Locks 27 and 28 in order to inorease the disoharge 
oapaoity of the Galop Island north ohannel. There will no longer be 
any need for the looks, inasmuoh as river slopes will be so flat and 
depths so great that 14-foot navigation will be able to use the oanal 
if desired without the neoessity of lookages. 

118. In the Alternate Plan, so little water will flow through 

- 76 - 



the Salop Island north ohannel that the additional disoharge oapaoity of 
the Galop Canal would not be notioed in reduoed velocities in the navi- 
gation ohannel. Therefore, in this plan, the looks have been left in 

place, 

119, The only effects that construction of the projeot will have 
on the existing Galop Canal will be the following: 

a. The construction of Iroquois Dam will prevent 
downbound navigation from using the river down- 
stream from Look 23. Traff io will be oonfined 
to the canal from the completion of the first 
sta e of oonstruotion to the time when the new 
Point Rockway Canal becomes usable, 

b. If too much of the cut at Point Three points is 
made prior to raising the pool at Long Sault 
Dam to El, 225, there is danger that there will 
not be water enough over the lower sill at Lock 
25, 

120, A baokwater study was made to oheok the seoond point above. 
Two plates were prepared (elates 15_ and _15 herewith) showing baokwater 
up to Look 25, one assuming the point Three Points out to be made and 
ohe other with no improvement at Point Three points. Inspection of the 
plates will show that the baokwater ourve drops below the standard low 
water profile with the out oompleted. The aotaal water surfaoe may be 
even lower than that shown on the profile due to inaocuracies in compu- 
tation. The lower sill of Lock 25 is li» feet below low water. Sinoe 
the ruling depth in the St. Lawrence canals is 14 fwet at low water, a 
lowering of 2 feet at this ^oint is permissible. Prior to the raising 
of the Barnhart Island pool to 225, excavation in the point Three points 
cuts must be limited to the amount whioh will not cause a lowering in 
exoess of 2 feet at Look 25, 

. 121. In the Original 238-242 plan (Plate M-II of the main report) 
it was proposed to cut away the dike of the Galop Canal in two other 
pl&oes in order to provide aooess to and from the 14-foot oanal. One of 
the points is opposite Sparrowhawk Point and the other opposite the lower 
end of Toussaints Island. The grade of these outs was to be El, 225. 

TOUSSAIKTS ISLAND HEACH 

122. This reaoh extends from Lotus Island to Iroquois point, a 
distanoe of about four miles - from about Mile 74 to Mile 78. This reaoh 
is shown in detail on Plates 2 and 3 of Appendix 111-0(1). It will be 
noted that it oonsists of a single ohannel, exoept for a relatively 
small island, Toussaints Island, in the middle of the reaoh. The water 
surface slope under natural oonditions is fairly flat. The water level 
at the upper end under present oonditions is about El. 234 and at the 
lower end about El, 230. Most of this drop occurs in a oonstrioted •S" 
shaped bend at Sparrowhawk point. Above and below the bend the water 

- 77 - 



surface takes a more gentle slope. At the lower end of the reaoh, Iro- 
quois Point, there is another oonstrioted *S" shaped bend where the 
water surface again steepens. The Hydro-Electrio Power Commission of 
Ontario has made disoharge measurements in this reaoh and finds that only 
about *3% of the total river disoharge flows to the north of Toussaints 
Island under natural conditions. 

123. The 14-foot Galop Canal also parallels the river in this 
reach, terminating just below the oonstrioted section at Iroquois point. 
Look 25 is at the lower end of the canal. At present there are no oon- 
neotions between the river and the oanal in this reaoh. As stated above 
in oonneotion with the Galop Island reaoh, this part of the oanal is 
used mostly by upbound traffio, while downbound traffio generally uses 
the open river. 

124. The plan of improvement in this reach follows very olosely 
the Original 238-242 Plan, shown on Plate M-II of the main report. A 
oontrol dam is proposed at the lower end of the reaoh at Iroquois Point, 
to oontrol the levels and outflows of Lake Ontario. The water level after 
improvement will range from about El. 240 to about El. 24 S. The new 
navigation ohannel will follow generally through the middle of the river 
ohannel and enter the proposed Point Rookway Canal just to the south of 
the oontrol dam. The only ohannel improvement necessary will be at the 
oonstrioted seotioh at Sparrowhawk Point and Toussaints Island in the 
oenter cf the reaoh. Velocities elsewhere are satisfactory for both naviga- 
tion and ioe cover conditions with* the raised pool level, being less than 
4.5 feet per second during che navigation season and less than 2.25 feet 
per second on January 1st of every year. Channel depths and widths are 
also adequate for navigation exoept at this one oonstrioted section. 

125. The problem of providing a satisfactory navigation ohannel 
at the constricted seotion will be a diffioult one. The "S" ourve in 
the natural channel will undoubtedly produce undesirable cross currents, 
regardless of the alignment of navigation ohannel selected. For this 
reason, it is expeoted that the final design of the ohannel cuts in this 
reaoh will have to be based on model tests. The ohannel outs shown on 
Plate 2 of Appendix 111-0(1) represent the best judgment of this offioe 
as to what may prove to be a satisfactory solution at this point. 

125. Several plans of improvement at this point were studied 
before the one shown (Plan A) was selected, as follows; 

a. Plan A. 



(1) This is the recommended plan shown on Plate 2 of 
appendix 111-0(1). It will be noted that this plan 
consists of a deep cut (grade El. 205) through Sparrow- 
hawk Point and a shallower out (grade El. 213) off the 
south side of Toussaints Island. A bottom grade of El. 
213 is considered sufficient for 27 -foot navigation 
inasmuch as low water during the navigation season 
will be about El. 242 at this point. (El. 242.4 com- 
puted for Lotus Island and El. 241.75 for Iroquis Dam.) 

• 78 - 



JLow water during the winter will be about El. 240, 
but low water on January 1st will be only about 
El. 243. The above outs are sufficiently large to 
limit the average velooity to 2.25 feet p--r seoond 
with a flow of 220,000 o.f.s. and a water surface 
of El. 242 (see par. 41 d (2) of Section IV). 

(2) At Sparrowhawk Point, it proved more economi- 
cal to provide a deep cut 1,000 feet wide than a 
wide cut with only the depth required Tor naviga- 
tion. The deep cut is also considered desirable 
at this point, in order to draw a large volume of 
water through the out and so help to straight-en 
navigation currents. 'A out narrower than 1,000 
feet was oonsidered less desirable from the stand- 
point of safe navigation. 

(3) The out on the south side of Tous saints 
Island was for the twofold purpose of providing 
a straight oourse for navigation and easing the 
curvature of the flow at this point. The small 
cut at the tip of Sparrowhawk Point was also for 
the purpose of reduoing the cross-ourrent flow» 
The Toussaints Island out has been oarried all 
the way out to deep water in order to allow plenty 
of space for maneuvering through the oross cur- 
rents. 

b. Plan A-l . This plan has the same Toussaints Island 
out as Plan A. The out as Sparrowhawk point is 
identioal with that in Plan B described below, that 
is, the tip of the point is out off instead of the 
out being made through the point. This plan is 
considered to be as satisfactory as Plan A, in- 
asmuch as an equally stre.ight navigation channel 
alignment oan be obtained and hydraulio conditions 
are expeoted to be no worse. This plan involves 
more dredging, however. 

o. Plan B. This plan develops the Toussaints Island 
north channel and the main ohannel at Sparrowhawk 
Point. It would appear that this jlan might eli- 
minate most of the trouble due to oross currents. 
The alignment of the navigation ohannel is not as 
good, however, and velocities in the north ohannel 
may be higher due to the direot approaoh of the 
water from above. This plan is also more oostly 
than Pl«n A. 

d. Plan C. This plan is similar to the Original 238- 
242 Plan shown on rlate M-II of the main report 
and on Sheet I of Department of Transport Draw- 

- 79 - 



ings No. 2136. In this plan, a 900-foot wide out 
at grade El. 206 is provided through Toussaints 
Island and the tip of Sparrowhawk Point is out 
off to grade El. 205. It differs from the Original 
238-242 Plan in that improvement of the north 
Toussaints Island channel has teen eliminated and 
the cut through the island widened. This plan 
is cheaper than Plan B but more expensive than 
Plan A. It does not appear to have any advantages 
over Plan A* 

127. As stated above, it is the intention of this offioe that 
seleotion of the final plan for this reaoh shall be based on model tests. 
The problem is largely one of ourrenb direotions and cannot be solved in 
any way except by a model* The out areas have been made sufficiently 
large to reduoe velocities on January 1st below 2.25 feet per second. 
Other than this, it oannot be stated with any degree of assuranoe that 
the plan is satisfactory. 

128. Entrance conditions at the upper end of the Point Rookway 
Canal will also have to be studied in a model. If the model used to 
study the Toussaints Island problem is not large enough for this purpose, 
a larger model of the area around the oontrol dam will have to be built. 
Operation of gates in the dam may have a decided effeot on the approaoh 
condition at the entranoe to the oanal. Also, the shape of the excavation 
at the entranoe may have to be changed, or even the location of the en- 
tranoe itself. 

129. The area through the Iroquois Dam with a water level of El. 
242 will be about 84,000 square feet with all gates open. There are 
forty gates, in the dam eaoh 50 feet wide, with sills at El. 200. With 

a flow of 220,0^0 o.f.s. on January 1st, the velooity through the dam will 
be higher than 2.25 feet per second. However, by allowin the gates to 
projeot into the water it is expected that the surface velooity oan be 
lowered sufficiently to start the formation of an ioe sheet. Also, a 
few feet upstream from the dam the area will be larger and the velooity 
lower. 

POINT THREE POINTS REACH . 

130. This reaoh extends from Iroquois Point (about Mile 78) to 
the lower end of the Point Rookway Canal (about Mile 80.5). For three 
quarters of a mile or so below the Iroquois Dam the river flows through 
a narrow oonstricted section where the water surfaoe slope is steep. 
Below this point the river widens out and the slope of the water surfaoe 
is more gentle. At the lower end of the reaoh, opposite Point Three 
Points, the river narrows down again and the slope is somewhat steeper. 
The water surfaoe fall through the first three quarters of a mile is 
about 3.5. feet. The remainder of the fall is about 2 feet, making a 
total of 5.5 feet for the re^oh. The water surface at the upper end is 
generally about El. 230 and at the lower end about El. 225.5. 



- 80 - 



131. Under improved conditions the water level will vary from 
about El. 239 to About El. 245. The lowest water level on January 1st 
will be about El. 240. The outs in this reaoh were designed for the 
ioe formation oriterion of 2.25 feet per seoond with a flow of 220,000 
o.f.s. and a water level of El. 241 (see Par. 41d (2) of Seotion IV). 
Sinoe navigation will use the Point Rookway Canal in this reaoh, the 
oriterion for maximum navigation channel velocity did not have to be 
applied. 

132. Enlargement of the oonstriotion at the upper end of the reaoh 
just below Iroquois Dam to satisfy the ioe oriterion was not oonsidered 
warranted due to its exoessive oost and the faot that turbulenoe from the 
dam might keep the water from freezing even if the ohannel were enlarged. 
Enlargement was oonsidered praotioable, however, at all plaoes where ex- 
cessive velocities would ooour between Point Rookway and the Barnhart 
Island powerhouse. The middle portion of the reaoh from Point Rookway to 
Point Three Points is already large enough to satisfy the ioe oriterion. 
At Point Three Points, however, an additional cross-seotional area of 
about 40,000 square feet will have to be provided. 

133. Several plans for the Point Three Points outs were studied, 
as follows; 

a. Plan A. In this plan all of the out was made on 

the Canadian side. 

b. Plan B. In this plan all of the out was made on 

the Amerioan side. 

o. Plan 0. This is the plan shown on Plate 4 of 

Appendix 111-0(1) and provides for outs 
on both sides of the river. This plan is 
similar to the Original 238-242 Plan shown 
on plate M-II of the main report. 

Plans A and B have less total exoavation than Plan C. Plan A, however, 
involves a large quantity of dry out. plan B, whioh has the least ex- 
oavation of all three plans, oarries with it a diffioult spoil problem. 
Plan C was seleoted as being the one whioh would probably oost the least 
and the one whioh would be most suited to the Point Rookway Canal entranoe 
just downstream from the cut. 

OGDEN ISLAND REACH AND MQRRISBURG CANAL 

134. The Ogden Island reaoh extends from the lower end of the 
proposed Point Rookway Canal at Point Three Points (about Mile 30.5) to 
Canada Island (about Mile 85). Canada Island is the downstream limit of 
ohannel improvement work in the pool of Long Sault Dam. Below this point 
am^le depth and width are available for a satisfactory navigation ohannel 
and enough area is available to keep velooities on January 1st below 2.25 
feet per seoond. Extensive ohannel work, however, is neoessary in the 
Ogden Island reaoh as is shown on Plate 4 of Appendix 111-0(1). 

- 81 - 



135* Water levels in this reaoh average from about El* 224.5 at 
the upper end to about El* 212 at the lower end under present river con- 
ditions - a fall of 12*5 feet in the 4,5 miles* The slope is fairly flat 
for the first mile and one-half to the upper end of Ogden Island and 14- 
foot navigation uses the main river ohannel for this distanoe. The fall 
in this part is only about a foot* The slope is steep from the head of 
Ogden Island to Canada Island^ the fall in this seotion being about 11.5 
feet* The Morrisburg Canal on the Canadian side of the river by-passes 
this steep seotion. Look 24 is at the upper end of the oanal and Look 
23 at the lower end. The north ohannel is the main river ohannel in 
this reaoh* The south ohannel oarries very little flow. Measurements by 
the Hydro-Eleotrio Power Commission of Ontario show that only one or two 
peroent of the total river flow is oarried by the south ohannel under 
present oonditions. Sinoe the north ohannel oarries praotioally all of 
the flow and is rather narrow, velocities in this ohannel are quit© high 
and the flow in some parts is in the form of rapids* The "Rapide Plat" 
is in the upper end of the north ohannel* The south ohannel is known 
as "Little River - • Most of the fall in the south ohannel oocurs at Wad- 
dington, where a oauseway and the ruins of an old dam obstruot the ohan- 
nel. 

136. "Under improved conditions, the pool level in this reaoh will 
range from about El* 237 to about £1. 244. The lowest water level during 
the navigation season will be about El. 238.5 during the trial period when 
the pool at Long Sault Dam is limited to El* 238. After a pool level of 
El. 242 is permitted, the minimum navigation season level will be about 
El. 241. The lowest level on January 1st will be about El* 239. As in 
the preoeding oase, the outs in this reach were designed for the ioe cri- 
terion of 2.25 feet per seoond with a flow of 220,000 o«f. s. and a water 
level of El. 241 (see Par. 4 Id (2) of Seotion IV). Perhaps it should be 
mentioned at this point, sinoe there is no seotion of this append lx devot- 
ed to the Long Sault Canal, that the minimum navigation season water level 
at the Long Sault Dam will be about El. 237." 

137. The out at Leishman 1 s Point was made for a twofold purpose 
of providing additional oross-sectional area to lower velocities to 2.25 
feet per seoond and to provide a better entranoe oondition for the im- 
proved Ogden Island south channel. The bottom grade was made El* 210 so 
that navigation could use that part of the ohannel if desired. A out 
oould have been made through Leishman' s Point, as was done at Sparrowhawk 
Point, but this was considered less desirable beoause of the possibility 
of produoing adverse ourrents at the downstream entranoe to the Point 
Rookway Canal. It was also thought that there would be less rock out in 
the outer portion of the point and that the spoil problem would be simp- 
ler. Another alternative would have been to out away some of the Canadian 
shore opposite Leishman' s Point* This solution would not have been as 
good a solution hydraulioally, however, beoause the entrance to the south 
ohannel would not have benefited. It will be noted on Plate li-II of the 
main report that all three sohemes were incorporated in the Original 238- 
242 Plan. This offioe did not oonsider any additional exoavation over 
that shown on Plate 4 of Appendix 111-0(1) to be neoessary sinoe the re- 
quired hydraulio area is provided with the single out* 



- 82 - 



138. Several plans for the improvement of the Ogden Island sec- 
tion were studied. The plan finally chosen is that shown on Plate 4 of 
Appendix III-O(l). The north channel is developed for 71,000 sq. ft. of 
oross-seotional area; the south channel, for 27,000 sq. ft.; all areas 
beJng based on a water level of El. 241, as mentioned above* The January 
1st discharge of 220,000 o.f.s. divided by the total area, 98,000 sq. ft. 
gives a velooity of 2.25 feet per seoond. The determining factor in the 
amount of area provided in the north ohannel was the alignment of the navi- 
gation ohannel. The Morrisburg Canal dike was first assumed removed to 
El. 208 as was this the most economical way to obtain additional dlsoharge 
area. The navigation ohannel was then laid out and the desired olearanoes 
provided at the three projections on the north side of the island. With 

a bottom grade of El. 210, which was neoessary for navigation, the approx- 
imate resulting minimum area was about 71,000 sq. ft. The south channel 
was then enlarged to 27,000 sq. ft. to make up the total of 98,000 sq.ft. 
If further relief of velocities in the navigation ohannel is required, the 
south ohannel can be further developed to 37,000 sq. ft. by a small amount 
of exoavation in the oonstrioted seotions. 

139. The out through Canada Island is neoessary for the sole pur- 
pose of providing a straight navigation channel. A out 600 feet wide at 
navigation grade (El. 210) is proposed. 

140. Inspection of Plate M-II of the main report will show that 
in the Original 238-242 Flan a out was also provided through the middle 
of Ogden Island. It is the opinion of this offioe, however, that such a 
cut is not eoonCiaical. If the north ohannel improvement downstream from 
this out oould be eliminated by the cut, the out would be eoonomioal. But 
suoh is not the oase. Improvement of the north ohannel is neoessary to 
obtain a satisfactory alignment of the navigation ohannel. 

141. Detailed baokwater computations were not made in oonneotion 
with the design of the ioe outs. The division of flow between the north 
and south ohannels was assumed to be proportiocal to the disoharge areas. 
It is obvious that the velooity in the larger ohannel will be greater 
than the overall average velooity. This method of design was considered 
satisfactory, however, in view of the possibility that model tests will 
eventually be made of this reach and the aotual velocities in eaoh chan- 
nel will be determined. Model studies of this reaoh are desirable pri- 
marily for the purpose of studying navigation ohannel currents and deter- 
mining the most desirable shapes of the many ohannel outs as they affeot 
these our rents. 

142. In oonneotion with the Point Three Points improvement, it 
was pointed out that the outs in that reaoh should not be completed until 
the pool at Long Sault Dam is raised to El. 225 in order not to interfere 
with 14-foot navigation at Look 25. A similar study was undertaken for 
the Ogden Island reaoh, but with opposite results. In this oase, it was 
found that the three outs on the north side of Ogden Island must be made 
before the pool is raised to El. 225 in order to maintain 14 -foot naviga- 
tion during oonstruotion of Long Sault Dam. With the pool at E±* 225, 
the Morrisburg Canal will be flooded* Traffio will then be foroed to use 
the north ohannel jjast Ogden Island. Velocities in this channel will be 

- 83 - 



muoh too high for navigation with this pool level unless adequate ohan- 
nel enlargement has been seoured. 

143. Two oonditions were figured - one with the three outs on the 
north side of Ogden Island oompleted, and one with these three outs and 
the outs in the south ohannel also oompleted. The results of these com- 
putations, are shown on graphio form on Plate 17 of this appendix. The 
present Rapide Flat velooity of 10.3 miles per hour is plotted on this 
graph and also the present velooity in the Goose Neok Island oonstriotion 
at about Mile 88 - 6.7 miles per hour. Fourteen-foot navigation is al- 
ready being oarried on under the latter velooity. Therefore, it was con- 
sidered satisfactory if the velooity in the Rapide plat oould be lowered 
to this value for this temporary condition. Velocities oomputed for the 
above two ownditions are shown as ourves on the graph. It will be noted 
that the three north ohannel outs alone will accomplish the desired velo- 
oity reduotion. It has been reoommended, therefore, that the three outs 
on the north side of Ogden Island be oompleted before the pool at Long 
Sault Dam is raised to £1. 225. 

CRQIL ISLAND NORTH CHANNEL AND FARRANS POINT CANAL 

144. The Farrans Point Canal is looated at about Mile 96 on Plate 
19 of Appendix 111-0(1) and on Plate M-II of the main report. The oanal 
is just a little over a mile long and Look 22 is looated at the lower end. 
This canal will be flooded when the pool at the dam is raised to about 
El. 207 and navigation will have to use the river ohannel parallelling 
the oanal. The velocities whioh will prevail in the river under this 
raised pool condition were investigated and found to be satisfactory for 
navigation based on the same oriterion as used in the oase of the Ogden 
Island north ohannel. Velocities would not exceed 6.7 miles per hour 
under this condition. It was not necessary, therefore, to make any im- 
provement in the Croil Island north ohannel, to take oare of this tempor- 
ary oondition. No permanent improvement was necessary in this reaoh be- 
cause velocities will be well below that required by the ioe criterion 
when the pool is fully raised. 

CORNWALL CANAL 

145. The Cornwall Canal on the Canadian side of the river extends 
from about Mile 100 to Mile 110, the Long Sault Dam and Barnhart Island 
powerhouse being in the middle of this reach. Navigation durin oonstruo« 
must also be maintained in this 14-foot oanal. The ^lan for maintaining 
navigation in this oanal is very closely conneoted with the oonstruotion 
program of the Long Sault Dam and the details of this plan are discussed 
in the design analysis for the dam - Appendix 111-22(3), Section XIV. 

The plan will be repeated here briefly for the sake of completeness. 

146. The dike of the Cornwall Canal and the walls and gates of 
Look 21 will be raised to £1. 210 in order to make navigation possible 
until the pool at the dam is raised above El. 209. Aooording to the oon- 
scruotion program ^late 12 of Section XIV, Appendix 111-22(3^/, the pool 
wilx be raised from El. 209 to El. 225 in about three days, During this 
brief period navigation will neoessarily be interruped. Then, with the 

- 84 - 



pool at or above El. 225, the 14-foot navigation oan use the new Long 
Sault Canal. When the pool reaohes El. 238 the relooated oentral por- 
tion of the Cornwall Canal, with its new look, and the undisturbed east- 
ern part of that oanal will afi'ord an alternate route for 14-foot navi- 
gation whioh will be particularly advantageous for vessels bound to or 
from the wharves at Oornwall. Should there be any reason to antioipate 
delay in the opening of Long Sault Canal a modification of the upper 
sill of the new look of the Cornwall Canal will permit the use of this 
route as soon as the pool reaches El. 225 

CORNWALL ISLAND REACH 

147. The Cornwall Island reaoh is downstream from the Long Sault 
Dam and Barnhart Island powerhouse. It extends from about Mile 107 to 
about Mile 114, as shown on Plate M-I of main report and on Plate 34 of 
Appendix 111-0(1). Mile 107 is at the head of Cornwall Island where 
Grass River enters the St. Lawrenoe River and where the proposed Long 
Sault Canal ends. Mile 114 is at the lower end of Cornwall Island. The 
river in this reach is split into two ohannels of about e^ual size by 
Conrwall Island. The north ohannel continues upstream to the Barnhart 
Island powerhouse and to Long Sault Dam. The south ohannel stops at the 
head of Cornwall Island. The easterly entranoe to the Long Sault Canal 
is looated at the upper end of the south ohannel, 

148. Slack water from L'dce St. Franois extends up to about the mid- 
dle of Cornwall Island. Above this point, the water surface has an 
appreciable slope due to the oonstrioted nature of both the north and 
south ohannels. Low water in this reach is about El. 152 at the lower 
end of the island and about El. 155 to about El. 157 at the upper end, 
the higher level being in the north channel. A drop of 2 feet, there- 
fore, exists in Polly's Gut at the upper end of Cornwall Island. 

149. The south channel is to be improved for navigation. The north 
ohannel is to be enlarged to relieve velocities in the south ohannel. 
Exoavation in both ohannels will hel^ to lower tailwater levels at Barn- 
hart Island powerhouse. In addition to the ou;s shown on plate 34 of 
Appendix 111-0(1), there will be some out, ting in the main ohannel just 
downstream from the Barnhart Island powerhouse whioh will have for its 
purpose the lowering of tailwater levels. This additional cuts is 
shown on Plate M-I of the main report. All of these out should be con- 
sidered together beoause of their effeot on tailwater levels. 

150. As stated in paragraph 59 above, time did not permit a de- 
tailed analysis of these outs. A r lan was laid out similar to the Ori- 
ginal 238-242 Plan to serve until study on this project is resumed. It 
is propoeed that when study is resumed, the same oriterion for maximum 
navigation ohannel velocity be applied to this reach as was applied to 
the Galop Island reaoh and that a detailed baokwater study similar to 
that made for the Galop Island reach be made. It is also recommended 
that a model study of this reach be made to determine the detailed shapes 
of the outs in order to avoid undesirable oross ourrents. It is expeot- 
ed that cross ourrents will present a problem, particularly in the u. per 
end of the south channel where maximum velocities will prevail and where 

- 85- 



side inflow oomes in from Polly' s Gut and from Grass River. 

151 • A bottom grade of El. 124 for the navigation ohannel will give 
the desired 27-foot depth below low water. A minimum of 442-foot bottom 
width of out was used in the slack -water area in the lower end of the 
reach, in aooordanoe with oriterion b (par. 41b above). A minimum of 
1000-foot width was used in the high-velooity reaoh at the upper end 
where navigation oonditions may be difficult. The cut was widened out 
at the entrance to the canal to permit ample maneuvering spaoe. The 
mouth of Grass River was also enlarged to improve entranoe conditions* 

152, It will be noted that the exoavation pattern of the Original 
238-242 Plan, shown on Plate M-II of the main report, does not appear 
similar to exoavation pattern shown on Plate 34 of Appendix 111-0(1 )• 
The reason for this is that different sounding data were used in prepar- 
ing the two plans. This offioe used the more recent sounding data of 
the U.S. Lake Survey. 



- 86 - 



SECTION VII - MODEL TESTS 



153. General . The need for model studies of the critical reaches 
of the International Rapids Section has been stressed at various points 
throughout this appendix. It has been brought out that the river chan- 
nels are so tortuous and the banks so irregular that it would be impos- 
sible to prediot with any degree of reliability the looation of oross 
ourrents and eddies and to work out remedies for these undesirable con- 
ditions by analytical methods. It has been brought out that the baokwater 
commutations by whioh the division of flow among the various channels was 
computed and the velocity determinations are at best only approximate 
beoause of the many questionable assumptions whioh had to be made. 

154. Model tests are not the cure-all for all the above deficiencies 
in knowledge, but model tests do constitute another method of design which, 
if found to agree with the computations, produce more assurance that the 
plan of improvement proposed is the correct one. In some problems, model 
tests give a more accurate answer and a more detailed one than computations. 
This is particularly true in the oase of oross currents and eddies and the 
determination of remedies therefor* It was felt also that models might 
produce a beeper answer to the division of flow problem and hence a bet- 
ter determination of the maximum velocities in the navigation channel. 

155. The imx^ortanoe of the projeot and the great expenditures in- 
volved make it mandatory that no avenue of approach be left unexplored in 
an attempt to obtain a satisfactory design of navigation ohannel. It 
would be unfortunate to find, after building the project, that undesirable 
ourrents existed at many plaoes in the navigation channel. Experimenta- 
tion in the prototype might then prove many times more expensive than in 

a model. In view of this possibility, this offioe oonsiders it advisable 
to oonduct model tests of all of the critical channel seotions before the 
project is built. It is the understanding of this offioe that engineers 
of the Canadian Department of Transport are of the same opinion. 

. 155. The question of model tests was taken up with the U.S. Water- 
ways Experiment Station at Vicksburg, Mississippi, with a view to deter- 
mining just what types of models would be suitable to the above problems. 
It was the opinion of all concerned after these conferences that the chan- 
nel studies could be made in three separate models as follows; 

a. Galop Island and Tous saints Island reaches (from 
Chimney Point to Iroquois Dam). 

b. point Three Points and Ogden Island reachs (from 
Iroquois Dam to Canada Island). 

o. Cornwall Island reach (from Barnhart Island 
powerhouse to the foot of Cornwall Island). 

As mentioned in paragraph 128 above, it might also prove desirable to 
make an enlarged model of the upper entranoe to the Point Rockway Canal 
and Iroquois Dam, in order to study the effect of the draw of the dam 

- 87 - 



on ourrents in the oanal entrance. Model tests of the Long Sault Island 
were also proposed to study cofferdam and diversion problems, but these 
are considered tests in oonneotion with the construction of Long Sault 
Dam, and are treated in the design analysis of the dam, 

157. Distorted scale models were proposed by the Waterways Experi- 
ment Stution. A distortion of 1 to 5 was proposed, i.e., the vertical 
soale would be 5 times as large as the horizontal soale. The costs of 
the ohannel models given in the main report refer to models with a verti- 
cal soale of 1«160 and a horizontal soale of 1 { 800. It developed later, 
however, that these soales might have to be doubled to obtain the aoour- 
aoy desired i.e., vertioal soale 1;80 and horizontal soale 1:400. 

158. A distortion ratio of about lj5 had been found satisfactory in 
previous testing at the Experiment Station. Very good agreement had been 
obtained between model and prototype ourrents in oonneotion with the model 
study of the East River navigation channel, the results of whioh are report- 
ed in Teohnioal Memorandum No. 125-3 issued by the Experiment Station. 
Scales of 1:80 and 1;480 were used in this model — a distortion of 1:6, 
Some degree of suooess was also obtained in models of the Pryors Island 

and Manohester Island reaohes of the Ohio River. The Pryors Island model 
was constructed to soales of 1 5 150 and 1;600 -- a distortion of 1 : 4 (Tech- 
nical Memorandum No. 107-1). The Manchester Island model was oonstruoted 
to soales of Ij80 and 1»300 — a distortion of 1 : 375 (Technioal Memoran- 
dum No. 181-1). Considering the depths and widths to be reproduced in 
the St. Lawrenoe ohanxiels, it appeared that a distortion of lj5 would be 
about right — the main objective being to retain the same general shape 
of ohannel so that currents will be reproduced as accurately as possible. 
If a ohannel has great width oompared to de th, the model ohannel must 
also have great width oompared to depth so that end effects will not dis- 
tort the results. For instance, a ohannel out 850 feet wide and 30 feet 
deep has a ratio of width to depth of about 30. With 1;5 distortion, the 
model * ohannel would have width-depth ratio of 6 which is still broad enough 
that end effeots will not produoe an appreciable distortion. If this ratio 
is kept large enough, the Experiment Station oonsiders a distorted model 
praotioally as good as an undistorted model, the oost of whioh would De 
many times that of a distorted model. 

159. Galop Island and Toussaints Island ueaoh Uodel: As stated 
above, this model would extend from Chimney point to Iroquois Dam, a 
prototype distanoe of 10 miles. Below are listed some of the more im- 
portant problems that oould be studied with this model j 

a. Relative merits of Recommended and Alternate plans. 

b. Neoessity for Dike No. 5 in Alternate Plan and width 
of Chimney Island out required without Dike No. 6. 

o. Neoessity for straighter navigation ohannel in the 
vicinity of Chimney Point in Reoommended Plan. 

d. Width of Galop Island cuts neoessary to reduoe maximum 
navigation ohannel velocities to 4.5 feet per seoond 

- 88 - 



in each plan. 

e. Looation of ioe oribs at head of Galop Island. 

f. Effeot of oonstruotion program in the Galop Island 
reaoh on Lake Ontario levels and outflows* 

g. Adequacy of Lalone and Lotus Island outs. 

h. Adequaoy of Sparrowhawk Point and Toussaints Island 
cuts. 

i. Approaoh conditions at entranoe to point Rockaway 
Canal (separate model may prove necessary for this). 

j. Velocity conditions above Iroquois Dam with view to 
formation of ioe sheet. 

k. Keoessity for ohanges in any of the cuts or aikes to 
produoe satisfactory ourrent directions in navigation 
channel, 

1. Looation of spoil areas. 

150. Point Three points and Qgden Island Reaoh Model ; This model 
would extend from Iroquois Dam to Canada Island, a prototype distanoe of 
8 miles. Some of the more important problems whioh could be studied in 
this model are the following j 

a. Approaoh conditions at lower entranoe to Point Rock- 
away Canal. 

b. Current conditions in navigation ohannel. 

o. Velocities during ioe formation conditions; adequaoy 
of outs therefor. 

d. Looation of spoil arei\s. 

e. Velocities in Ogden Island north ohannel when ilorris- 
burg Canal is flooded durin the olosure period of Long 
Sault Dam. 

f . Effeot of various outs on river stages at Uu.er en- 
trance to iiorrisburg Canal before the start of con- 
struction of Long Sault Dam and during various con- 
struction stages up to stage at whioh the canal is 
flooded. 

g. Effeot of various cuts on the sta^e at Lock 2^, both 
before the start of construction and during construc- 
tion. 



- 89 - 



161. Cornwall Island Reach Model ; This model would extend from 

the Barnhart Island powerhouse to the foot of Cornwall Island, a prototype 
distanoe of about 8 miles. Some of the more important problems in this 
reach, which oould be studied by a model, would be the following; 

a. Adequaoy of the plan finally worked out for this 
reach. 

b. Velocities in navigation ohannel. 

c. Currents in navigation channel, especially at the 
junotion of Grass River, Polly's Gut, and the Ogden 
Island south ohannel, 

d. Effeot of the various outs on tailwater at Barnhart 
Island powerhouse. 

e. Construction procedures. 

162. The rating curves, lowwiter profiles, ourrent direction draw- 
ings, and hydrographio drawings prepared by this office are available for 
use in the model studies. Available also are the disoharge metisureraents 
of the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario, whioh show the natural 
division of flow among the various ohannels in some reaohes of the river. 
Model roughness oan be adjusted to give the division of flow and water 
surfaoe elevutions obtained from the above data. For higher than observed 
water surface elevations, the natural roughness of the model will have to 
be continued farther up the banks. Also for cuts, a roughness simulating 
the roughness to be expeoted in the prototype will have to be reproduced. 
Small errors may develop in the last two steps but these are not expected 
to be as great as those inherent in the commutations. In an irregular 
ohannel like the International Rapids Section of the St. Lawrenoe River, 

a great part of the resistance to flow is form resistanoe (or eddy resist- 
ance) whioh should be fairly accurately reproduoed. It is only the skin 
friction part of the resistanoe that is questionable. By the use of good 
judgment in the simulation of skin friction, the error in this step oan 
probably be made inappreciable. An answer at least as aoourate as the 
computation results should be obtained and the likelihood Js that the 
model answer will be more aocurate than the computations. If it is only 
as accurate, at least there will be two answers, the model and computa- 
tions, on whioh to bass judgment as to the oharaoteristios of the final 
design. 

163. High priority shoald be assigned to the model tests when work 
on the projeot is resumed, if construction appears imminent, beoause 
model studies suoh as the above, if performed carefully and thoroughly, 
will require from 6 months to a year to oomplete, depending upon the 
number of plans it is desired to test. All 3 models would probably have 
oO be oonstruoted and tested simultaneously, if the results were desired 
in that time. 



- 90 - 



WAR DEPARTMENT 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY 




GAGE LEGEND 

HE, PC. AUTO-PERMANENT 
■ TEMPORARY 
" « STAFF 

OEPT FiWYS & CANALS 
H L.COOPER 
OEPT. NAVAL SERVICE 
NY I ONT. POWER CO- 
ALUMINUM CO. 
U.S. LAKE SURVEY 
BOARD OF ENG.. DEEP WWYS 
DEPT PUBLIC WORKS 
DEPT TRANSPORTATION 



HN.= 4 FT VERT. 
' IIN.= IOOOFT. HOR. 



NOTE: 

PROFILE OF RIGHT BANK IS SHOWN THUS ■ 
LEFT 



U.S. LAKE SURVEY STANDARD LOW WATER DATUM Q97O0O C.FS) 



ST. LAWRENCE RiVER PROJECT 

INTERNATIONAL RAPIDS SECTION 

PLAN & PROFILE 



® 



IN 8 SHEETS 



SHEET NO. I 



SCALE I -1000 



"EL. 



;ooo 



U. S. ENGINEER OFFICE, MASSENA, NEW YORK, MARCH 1942 



&C/3^n>>Aun*~J~ 



ASSOC . ■NOINEER 



SX-l-532/2p 

CHICKED BT> D.C6- FILE NO- 




Plate 2 



WAR DEPARTMENT 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS. U. S. ARMY 




STATE OF NEW YORK 



S60 590 600 610 




BETWEEN BAYCRAFT I. & TWIN l.,LALONE 



GAGE LEGEND 
H.E.PC. AUTO- PERMANENT 

" " TEMPORARY 

" STAFF 

DEPT R'W*YS & CANALS 
H.L. COOPER 
OEPT. NAVAL SERVICE 
NY. & ONT. POWER CO 
ALUMINUM CO. 
U.S. LAKE SURVEY 
BOARD ENG..OEEP WV/^S 
DEPT PUBLIC WORKS 
DEPT TRANSPORTATION 



1 = 1000 HOR. 



NOTE: 

RIGHT BANK PROFILE DESIGNATED BY SOLID LINE. 
LEFT " " " " BROKEN " 

U.S. LAKE SURVEY STANDARD LOW WATER DATUM, 
(197 000 C.F.S.) 



ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 

INTERNATIONAL RAPIDS SECTION 

PLAN & PROFILE 



IN 9 SHEETS 



SHEET NO. 2 



SCALE" 1 = 1000 



IgOQ 9 1000 20O0 



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Pla+e 3 



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CORPS OF ENGINEERS. U. S. ARMY 




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PLAN & PROFILE 



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SHEET NO. T 



SCALE' !*■ 1000' 



lOOO 20JM) 



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l"= 1000' HOR. 



NOTE^ 

RIGHT BANK PROFILE DESIGNATED BY SOLID LINE. 

LEFT " " " " BROKEN " 

U.S. LAKE SURVEY STANDARD LOW WATER DATUM (197,000 C.FS) 

DEPT. OF TRANSPORT GAGE ® 



ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 

INTERNATIONAL RAPIDS SECTION 

PLAN & PROFILE 



IN 9 SHEETS 



SHEET NO. 



3CALEII -1000 



y IQpO 2£p0 



U. S. ENGINEER OFFICE, MASSENA, NEW YORK, MARCH 1942 



MgnJ"""*' 



CHICKID BT: 



MCOMMBNDEDl - 






SX-l-532/9 

FILE NO. 




Pla+e 9 




PLATE 12 



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LEGEND: 197,000 c.f.S. 

247.000 c.f.3. 

280,000 cf.S- 



E\ev. at Dam = 225 



EIcy. at Dam* Z10 



Low Wafer Datum Profile 
(197,000 c.f.s.) 



_Zero of gage 
= elev. of sill = 208.2 



TOO 



800 



900 
STATIONS 



1000 



1100 



rEiev. at Dam = 201 



ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 

WATER SURFACE PROFILES 

LOCK 25 TO LOCK 23 

With 3 cuts north side of Ogden la- only 
U.S. Plan Partially raised pool. 



RA.K. 
3-2-42 



Zero of gage 
-elev. of sill= 195.7 



QC-I-4/I 
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230 



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247.00Oc.fs. 

Z80 } 000 c.i.a. 



dam = 225 



__Zero of gage 
= elev. of sill = 208.4 



=e\ev. of sill = 2o8.2 



700 



800 



900 
STATIONS 



1000 



UOO 



* Elev. a\ dam = 210 



r Elev. at dam * 201 



ST LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 

WATER SURFACE PROFILES 

LOCK 25 TO LOCK 23 

With 3 cuts north side of Ogden Is . $ Point 

Three Points cut only. 

U.S. Plan Partially raised pool. 



Zero of gage 
"» elev. of si IN 195.7 



H.A.K. 
3-2-42 

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at Gooseneck Islsnd-^-® y e \ocj& l jfo^Z'& 



Note Assumed V^o) 2 ^ 



ISO 



zoo 



220 



240 



260 



280 



0-1000 C.f.S. 



COMPARATIVE MAXIMUM VELOCITIES 
RAPIDE PLAT 



PLATE 17 




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PLATE 18 




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PLATL 19 



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ST LAWRENCE WATERWAY 
INTERNATIONAL BAPIDS SECTION 

PLV> SHOWING 



CURRENT FLOW lii^- 

GOOSE NECK ISL. TO CROIL ISLAND 




PART TWO - EXHIBIT I 



LAKE ONTARIO 



LEVELS. OUTFLOWS, SUPPLIES 



AND 



REGULATION 



General Engineering Branch, 
Dept. of Transport, 

Ottawa, September, 1940. 



LAKE ONTARIO LEVELS, OUTFLOWS, SUPPLIES AND REGULATION 

INDEX 



Para. No, 



WATER LEVELS 

Records Available. 

Changes in Lake Level. 

Lake Levels under Present Condition. 

Data re - Water Levels. 

OUTFLOWS 

Flow Measurements. 

Discharge - Stage Relationships. 

Determination of Monthly Mean Outflows. 

Diversion from Great Lakes Basin by Chicago Sanitary 

District. 
Data re - Outflows. 

SUPPLIES 

Monthly Mean Net Supplies. 
Data re - Supplies. 

REGULATION OF DISCHARGE AND LEVELS OF LAKE ONTARIO 

Basic assumption re Supply. 
Requirements of Regulations. 
Results obtained by Regulations. 



Requirement 
Requirement 
Requirement 
Requirement 
Requirement 



(a) - Monthly mean Lake levels. 

(b) - Water levels in Montreal Harbour. 

(c) - Low flows in winter period. 

(d) - Flows during first half of April. 

(e) - Water levels of Lake St. Louis. 
Requirement (f) - Monthly mean discharges. 
Requirement (g) - Raising ordinary levels of Lake Ontario 
Requirement (h) - Maximum flow for power. 

Rule Curve. 

Correction to Rule Curve. 

Method of Determining Discharge. 

TABLES 

Monthly Mean Water Levels of Lake Ontario at 
Oswego, N. Y. 

Monthly Mean Water Levels of Lake Ontario at 
Oswego, N. Y. as would have resulted if 
outlet conditions throughout the period 
had been as at present and if 3,200 c.f.s. 
had been diverted continuously ..at Chicago 



1 
2 

3 

4 



6 

7 

10 

n 

12 



H 
16 



17 

20 
22 

23 

26 
30 
32 

34 
38 

42 

44 

51 
52 

55 



Table No. 1. 



2. 



91 



INDEX 

TABLES (Cont'd). 

Actual Monthly Mean Outflows from Lake Ontario. Table No. 3. 

Monthly Mean Outflows from Lake Ontario assuming 

a continuous diversion of 3»200 c.f.s. at 

Chicago. ■ " 4* 

Average Monthly Mean, Minimum and Maximum Actual 

Total Net Supplies to Lake Ontario. " " 5» 

Average Monthly Mean, Minimum and Maximum Total 

Net Supplies to Lake Ontario assuming a 

continuous diversion of 3*200 c.f.s. at 

Chicago and 5i000 c.f.s. added from Ogoki and 

Long Lac. Table No. 6. 

Table showing Greatest Minimum Flow possible with 

Lake Ontario regulated between Elevations 

249.00 and 244.50. 
Monthly Mean Discharges under Regulation, 

Method No. 5* 
Monthly Mean Water Levels of Lake Ontario under 

Regulation, Method No. 5* 
Calculation for Regulation during Typical Year. 

ELATES 

Data Re - Water Levels, Lake Ontario. 
Data Re - Outflows, Lake Ontario. 
Relation between Water Levels and Flow:- 

at Lock No. 21. 

at Lock No. 23. 

at Lock No. 24. 

at Lock No. 25. 

at Lock No. 27. 

at Lock No. 28. 

at Oswego, N. Y. 
Regulation of Lake Ontario:- » 

Data re - Outflows. 

Data re - Water Levels. 

Results of Regulations. 

Rule Curve - Method No. 5» 

Correction to be applied to Rule Curve. 



* 


R 


7. 


n 


■ 


8. 


n 


■ 


9. 
10. 



Plate 


No. 


1. 


tl 


M 


2. 


* 
■ 
II 
R 


II 
II 
■ 
R 


3* 
4. 
5. 
6. 


* 

n 


R 
* 


7. 

8. 


r 


R 


9. 


Plate 


No. 


10. 


■ 


R 


11. 


B 


R 


12. 


II 
II 


R 
R 


13. 
14. 



92 



LAKE ONTARIO LEVELS. OUTFLOWS. SUPPLIES AND REGULATION 

WATER LEVELS 



1. Records Available . The actual monthly mean water surface elevations of 
Lake Ontario at Oswego, N. Y., since i860, are shown in Table No. 1. They 
are as recorded by the United States Lake Survey at Oswego, N. Y. , and depend 
upon Bench Mark "A " at Oswego at elevation 251.898 feet above mean tide at 
Ne# York, level adjustment of 1935* 

2. Changes in Lake Level . Plate No. 9 shows the relationship between the 
water level of Lake Ontario at Oswego and the outflow from the Lake. The 
method of determining this relationship is discussed hereinafter in paragraph 
No. 6. This relationship has not been constant since i860 but has been changed 
by construction operations and changes in the upper entrance to the Galops 
Canal, the deepening of the North Channel and the construction of the Gut Dam 
bet./een Galops and Adams Island. 

3. Lake Levels under Present Conditions . If conditions of supply to the 
Great Lakes - St. Lawrence Basin, as occurred in the past, should be repeated 
in the future, and if the diversion from the Great Lakes Basin through the 
Chicago Sanitary District Canal should be constant at 3,200 c.f.s. (see para- 
graph No. 11), the water levels of Lake Ontario would not be as in the past 
but would be raised as shown by the discharge stage - relationship as now 
exists. Table No. 2 shows the monthly mean water levels of the lake as they 
would be under present outlet conditions and with a continuous diversion of 
3,200 c.f.s. at Chicago. 

4. Data re - .7ater Levels . The following Table is a summary of the data 
given in detail in Tables Nos. 1 and 2. 

Data re Water Levels of Lake Ontario 



Water Levels at Oswego 



Actual 



With outlet con- 
ditions as at 
present and with 
continuous div- 
ersion of 3,200 
c.f.s. 



Mean water level elevation 
Minimum monthly mean (Nov. 1934) 
Minimum daily mean (Nov. 26, 1934) 
Maximum monthly mean (May, I870) 
Maximum daily mean (May 1, 1870) 
Minimum yearly mean (1935) 
Maximum yearly mean 



245.96 
242.68 
242.50 
249.02 

249.19 
243.54 
247.63 
(1886) 



246.34 
242.93 
242.75 
249.66 

249.83 
243.78 
248.21 
(1870) 



Number of Months 



No. of months above elevation 249*50 

" " " 249.00 

" " ■ 248.50 

•" " 248.00 



• n 





1 

9 

45 



2 

8 

40 

85 



93 



99 


53 


39 


26 


18 


10 


J 


3 



Number of Months 
No. of months below elevation 244»50 

• ■ ■ » ■ 244.00 

" " • " ■ 243.50 

■ » » ■ » 243.00 

5. The average monthly mean water levels in ten year periods and for the 
period i860 to 1939 & r © also shown on Plate No. 1. 

OUTFLOWS 

6. Flow Measurements . The actual monthly, mean outflows from Lake Ontario 
for the period i860 to 1939 inclusive have been determined from discharge - 
stage relationships at the various locks along the International Rapids 
Section of the St. Lawrence River as established from flow measurements 
made since 1911 by the United States Lake Survey and the Departments of 
Railways and Canals and of Public Works of Canada. In all, 445 ^ ow measure- 
ments are available, covering a range of flow from 175*000 c.f.s. to 277,000 

C.f .3. 

7t Discharge - Stage Relationships . As the relationship between water level 

and discharge at Lock 25 has been constant since 1904. a discharge - stage 

relationship at that point for the period 1904 to date was first established. 

All but 13 of the flow measurements fall within lines of 2\ per cent variation 

from the curve finally adopted for this relationship. 

8. Discharge - Stage relationships .at the other locks and at Oswego, N. Y., 

for various periods were established from gauge relationships. 

9» The discharge - stage relationships at the various points are shown on 

the following Plates. 



Lock No. 21 


a* 


Plate No. 


3. 


■ 23 


- 


11 ■ 


4. 


» 24 


- 


a H 


5« 


" 25 


- 


■ • 


6. 




- 


\'- R 


7. 


■ 28 


- 


n a 


3. 


Oswego, N. Y. 


- 


■ M 


9. 



10. Determination of Monthly mean Outflows . Having established discharge - 
stage relationship at the various locks, the monthly mean discharges were 
determined from these relationships for each lock. When the discharge ob- 
tained from the various locks agreed within one per cent, the average value 
■vas adopted as the monthly mean discharge except for January, February, and 
March, when a reduction of 6 per cent was made for ice retardation. .Vhen 

the discharge derived for any one lock showed a variation from the mean great- 
er than one per cent, the results were checked and if no apparent reason for 
the variation could be found, that discharge, as determined by the gauge at 
the lock for that month, was ignored. It should be noted that the water 
levels at the various locks previous to 1917 t when the first automatic gauges 
were established at Locks 24 and 2^% were based on staff gauges read once a day 
only. 

11. Diversions from Great Lakes Basin by Chicago Sanitary District . Since 
1900 the diversion of water from the Great Lakes Basin through the Chicago 
Sanitary District Canal has reduced the outflow from Lake Ontario by the amount 
diverted. This diversion has varied from a monthly mean of 1,400 c.f.s. in 
January, 1900, to 10,800 c.f.s. in June, 1924. Under the United States Supreme 
Court Decree of April 21, 1930, the Chicago Sanitary District and the state 

94 



of Illinois were required to reduce the annual average diversion (exclusive 
of domestic pumpage) to 1,500 c.f.s. by December 31 » 1938* The average 
annual domestic pumpage since 1929 has varied from 1,602 c.f.s. in 1935 ^° 
1,712 c.f.s. in 1936. The average for 1938 was 1,605 c.f.s. According to 
the last report of the Sanitary District to the Supreme Court made in pur- 
suance to the provisions of the Decree of 1930, the diversion, exclusive of 
domestic pumpage, is down to that permitted, i.e., 1,500 c.f.s. Assuming an 
average domestic pumpage of 1,700 c.f.s., the average d^ersion from the 
Great Lakes Basin at Chicago in the future can be taken as 3»200 c.f.s. 
12. Data re - Outflows . Table No. 3 shows the monthly mean outflows from 
Lake Ontario for the period i860 to 1939 » under actual conditions, and Table 
No. 4 shows the same data assuming a continuous diversion of 3»200 c.f.s. 
at Chicago. The following Table is a summary of the data given in Tables 
Nos. 3 and 4- 

Data re - Outflows from Lake Ontario 



Outflows in 1.000 c.f.s. 



Mean outflow - 



Mean 



I860 
1870 
1880 
1890 
1900 
1910 
1920 

1930 
i860 



I869 

1879 
I889 

1899 
1909 
1919 
1929 
1939 
1939 



Actual 


Assuming 




continuous 




diversion 




of 3,200 




c.f.s. 


261 


258 


249 


246 


252 


249 


231 


228 


237 


238 


233 


238 


224 


229 


207 


211 


237 


237 



Minimum 
Maximum 

Minimum 
Maximum 

Monthly 

■ 



monthly mean (Feb. 1936) 
monthly mean (May 1862 

and 1870) 
yearly mean (1934) 
yearly mean (l86l) 
mean flow 75 £ of time 
" ■ 35% * 

" « 20% " " 



No. of months above 300,000 c.f.s, 

■ " " " 290,000 ■ 

■ " " " 280,000 " 
No. of months below 210,000 c.f.s, 

■ » n n 200,000 " 

■ ■ ■ n 190,000 " 

" " " ■ 180,000 ■ 



144 
314 

181 

281 

217 

249 

262 



148 
311 

186 

277 

218 

249 
263 



Number of months 



12 

36 
71 

I85 
122 

■ 59 
23 



9 
30 

69 
178 
112 

55 
20 



13. The average monthly mean outflows in ten year periods and for the 
period I860 to 1939 are also shown on Plate No. 2. 



95 



SOPRLIES 

14. Monthly Mean Net Supplies . The total net supply to the lake for any 

month is the total outflow corrected for the gain or loss of storage in the 

lake. 

15« On account of the oscillation of the lake surface, the water level on 

any day does not give the true lake level for that day. For the purposes of 

determining the monthly gain or loss of storage, the elevation of the lake 

at the first of each month has been taken as the mean of the monthly mean 

levels of the given and preceeding months. 

16. Data re - Supplies . Average monthly mean supplies in ten year periods 

and minimum and maximum monthly and yearly mean actual net periods and 

mnr^ mum monthly and yearly mean actual net supplies are given in Table No. 5» 

Monthly mean supplies for the period i860 to 1939 . assuming a continuous 

diversion of 3,200 c.f.s. at Chicago and 5»000 c.f.s. added from the Ogoki 

River and Long Lac are given in Table No. 6. 

Data re - Supplies to Lake Ontario 



Mean - i860 -1939 
Minimum monthly mean (Jan. 1936) 
Maximum monthly mean (April 1870) 
Minimum yearly mean (1934) 
Maximum yearly mean (l86l) 



SuppI i 


es 


in 1.000 c.f.s. 


Actual 




Assuming 

continuous 

diversion 






of 3,200 
c.f.s. and 
5,000 c.f.s. 
added. 


236 




242 


148 




156 


364 




366 


177 




187 


286 




288 


7ELS OF LAKE 


ONTARIO 



17* Basic Assumption re Supply . The Joint Board of Engineers in their Report 
on the St. Lawrence Waterway Project of 1926, presented a program of "Regula- 
tion of Lake Ontario Only" based on the assumption of a continuous diversion 
of 8,500 c.f.s. through the Chicago Drainage Canal. Due to the limitations 
placed on this diversion by the United States Supreme Court Decree of April 
21, 1930, the total diversion, including water required for domestic pumpage, 
may now be assumed as 3,200 c.f.s. 

18. The diversion of water from the Ogoki River and Long Lac watersheds into 
Lake Superior, as contemplated by Ontario, will mean an addition to the net 
supply to the Great Lakes which may be taken at 5»000 c.f.s. 

19. The Method of Regulation discussed hereinafter is based on the above 
assumptions; i.e., a continuous diversion at Chicago of 3.200 c.f.s. and an 
addition to the net supply to the Great Lakes of 5.000 c.f.s . This means 

an additional net supply of 10,300 c.f.s. as compared with the supply assumed 
by the Joint Board of Engineers, Monthly mean supplies for the period i860 - 
1939 based on the above assumptions are given in Table No. 6. 

20. Requirements of Reculatipn . In the Method of Regulation presented here- 
in an attempt was made to meet the following requirements :- 



96 



(a) To keep the fluctuations of the levels of Lake Ontario within that 
would have resulted in the past, assuming a continuous diversion of 3i 2 °0 
c.f.s. at Chicago and present outlet conditions. 

(b) To maintain, without impairment, the low water levels of Montreal Harbour. 

(c) To maintain low flows during the winter period December 15 to March Jl 9 
in order that the difficulties of winter power operation may not be ag- 
gravated • 

(d) To maintain flows during the first half of April no greater than would 
naturally occur, in orderto avoid the danger of aggravating the spring 
rise during the breakup of the ice below Montreal. 

(e) To avoid any material increase in the amount and duration of the high 
discharges during May, in order not to aggravate high water levels in Lake 
St. Louis during the Ottawa floods. 

(f) To keep the fluctuation in monthly mean discharges within the limits as 
existed in nature. 

(g) To hold back the natural excess outflow during the early summer months, 
in order to raise the ordinary levels of Lake Ontario. 

(h) To secure the maximum dependable flow throughout the year for power 
operation. 

21. Various rule curves for regulations were studied and applied to condi- 
tions as existed in the past in an attempt to meet all of the above require- 
ments. One rule may completely satisfy some of the requirements at a sacrifice 
in the degree to which others are met. Of all the methods and variations 
thereof that were studied, Method No. 5 seemed the best to meet all conditions. 
This Method was tested by application of the Rule Curve to conditions of sup- 
ply as existed during the past 80 years, i.e., i860 to 1939» assuming a con- 
tinuous diversion at Chicago of 3*200 c.f.s., and addition to the net supply 

of 5*000 c.f.s. from Ogoki and Long Lac. 

22. Results Obtained by Regulation . The results obtained by application 
of the Rule Curve to conditions as existed in the past, and the degree with 
which the Method of Regulation meets the requirements of an ideal regulation 
as set forth above, are discussed hereinafter. 

23. Requirement (a) . "To keep the fluctuations of the levels of Lake Ontario 
within the levels that would have resulted in the past assuming a continuous 
diversion of 3,200 c.f.s. at Chicago and present outlet conditions." 

24» The following Table shows the actual levels of Lake Ontario, the levels 
as would have existed with a continuous diversion of 3*200 c.f.s. at Chicago 
and with existing outlet conditions and the levels that would have resulted 
from the application of the Method of Regulation. 

MONTHLY MEAN LAKE LEVELS 



IN NATURE 



Actual Continuous 
diversion 
of 3,200 
c.f.s. and 
present outlet 

conditions 



UNDER 
REGULATION 



Monthly Mean Water Levels 

of Lake Ontario at Oswego. N. Y. 



Maximum 
Minimum 



249.02 
242.68 



249.66 
242.93 



249.10 
243.77 



97 



Minimum during 

navigation season 242.68 242.93 244.03 



NUMBER OF MONTHS 



Total Period. 



Above elev. 249. 5 





■ 249.O 


1 


248.5 


9 


" 248.0 


45 


Below elev. 244*5 


99 


" 244.0 


39 


f 243.5 


18 


" ■ 243.0 


5 


Navigation Season Only. 




Below elev. 244.5 


40 


■ ■ 244.O 


18 


" 243.5 


7 


■ " 243.0 


2 



2 





8 


3 


40 


14 


85 


50 


53 


17 


26 


3 


10 





3 





23 


4 


11 





4 





1 






25. The above Table shows that the Method presented meets requirement (a) 
in all respects. The maximum monthly mean water level would occur in May, 
1870. This can be reduced by increasing the permissible discharges during 
April and May which would, however, conflict with requirements (d), (e) and 
(f). The minimum monthly mean level can be raised by decreasing the discharge 
at a sacrifice in the degree to which requirement (h) is satisfied. 

26. Requirement (b) . "To maintain, without impairment, the low water levels 
of Montreal Harbour." 

27. During the period 1880 to 1939 inclusive, the monthly mean water levels 
in Montreal Harbour have been below the elevation of the low water datum of 
1897 (elev. 18.99) 3 2 times, the minimum monthly mean elevation being 17.15 
which was the mean in November, 1934* Changes in the channel below Montreal 
since I894t hy enlargements and obstructions, however, have lowered the level 
in the Harbour for the same discharge conditions and if channel conditions 
as now exist had been in existence throughout the period since 1880, the 
monthly mean water levels wouH have been below the elevation of low water 
datum 4^ times. 

28. The following Table shows the actual conditions in the Harbour, the con- 
ditions as would have existed with a continuous diversion of 3*200 c.f.s. at 
Chicago and present channel conditions, and the conditions that would have 
resulted from the application of Method No. 5 of Regulation. 

ffATER LEVELS IN MONTREAL HARBOUR 

IN NATURE , UNDER 

Actual With continuous REGULATION 
Conditions diversion of 

3,200 c.f.s. & 
with present 
channel conditions 

Minimum monthly 
mean elev. 17.15 17*37 17«6o 



98 



37 


26 


16 


12 


8 


6 


1 






Number of Months 

Below elev. 18.99 32 

18.50 13 

18.00 8 

17.50 3 

29. The above Table shows that requirement (b) is met in all respects. The 
minimum monthly mean level occurred in November, 1934* This level could be 
raised by increasing the discharge which would lower the level of Lake Ontario 
and conflict wi^h requirement (a). 

30. Requirement (c). "To maintain low flows during the winter period from 
December 15th to March 31st, in order that the difficulties of winter opera- 
tion may not be aggravated." 

31. In the project proposed for the improvement of the International Rapids 
Section, the channel enlargement to be provided below Lotus Island is designed 
to give a maximum mean velocity in any cross-section not exceeding 2.25 feet 
per second with the flow, and at the stage, to be permitted on the 1st of 
January of any year under the regulation of outflows and levels of Lake 
Ontario. Application of Method of Regulation No. 5 would produce flows in 
January that would result in velocities not greater than 2.25 f.s. with the 
channel enlargements shown on the plans of the proposed project for improve- 
ment. Also,, the flows that would occur in February and March would not set 

up velocities detrimental to winter operation. 

32. Requirement (d) . "To maintain flows during the first half of April no 
greater than would naturally occur, in order to avoid the danger of aggravat- 
ing the Spring rise during the breakup of the ice .below Montreal." 

33* This requirment is the same as one set out by the Joint Board of Engineers 
in their Report of 1^26. The increase in the extent of the operation of the 
ice breakers below Montreal has decreased the importance that should be at- 
tached to meeting this requirement. The result of the application of the 
Method of Regulation on the flow during the first half of April, as compared 
with conditionsin nature, however, are shown in the following Table. 

Maximum Discharge during 
First Half of April 

In nature. 
Actual 290,000 c.f.s. 

With continuous diversion 

of 3,200 c.f.s. 287,000 C.f.s. 

Under Regulation 287,000 c.f.s. 

34. Requirement (e) . "To avoid any material increase in the amount and dur- 
ation of the high discharges during May in order not to aggravate high water 
levels in Lake St. Louis during the period of Ottawa River floods." 
35' This requirement is not as hard to meet now as it was when the Joint 
Board of Engineers studied the question in 1926 as since that time storage 
works on the Gatineau, Lievre and Ottawa rivers have provided means whereby 
the flood flows of the Ottawa River have been decreased. This decrease in 
the Ottawa flood discharges can be taken at 30,000 c.f.s. of which the de- 
crease into Lake St. Louis can be taken at 15,000 c.f.s. 

36. The following Table gives a comparison of the water levels of Lake St. 
Louis during May Under various conditions :- 



99 



MQNT my MEAN WATER LEVELS OF LAKE ST. LOUIS DURING MAY 



IN 


NATURE 


UNDER REGULATION 


Actual 


With continuous 


Assuming 30,000 




diversion of 


c.f.s. storage 




3,200 c.f .s. & 


on Ottawa River 




outlet condi- 


Watershed 




tions of Lake 






St . Louis as 






at present 




72.93 


73.93 


73.75 


72.64 


73.34 
Number of Times 


72.50 


20 


26 


21 


6 


10 


7 





2 


1 



Maximum monthly 
mean W. L. 

2nd Highest mon- 
thly mean W. L. 



Above elev. 71.0 
" " 72.0 

73.0 



37. Method No. 5 meets the requirements both in regard to maximum monthly 
mean water level and times of occurrence. The maximum level is reached in 
May, I876, when the total monthly mean discharge in the Ottawa River was 
322,500 c.f.s. or 2$% greater than the next highest monthly mean on record. 
33. Requirement Cf)« "To keep the fluctuation in monthly mean discharges 
within the limits as existed in nature." 

39. The following Table shows the range in monthly mean discharges as actual- 
ly occurred, as would have occurred with a continuous diversion of 3»200 c.f.s, 
and as would have occurred had the Method of Regulation been in operation. 

MONTHLY MEAN DISCHARGES 
(in 1,000 c.f.s.) 



IN NATURE 



UNDER REGULATION 



Actual 



Continuous 
diversion 
of 3,200 



Maximum 
Minimum 
35% of time 
65% of time 



314 

144 
249 
226 



311 

148 

249 
2ZL 



310 
180 

253 

22X 



At maximum 
300 and above 
Below 200 
" 190 

■ 180 



Number of Months 

2 2 44 

12 9 59 

122 112 44 

59 55 15 

23 20 



40. From the above, it will be seen that the range in monthly mean discharges 
is well within that which occurred in nature. The number of occurrences of 
flows above 300,000 c.f.s. is greatly increased over that in nature but this 
is unavoidable if requirement (c), limiting the flows in winter, and require- 



100 



ment (a), limiting lake levels, are met. The lower limit of discharge is 
greatly increased and the number of occurrences below 200,000 c.f.s. is 
greatly decreased under Regulation. 

41» It will be noted that the rule curve designates a lower discharge during 
January and February than during other months for lake levels below elev. 
244«50» The discharge during these two months at this low lake level could 
be increased to that designated by the line on the rule curve for the rest 
of the year without any great loss in lake level, but as is pointed out under 
the discussion on "Requirement (h)" hereinafter, the power available during 
these tr/o months is greater with the lower flow. 

42. Requirement (g) . "To hold back the natural excess outflow during the 
early summer months, in order to raise the ordinary levels of lake Ontario, ■ 
43* The Table in paragraph 24 shows the effect on the low water levels of 
lake Ontario resulting from the application of the Method of Regulation. 
The increase in low water level and the decrease in the number of times during 
which the water level would have fallen below elevation 244«5 are the result 
of holding back the natural excess outflow during the early summer months. 
44» Requirement (h) . "To secure the maximum dependable flow throughout the 
year for power operation." 

45» 1^ it were possible to prophecy conditions accurately for years ahead, 
the greatest minimum flow possible, assuming a continuous diversion of 3,200 
c.f.s. at Chicago, 5*000 c.f.s. added from the Ogoki River and Long lac and 
lake Ontario levels held between elevations 249*00 and 244*30 would be only 
198,000 c.f.s. This maximum would be set by the supply to the lake between 
July, 1933* a &d February, I936, which averaged only 186, 600 c.f.s. (See Table 

No. 7)« 

46. If the average outflow from lake Ontario, assuming 3,200 c.f.s. diverted 
and 5 ♦ 000 c.f.s. added, i.e., 242,000 c.f.s., were to be discharged continuously 
during the period i860 to 1939 inclusive, about 75 feet of storage would be 
required on lake Ontario. 

47 • The minimum monthly mean flow that would have occurred under regulation 
is 180,000 c.f.s. and the flow would have been below 198,000 c.f.s. only 1$ 
of the time. 

48. The firm power available is not directly proportioned to the minimum flow 
available, as an increased minimum flow would result in a lower lake level and 
increased friction losses between the lake and the powerhouse headworks. 
Backwater calculations, with ice covered river conditions, show the maximum 
power available with the lake level at elevation 244*00 would be with a flow 
of 187,000 c.f.s. It is for this reason that the rule curve for discharges 
during January and February designates a lower flow than for the same lake 
level during the other months of the year. 

49* Table No. S shows the monthly mean discharges resulting from the applica- 
tion of the rule curve for Regulation Method No. 5 to the period I860 to 1939 . 
Table No. 9 shows similar data in regard to lake Ontario Levels. 
50» A comparison of discharges under natural conditions and .under Regulation 
are shown on Plate No. 10. Similar data in regard to Lake Levels are shown 
on Plate No. 11. Monthly mean discharges and Lake Levels for the period I860 
to I939 are shown on Plate No. 12. 

51* Rule Curve . The rule curve on which the Method of Regulation is based 
is shown on plate No. 13* The regulated discharge to be allowed in any 
month or half month is determined by applying to the rule curve for the 
month a level, to be determined as shown later, the discharge so determined to 
be modified by a correction. 



101 



52. Correction to Rule Curve . In the regulation presented by the Joint 
Board, the correction applied to the discharge obtained from the rule curve 
was based on the level of lake Huron. Due to the change in outlet capacity 
of the St. Clair River, the relation between the correction and lake level 
was not constant throughout the period i860 to 1925 during which the method 
of regulation was tested. This relationship may change again in the future 
but if so, such a change could not be determined until some time had elapsed, 
and the result would be an application of correction which might give entirely 
wrong results. 

53* -A correction based on the outflow from lake Huron was studied but an 
examination of the monthly mean discharges through the St. Clair and Detroit 
rivers in the past shows that the actual net supply to lake Ontario, which is 
what has to be provided for, does not necessarily bear any direct relationship 
to the outflow from lake Huron. After various trials, it was decided that a 
correction based on the net mean supply to lake Ontario during the previous 
month gave the best results. 

54« A correction to be applied to the discharge obtained from the RiTle Curve 
is shown on Plate No. 14* The amount of the correction for any month was 
derived from the duration curve of total net monthly mean supply to lake 
Ontario in which the "percent of time" scale was replaced by a scale represent- 
ing the variation of the total net monthly mean supply from 50g of the time. 
For supplies greater than those occurring 50? of the time the correction is 
positive, and for those less than 50£ of the time it is negative. The cor- 
rections are to be added algebraically to the discharges obtained from the 
Rule Curve. Certain limitations as regards the application of the correction 
are shown on the Rule Curve. 

55* Method of Determining Discharge . In the method of regulation submitted 
by the Joint Board, the correction was applied to the discharge obtained from 
the rule curve, and the resulting level of lake Ontario at the end of the month 
was used to enter the rule curve for the next month's discharge. This method 
of application resulted largely in the correction cancelling itself, since a 
positive correction lowered the lake level at the end of the month which result- 
ed in a lower discharge for the next month from the rule curve, and conversely 
for a negative correction. In order to obtain the full benefits of a correc- 
tion it was found necessary to apply it in such a way that its effect would 
be cumulative for some period such as an entire year. 

56 « The computations determining the monthly discharges during a typical year 
are shown in Table No* 10. The method used can be followed by reference to 
this Table and the description attached thereto. 



G. A. Lindsay, 
Engineer- in-Charge , 
General Engineering Branch* 
Dept. of Transport. 



Ottawa, Ont.» 
September, 1940* 



102 



TABLE No- 1 



LAKB ONTARIO 

MONTHLY M£AH WATER LEVELS 
AT 
OSWEGO, N, Y. 



Elevations above mean tide at New York depend 
upon 8, II. A. at Oswego at 251,898 feet t . 
Level Adjustment of !9>5o 

(Obtained from U.S. L.S. Off ice, Detroit. ?eb„ ma) 



General Engineering Bvancfe, 
Dept. of Transport., 
Juna, I9*0„ 



?,XA9?-.2Q 



103 



TABLE No. 1 Cont l d 



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TABLE No.l Cont'd 



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108 



7.H a 102.20 



TABLE No. 2 



LAKE ONTARIO 

MONTHLY MEAN WATER LEVELS AT OSWEGO t H T , 

AS WOULD HAVE RESULTS!' IF OUTLET CONDITIONS 

THROUGHOUT THE PERIOD HAD BKEN AS AT PRESENT 

AND IP 3,200 C. Po S s HAD BEEN DIVERTED 

CONTINUOUSLY AT CHICAGO 



Note: Obtained from actual levels at Oswego, 
Nolo (1935 adjustment) by oorreoting 
due to change lc discharge capaoity of 
outlet as ehown on discharge » stage 
relation curve for Oflvtego (Diag» 76 
PoHo 99) Correction for continuous 
diversion of >,2C0 c f, « a at Chicago 
based on increment in outflow of 
20,000 Ojfot, per foot* 



General Engineering Branch, 
Dept. of Transport, 
June, 1940, 



P.H, 102.21 



109 



TABLE No. 2 C 



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TABLE No. 2 Cont>< 



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112 



FoH,102 o 21 



TABLE No. 2 Cont'd 



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113 



P o H 3 102 o 2I 



TABLE No. 2 Cont 

4 



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114 



P. H, 102, 21 



TABLE No- 3 



,AK£ ONTARIO 



ACTUAL MONTHLY lliiAN OUTFLOWS 



Prom Fyle H.99 



General Engineering Branch, 
Depirt'nent of Transport, 
Ottawa, May, 1940. 



F.,H..102. J 22 



115 



TABLE No -3 Cont'd; 



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116 



F.H.102.2? 



TABLE No. 3 Cont>d 

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117 



P.H„102„22 



TABLE No. 3 Con 



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F.H, 102.22 



TABLE No- 3 Cont'd 



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119 



F.H.,102.22 



TABLE No. 3 C 



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120 



F.H.102.22 



TABLE No. 3 Cont'd 



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121 



TABLE No- 4 



LAKE ONTAKIO 



MONTHLY MEAN OUTFLOWS 



Assuming continuous diversion of 3,200 c.f.s* at Chica^o 



Hote l 

Actual outflows from fyle H.99 (F.H, 102.22) 
Actual diversions at Chicago => F H c 102.11 



General Engineering Branch, 
Dept. of Transport, 
June, 1940. 



F.H. 102.23 
123 



TABLE No. 4 Cont'd 



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TABLE No. 4 Cont'd 





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128 






F,Ho 102*23 






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129 



TABLE No- 6 



LAKE ONTARIO 
MONTHLY MEAN SUPPLIES 



assuming:- 



lo • 3,200 cjjc diverted at Chicago 

2 - 5,000 Oof-.flo added from Ogoki and Long Lac D 



Hot© 



Supplies obtained as followsi- 

(a) Storage in Lake obtained from water levels 
of Lake ut first and last of each month 
based on average monthly mean levels at 
Oswego as obtained from U S 9 L^S, Detrolt t , 

9 



Febo 7. 1940 o 



(b) Storage added to outflows corrected for 

3 ,,200 cfoSo diverted at Chicago and 5,000 
o<,foHo added from Ogoki end Long Lac 



General Engineering Branch, 
Depto of Transport, 
Ottawa, May, 1940 „ 



F.H. 102.27 
131 



TABLE No. 6 Cont»d 



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F.H. 102.27 



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TABLE No- 6 Cont'd 

2 



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133 



FH, 102-27 



TABLE No. 6 Cont»d 









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134 



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TABLELNo*6 Cont'd 







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25 


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25 




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135 



TABLE No- 7 



liBUB 3B0WPO QRKATJ^T MIHDPM FLOW POSSIBLE <HH UUB OBTARIQ 
RJSOOLlTffl) BJg».£H? KLEVATIQN3 249.00 ASP 844 00 



Note? « Aaauning continuous direraion of 3 P 200 o.f .a. at Chicago 
and addition of 5 000 c.f .a. from Ogokl and Long Lao 

































W-L.Lake 


Data 


Supply 
1,000 


Flow 
loOOO 




Storage 




Ontario 




1,00 




ft, 


at end of 




Off <j a 


O.f oB 


0.3 


Po»i 






nontk 


1939 July 














249.00 


Attgo 


186 


198 


a 


12 


CB 


0.15 


48.85 


Sept. 


176 


196 


C3 


22 





0.27 


48.58 


Oat. 


166 


198 


= 


33 


CJ 


0o41 


48.17 


NOTo 


176 


198 


- 


23 


*XI 


0.29 


47.68 


Daoo 


195 


198 


« 


3 


C3 


0.04 


47.84 


1934 Jan, 


180 


198 


CO 


18 


ea 


23 


4y.61 


Feb, 


175 


198 


•o 


29 


- 


0o29 


47.32 


liar. 


204 


198 


♦ 


6 


♦ 


0o08 


47.40 


Apr. 


244 


198 


♦ 46 


♦ 


0«57 


47.97 


May 


214 


198 


♦ 


16 


♦ 


20 


48.17 


June 


191 


198 


«=» 


7 


£=> 


0.09 


48.08 


July 


175 


198 





23 


= 


0.29 


47,79 


Aug 


164 


198 


=> 


34 


ea 


0.42 


47.37 


Sapt 


169 


196 


- 


29 


- 


0.36 


47.01 


Ooto 


165 


198 


- 


33 


CD 


0.41 


46.60 


HOTo 


171 


198 


- 


27 


- 


0.34 


46.26 


Deo. 


188 


196 


- 


10 


• 


0.12 


46.14 


1935 Jan 


182 


198 


ED 


16 


- 


0.20 


45.94 


Fabo 


186 


198 


a 


12 


CD 


0.19 


45.79 


liar. 


199 


198 


4 


1 


♦ 


0.01 


45.80 


Apr. 


219 


198 


♦ 


21 


♦ 


0.26 


46.06 


May 


225 


198 


♦ 


27 


♦ 


0.34 


46.40 


June 


225 


198 


♦ 


27 


♦ 


0-34 


46.74 


July 


208 


■> on 


A. 


>n 


A. 


t> •» •> 


46.86 


Aug. 


180 


198 


*> 


18 


ac 


0,22 


46.64 


Septo 


166 


198 


a 


32 


- 


40 


46.24 


Oct 


171 


198 


- 


27 


- 


0,34 


45.90 


Hot 


179 


ld8 


- 


16 


a> 


0.24 


45.66 


Deoo 


180 


196 


- 


18 


- 


0,22 


45.44 


1926 Jan c 


156 


198 


- 


42 


- 


0,53 


44.91 


Febo 


171 


198 


- 


27 


«• 


0.34 


244.57 


Mar. 


265 


198 


♦ 


67 


♦ 


0.84 


45.41 


ApTo 


297 


198 


♦ 


99 


♦ 


1.24 


46.65 



136 



TABLE No- 8 



REGULATION OF IAKE ONTARIO 
METHOD NOo 5 



MONTHLY MEAN OUTFLOWS 
1860 - 1939 



Regulation based on 5 P 000 c«,f,8« 
added from Ogoki and Long Lao and 
continuous diversion of 3 P 200 
CofoSn at Chicago 



General Engineering Branch, 
Depto of Transport i 
Ottawa ff August ? 1940 „ 



1&7 FoHol02 34 



a 

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TABLE No.i 
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to 
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K d «U 
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138 



P.H. 102.34 



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E--HC0CO's5^C0tnr}«H 



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t-iHiHCOflBlOOJCOvOH 
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mooootoc-Or-K* 1 

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s. >■ - i. ^ 

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t>-tOeO'<#tOtOC0tO''-tO 
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fr-lOHOCOtOfr-HtOO 

co^to^'^^co^'c^"^ 1 

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Ot*-0>'*CMtOO<<r-ICM 

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onoo* o> o o> ^ r> to 

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iooom co occm to ■* 

lOtOOO lO 0> tO H "* >«*< 
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£-fc- t- E- C-C-t- t- t- fc- 

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TABLE NO. 8 
Cont'd 



CO 
r-i 

CM 



O 

m 

CM 



lO 
CM 



o 
c- 

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Q 

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a 

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© 



139 



P,H» 102.34 



TABLE No. 8 





CO 

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8 
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0>-«f<0O<»0£)HC001CVJ 
tOtOiOC0<OC0t- 1 *'tf'«* 

CMCMCMCMCM03CMCMCMCM 



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to^coocooaxototo 

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t><00»HO>0>OOiOf- 
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t><#cof-oeoooow 

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140 



F.H. 102. 3j 



table no. 8 



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141 



F o H 102.34 



TABLE No. 8 



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142 



F,H,I02 34 



TABLE No. 9 



REGULATION OF IAKE ONTARIO 
METHOD NO, 5 



MONTHLY MEAN WATER LEVELS OP IAKE ONTARIO 

1860 - 1939 



Regulation based on 5,000 c„foS n added 

from Ogokl and Long Lac and continuous 

diversion of 3.200 o e f.s e at Chicago 



General Engineering Branch, 
Depto of Transport o 
Ottawa, August, 1940 



143 PoHol02.33 



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TABLE No. 9 Cont»d 



144 



P Hol02o33 



TABLE No- 9 Cont'd 



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TABLE No. 9 Cont'd 

2 



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146 



P. H. 102, 35 



TABLE No. 9 Cont'd 



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147 



P o Hol02o33 



TABLE No- 9 Cont'd 



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F.H e 102o33 



TABLE No. 10 



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14S 



TABLE No. 10 Cont'd 



DESCRIPTION OF METHOD OF DETERMINING MONTHLY DISCHARGES 
UNDER REGULATION MSTHDD NO, 5. 

To be read in conjunction with Table Mo, 10 

Column 1 Date (year, month, and half month) « 

" 3c Mean monthly discharge in nature with diversion of 3,200 
a of o s„ to Chicago o 

" 3 Total monthly mean supply to Lake Ontario including 

addition of 5 COO c, : ,f . a from Long Lac and Ogoki and 
diversion of 3 .200 c f s to Chicago. 

■ 4c Discharge from Rule Curve (Plate No ) using Column 7 

for prerious month or half month „ Note that in entering 
the Rule Curve the w L, of Lake Ontario that would hare 
been obtained, had no correction been applied (Colo 7), 
is used, except for January when the actual w L. of Lake 
Ontario at the end of the previous December (Col 12) 
is used, 

" 5. Col, 3 * Colo 4 s storage for month or half month in 

3.f oSo 

" 6„ Col* 8 converted to feet for 1 foot storage equivalent 
to 8O OOO c f ,a 3 per month c 

" ?c Col, 6 added to W, L of previous month or half month in 
Col, 7 6 

" 3c Correction obtained from the Correction Chart (Plate No ) 
for the total monthly mean supply for the previous month 
or period shown in Col 3» (Note: No correction applied 
in January D February, March or December or in May if 
positive.,) 

" 9 Colo 4 ♦ Col, 8 

n 10. Col, 3 - Col, 9. 

" Ho Col. 30 inverted to feet for 1 foot storage equivalent to 
30,000 Oof oSo per mor.th 

* 12 o Colo 11 added to W. L c of previous month or half month in 
Col. 12 , 

" 13o From Col 12 c 

Future Regulation . The procedure of making the calculations for actual 
regulation in the future will be somewhat different. The order of 
making the calculations in the Table will be as follows :- 

Column 7, For the first period to be regulated the W. L„ in this 
column will be the actual Iff, L. of Lake Ontario at the 
end of the previous period. 



150 



TABLE No. 10 Cont'd 



-2- 

Column 4 Disoharge from Rule Curve as obtained for W L o in Colo 7 
for end of proceeding period, with exception as noted 
above for Col c 7 

" 8 n Correction obtained from Correction Chart for total monthl7 
mean supply for the previous period ahown in Colo 3 G 

" 9 Colo 4 ♦ Oslo 6c This will be the regulated discharge out 
of Lake Ontario to be maintained during the period by 
setting the control gatas 

" 12 Wr.Lo of Lake Ontario at the end of the period as established 
by several gauges,. 

" Ho Difference in W L between beginning and end of period as 
obtained from Col 12 

" 10 Colo 11 converted to storage in c foS for 1 foot storage 
equivalent tc bO^OOO o fo8 o per montho 

" 3 Cole 9 + Cole 10 m total monthly meaa supply xo Laice 
Ontario for the period, 

5o Colo 3 - Cole 4 » storage for period in c o f s 

6 Colo 5 converted to feet for 1 foot storage equivalent to 
80 000 OofoS, per month, 

" ? Col-, 6 added to W L of previous period in Cole 7 C This is 
the iVjLo that would have been obtained at the end of the 
period had no correction been applied,, 

Starting with Col 7 the procedure is repeated for each 
future periodo 



151 



PLATE No 1 





WATlrt LEVELS 


■ LAKE ONTARIO AT OSWEGO - 


NY. 


s 


t $ 


5 ? ? 5 ? 


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(U N 


M N « 


IV n 




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OS 
CO i 

CO i? 






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1 







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■ 


, . 


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*' 












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81 












^N. 




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1 




1 


\ 






PLATE No, 2 



OUTFLOWS IN 1.000 CF. 3 

i s ! ? 




... fl 






1 1 








cr> z 




! | 


*y* 






5 


«n S 


i 










S! 


, ■> 












7 


■ -> 














(0 1 

CO c 


* N \ 


—J I 








1 




! 1 








7 


"~ -) 














s 


i 


c 


O 

a 


t 


§ 





o 


2? 




DC 


$ 


o» 


< 


9 


o 


r- 


, _l 


<7> 


7" 


a i*- 




O 
u 


o 


g 


X 


1 


CO 


< 


a 









PER CENT OF TIME 
8 ? 



c 

3 


5 


1 


3 


3 


8 

_ i 


1 


! 


0>l 

£ S! 


i 

* 


\\ 




? 






2| 


£ < 


x 






i 






3 


• 3 


< 






| 






1 


00 i 








"71 








-i 








' • 






1 




° ? 

co i 

-> 




I 

i 

i 

! 
i 


^*— - 






Li 
i 

DC 
Ul 




«io oooi ni SMonjxno 




PLATE NO 3 



160 



190 



200 



210 



220 230 240 250 

DISCHARGE IN 1,000'S C. F. S. 




RELATION BETWEEN WATER LEVELS 

AND FLOW AT 

LOCK 21 

ST. LAWRENCE RIVER 

GENERAL ENGINEERING BRANCH JANUARY. 1940 



260 



270 



280 



290 



300 



310 



320 



plate: no 4 



tffiiPft.- 

iffitt 



220 230 240 250 

DISCHARGE IN 1,000's C.F.S 




RELATION BETWEEN WATER LEVELS 

AND FLOW AT 

LOCK 23 

ST. LAWRENCE RIVER 

GENLRAL ENGINEERING BRANCH JANUARY. 1940 



260 



270 



280 



290 



300 



310 



320 



PLATE NO. 5 




RELATION BETWEEN WATER LEVELS 

AND FLOW AT 

LOCK 24 

ST. LAWRENCE RIVER 

GENERAL ENGINEERING BRANCH JANUARY. 1940 



220 230 240 250 

DISCHAR6E IN 1,000s C. F. S. 



260 



270 



280 



PLATE NO 6 




j±: 



RELATION BETWEEN WATER LEVELS 

AND FLOW AT 

LOCK 25 

ST. LAWRENCE RIVER 

GENERAL ENGINEERING BRANCH JANUARY. 1840 



>I0 220 230 2^0 250 

DISCHARGE IN 1000 C. F. S. 



PLATE NO. 7 




RELATION BETWEEN WATER LEVELS 

AND FLOW AT 

LOCK 27 

SX. LAWRENCE RIVER 

GENERAL ENGINEERING BRANCH JANUARY IMO 



ISO 



190 



200 



210 



220 230 240 250 

DISCHARGE IN I.OOO'S C. F. S. 



260 



PLATE NO 8 




RELATION BETWEEN WATER LEVELS 

AND FLOW AT 

LOCK 28 

ST. LAWRENCE RIVER 



GENERAL ENGINEERING BRANCH 



JANUARY 1940 



230 240 250 

DISCHARGE IN I.OOOs C. F. S. 



PLATE NO. 9 



fflPl 

fl±RT-ffl 




DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORT 



DIAGRAM SHOWING 



RELATION BETWEEN WATER LEVELS 
AT OSWEGO, N. Y. 
AND FLOW OF 
ST. LAWRENCE RIVER 



GENERAL ENGINEERING BRANCH 



JANUARY 1840 



160 



190 



230 240 250 260 270 280 

DISCHARGE ST., LAWRENCE RIVER IN 1.000's C.F..S. 



PLATE No 10 



OUTFLOWS IN 1.000 CP.I 



§i 

s 

SB 




0.1 

8? 


1^ 










5 


II 




) 


M i"^ 






3 


S 


1 




o c 

2 5 


I 


1 









1 



^1 

55 



(V 
i 

o 

CM 

0) 



2! 
o 



o 

i 

8 



eo < 
co * 



0> z 

8 



I 

o 



O 
«0 
< 

T 3 

8 

s 



1 




j_i__i__J__j 




mr 



rrr 



O 

Z 

o 

5 

J 
3 

U 



PER CENT OF TIME 

g S 8 3 8 



s 






*n o 

■ 3 




i 


V 


fr : 1 i 

1 




oo2 






1 ' I** 





*tz owiit ixvw. 



l'i'3 OOffl Nl tMO-MJUW 




PLATE No 






WATER LEVELS- LAKE ONTARIO AT OSWEGO - 


NY 




s 


* 1 S ? ? 3 


m 

» 




« 


N N N « 

_ .... 


« 


ni 


* 




IH 


^ 














' -> 




















o 2 


^*-~. 


















8? 


















— ^ 

























(0 




i 


•M 


_l 




O O 


e 




a: 


> 

111 


o> i 


7 


< 


_i 


n 


* 


o 


t- 




at 




5 


z 


n9rr 






o 


< LU 








d(_ 


o 


3 


_J 


u. 


< 


<o 






3 


£ 


CO 


_ 




J 


UJ 


-J 






El 




I 



n 

9}< 



° 2 

CO if 

D. 



o 

21 

— < 



— zr 
O) z 
o ° 
<T> < 

° 3 

° 2 



<J> z 

£° 
CO < 

O 2 

CO < 
00 2 



O) z 

r- ° 



O 2 

CO 



°»1 

If) o 

co 



8 



f0 2 






[^ 


VJ 


2< 


' 


i/ 






. i 


• y ■ 






1 -> 


< 


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•A 





\ 





A N - 003MSO IV OiaVXNO 3MVH - SH3A3T «31VM 



11 



IM N «l N i« 

AN - 093MSO IV ONV1NO 3MVI - nSATI M3JMH 




• J e o 

X «J N 3 

OS3MSO XV CWVLNO W\TI 









COAT) M1LVM 



J F . M A M, J, J, A, 8,0 N D 



J.F.M.A.M.J.J.A.S.O.N.D 



M.A.M, J , J ,A,S .0 ,N ,D 



1870 

J.F .M.A.M, J, J.A SON D 




ST LAWRENCE DEEP WATERWAY 



1-CC'fND 

Actual Outflow assuming 3200 l f s diverted continuously at Chicago - 

Actual monthly mean Water' Leveis assuming 3200 c.f.s diverted 

continuously at Chicago, and present outlet conditions - 

Outflow and Lake Levels, under regulation, assuming 3200 c.f s 
diverted continuously at Chicago, and 5000 cfs added from 
O$oki and Long Lac 



DIAGRAM SHOWING 



RESULTS OF REGULATION OF LAKE ONTARIO 

METHOD NO. 5 

1861 TO 1870 



J)i pt. 11 f /'i-<iri.Sf)tir-c, 



Ott^H'n. Atia. /94-0 



2198 I OF 8 



1876 

J.F ,M, A,M, J , J.A, 8, O.N.D 



1880 

J.F ,M,A M J. J ,A SO 




L & C> E N D 

Actual Outflow assuming 3£oo cfs diverted continuously at Chicago. 

Actual monthly mean Water Levels assuming 3E00 c.f.s diverted 

continuously at Chicago, and present outlet conditions. 

Outflow and Lake Levels, ur?der regulation, assuming 32oo cfs 
diverted continuously at Chicago, and 5000 cfs added from 
Ogoki snd Long Lac — - 



ST LAWRENCE DEEP WATERWAY 

DIAGRAM SHOWING 

RESULTS OF REGULATION OF LAKE ONTARIO 
METHOD NO. 5 

1871 TO 1880 



I>tf>t. nf Tl-titLSfttirt , 

0<?r**ritl t'riejrrti* ''''if/ ft r - 



Ottan<ki. Aug- 194-0 



2198. 2 OF 8 




Legend 

Actual Outflow assuming 3200 c fa. diverted continuously at Chicago.. 

Actual monthly mean Water Levels assuming 3fcoo c.f.3 diverted 

continuously at Chicago, and present outlet conditions 

Outflow and Lake Levels, under regulation, assuming 3200 cfs. 
diverted continuously at Chicago, and 5000 cfs. added from 
Ogoki and Long Lac 



ST. LAWRENCE DEEP WATERWAY 

DIAGRAM SHOWING 

• RESULTS OF REGULATION OF LAKE ONTARIO 

METHOD NO. 5 
1881 TO [890 



Drpt. of Tn-tnaport, 

Gerwri*t Engineering Br. 



OtttiMto., Aug- 1940- 



2196. 3 OF 8 



253 



o 

z: 
o 

LU 

3 



249 



248 



247 



246 



1891 

J F M.A MJJASV.N^ 



1892 



J.F.MA M , J , J A S.O.N.D 



1893 



1894 

J F ,M. A M J , J , A : S.O.N.D 



1895 



1896 



1897 



1898 




245 



o 



244 



243 



242 



CO 



(— > 300 



O 
O 
O 



250 



200 



o 



ST. LAWRENCE DEEP WATERWAY 



Legend 
Actual Outflow assuming 3200 cfs diverted continuously at Chicago..-- 
Actual monthly mean Water Levels assuming 3200 c.f.s. diverted 

continuously at Chicago, and present outlet conditions 

Outflow and Lake Levels, under regulation assuming 3200 c.f s 
diverted continuously at Chicago, and 5000 cfs added from 
Ogoki and Long Lac • 



DIAGRAM SHOWING 



RESULTS OF REGULATION OF LAKE ONTARIO 
METHOD NO. 5 
1891 TO 1900 



/''/'t. lit' Tlittl.«/i<ir-t , 

Ut'iitr-.'it Krit/titii f'lt/ff fit' 



Ottauto. Aug 194-0. 



2198- 4 OF 8 



1902 



250 



o 

z: 
o 

UJ 



249 



248 



247 



246 



245 



: — 244 



1903 



1904 



1905 



1906 

J , F ,M, A ,M , J , J , A S N D 



J .F .M.A.M, J, J, A, S.O.N P 



MlVlfiYlTVi*.?,?'"' 



1910 

J F ,M. A M.J J, A S.O.N.D 




Ul 

_l 

UJ 



243 



242 



C/> 

U: 

o 

y> 
O 
O 
O 



250 



200 



o 



ST LAWRENCE DEEP WATERWAY 



Legend 

Actual Outflow assuming 3200 cfs diverted continuously at Chicago. 

Actual monthly mean Water Levels assuming 3200 cfs diverted 

continuously at Chicago, and present outlet conditions 

Outflow and Lake Levels, under regulation, assuming 3200 cfs 
diverted continuously at Chicago, and 5000 cfs added from 
O^oki and Lon*j L*)>_ - - 



DIAGRAM SHOWING 



RESULTS OF REGULATION OF LAKE ONTARIO 

METHOD NO. 5 

1901 TO 1910 



fit fit. of Ti-<irt.Sfit>rt, 

Grrnr-.il A' riff I in t '"Iff & r - 



OttcMlu. Aug 194-0- 



2198. 5 OF 8 




ST LAWRENCE DEEP WATERWAY 



Legend 
Actual Outflow assuming 3200 c.f 5. diverted continuously at Chicago.. 
Actual monthly mean Water Levels assuming 3200 c.f.s. diverted 



DIAGRAM SHOWING 



continuously at Chicago, and present outlet conditions. 
Outflow and Lake Levels, under regulation, assuming 3200 c.fs 
diverted continuously at Chicago, and 5000 cfs. added from 
Ogoki and Long Lac . 



RESULTS OF REGULATION OF LAKE ONTARIO 
METHOD NO. 5 

1911 TO 1920 



/it pt. of Ti-tintsport , 

Gerifr-itl KtU/iiueritttf Br. 



Ott^unkt. Aug. /04O. 

2I98 6 OF 8 



250 



o 

■z. 

o 



249 



248 



247 



1 F M A . M .V A 5 ' N,D 



litttrt-i^H M 1+ r+ ^+ I H't 



i.±l ) ,+-4-+. J-.4 t ft * 



1926 

J FMAM.J.J.A.S N D 



1928 

FMAMJ JASON Z 



IFMA.MJJA.S O N D 



J . F ,M AMJJASOND 




24fr 



24* 



244 



243 



UJ 

_J 

UJ 



242 



CO 
LU 
Cj 

o 
o 
o 



300 



250 



200 



ID 
O 



ST LAWRENCE DEEP WATERWAY 



Legend 

Actual Outflow assuming 32.00 cfs diverted continuously at Chicago.. _ 

Actual monthly mean Water Levels assuming 3200 c.f.s diverted 

continuously at Chicago, and present outlet conditions, 

Outflow and Lake Levels, under regulation, assuming 3200 cfs 
diverted continuously at Chicago, and 5000 cfs. added from 
O s oki and Long Lac. _ _ 



DIAGRAM SHOWING 



RESULTS OF REGULATION OF LAKE ONTARIO 
METHOD NO. 5 

1921 TO 1930 



r>> />t. of Trv*napvrt. 

dent-mi Efigiruvrintf Br. 



Ottxu**. Aug. J94-0. 



2196. 7 OF 8 



1932 



250 



o 

a: 
< 



249 



24« 



247 



1933 



1934 



1935 



F ,M A,M, J , J ,A , S .0 N D 



J ,F ,M ,A.M J, J, A S N D 




1936 



1937 



•XL 

o 

Z 

o 

$ 

LU 



246 



245 



244 



243 



242 



1 



CO 
Li_; 
(J 

.<" 
O 

o 
o 



Q 



200 



o 



ST LAWRENCE DEEP WATERWAY 



Leqe-nd 
Actual Outflow, assuming 3Z00 cfs diverted continuously at Chicago.._- 
Actual monthly mean Water Levels assuming 3200 c.f.S. diverted 

continuously at Chicago, and present outlet conditions - 

Outflow and Lake Levels, under regulation, assuming 3200 cfs 
diverted continuously at Chicago, and 5000 cfs added from 
Ogoki and Long Lac - 



DIAGRAM SHOWING 



RESULTS OF REGULATION OF LAKE ONTARIO 
METHOD NO. 5 
193) TO 1940 



!>'/>t. of Ti-nn.s/tcirt , 

CS*rifr;il EritliiH firlif Br. 



Ott-ciH^t. Aug. /940. 



2198. 8 OF 8 



PLATE No 3 3 



Regulated Discharge of the St. Lawrence River for the period in Thousands of Second Feet 




2191 



-10 



-6 



-2 



♦ Z 



+ 4 



♦ 6 



+ W 



PLATE Nc. 14 



M+±:M 



--mi 









31 






[ .ll 



_._L 



ft: 



-J ,-L- 



it 



■1± -!4-i 



"LX 



-:! 



M- 



:±:1.:: 



4- 4-4- 



280 



260 



FFF+- 
B:±:l 



T- 



240 



■--+- 






4- - -f-4— -4 — h- 



■:t;± 



220 



1 



i-rri- 



200 



-L_" 



ISO 



160 



rttdd 

H 

i-Tf 






-10 






i 



i • 



.a. 



tft 



i- 



'I ! 



i i 



.;] I 



ti 



Si 



^ 



.!.*< 



Ill 
If 

i 






■1 1- 



1-4.ru 



i±m 



! I 



i ; 



& 



E 



> 



i.i 



H !■+- 



i--H--H4~- 



t-T-i 



fi 



* Hq Cotire : ioo 1 ! 1 



t J. i t|. 
4-j. 



-1-1 :- h 



T"! 



;"f 



,-1. 



1 t- 



H 



s$ 



*- Pi 



j-y 



\- 4 



i- 



h -| I 



i|=E 



•t 



:| 



■j r|- 



M 



Hr. 



ri vlay; ifi|Jcsi3Sr<i 



:±*:™: 



-~t- 









it 



i-— . 



--■■■I 






L-L-: 



...... 






t — r 






4 






_4 



H 



:± 



h- 1 









ST. LAWRENCE WATERWAY 

REGULATION OF LAKE ONTARIO 

DIAGRAM SHOWING CORRECTIONS TO BE 
APPLIED TO REGULATION RULE CURVE 

Application : 

R"o~correction 1o be applied during December fo March 
inclusive. 

Correction to be applied in April to be baaed on rqean 
supply during previous period of November to March inclusive- 

Correction for all other months to be based on mean 
supply during previous month. 

Dept. of Transport. seneral Engineering Branch. OHawa, July 6-1940. 



360 



340 



320 



300 



280 



260 



240 



220 



200 



180 



160 



-8 



-4 -2 O +2 +4 

CORRECTION IN 1,000 C.F.S. 



+ 6 



+ 8 



+ 10 



218 



PART THREE 



HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL CONTROL DATA 



Appendix A-2 




1/ 



>v 




■'•Hi 



ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 

Horizontal and Vertical Control Data 

1. Following are descriptions of horizontal control monuments used 
on this survey. Geographic coordinates shown are based on North American 
datum. Plane coordinates shown are based on the Transverse Mercator Coord- 
inates (East Zone) for the State of New York. Descriptions of the Inter- 
national Waterways Commission Monuments were taken from Mr. Hefty' s Report 
noted in Chapter II of the main report. The international Boundary Commis- 
sion Reference Monuments are concrete monuments as shown on the attached 
photograph. Descriptions of U. S. Lake Survey monuments were taken from 
the list noted in Chapter II of the main report. 

a_. Description of Primary Horizontal Control Monuments . 

I. B.C. 1 - On Ea3t end of Cornwall IslaM. It is an International Boundary 
Commission Reference Monument. 
(Lat. H5-OO-33.6S5 X. 1*12,602.89) 
(Long. 7U-UO-16.U76 Y. 1,825,73^.72) 

I*B.C. 2. - On East end of Cornwall Island. It is an International Boundary 
Commission Reference- Monument . 
(Lat. IJ£-0Q-10.25H X. Ull.623.OU) 
(Long. 75-^29.975 T. 1,823,365.79) 

I .B.C. 3 - On East end of Cornwall Island. It is an International Boundary 
Commission Reference Monument. 
(Lat. Uk_00-02.U6S X. Uo9,US8.05) 
(Long. 7$-40-59.#H. Y. 1,822,586.38) 

I. B.C. U - On tho South central part of Cornwall Island. It is an International 
Boundary Commission Reference Monument. 
(Lat. 45-OO-I5.269 X. UoU,Vl3.05) 
(Long. 75-^2-09.93^ *. 1,823,905.18) 

I.B.C. 5 - On the south central part of Cornwall Island. It is an International 
Boundary Commission Reference Monument. 
(Lat. 1&-59-59.20H X. 399,262.16) 
(Long. 7^3-21.931 T. l,822,302.Uo) 

I.B.C. 6 - On the south side of Cornwall Island just east of the N. Y. and 
0. R. R. bridge. It is an International Boundary Commission Reference 
Monument • 

(Lat. UU-59-.30.i35 X. 396,790.08) 
(Long. 7^3-56.132 T. 1,819, 370.^) 

I.B.C. 7 - On the south side of Cornwall Island, just west of the N. Y. and 
0. R. R. bridge. It is an International Boundary Commission Reference 
Monument . 

(Lat. UU-59-30.0S9 X. 393,S17.52) 
(Long. 7h-UU-.37.k9k y. 1,819.3^0.63) 



153 



I .B.C. 8 - On the west end of Cornwall Island. An International Boundary 
Commission Reference Monument. 
(Lat. ^£9-^.785 X. 3S9, 906.09 
(Long. 7M+5-32.029 *. 1,820,889.22 

I. B.C. 9 - On Cornwall Canal Dike, just east of Lock 19. An International 
Boundary Commission Eeference Monument. 
(Lat. 1*5-00-32.075 X. 3SS,U2U.91 
(Long. 7^5-52.996 T. 1,825,686.41 

I.W.C. 21 = U.S.L.S. 16. - On the north bank of the St. Lawrence River 

about U00 meters west of lock 19 of the Cornwall Canal; on the natural 
bank of the River and below the berm of the canal; about 2 meters back 
from the edge of the river bank and about 2 meters east of a large 
ditch. It is an International Boundary Commission standard bronze- 
disk station mark set flush with the ground in the top of a cylinder 
of concrete LO inches in diameter and 30 inches in depth. The sub- 
surface mark is the original drill hole surrounded by a triangle cut 
in a flat rock 30 inches underground. Reference mark No. 1 is a drill 
hole in the top of the most westerly of a group of large rocks in 
azimuth 108° 53' distant 21. 69 meters from the station. Reference 
mark No. 2 is a drill hole in the top of a very large flat topped rock 
in azimuth 267 5^ f » distant 60.3U meters from the station. Reference 
mark No. 2 is the point occupied as "Lacombe* 1 . 
(Lat. U5-OO-32.90U X. 3^,256.56) 
(Long.7U-U6-51.02i Y. 1,825,792.95) 

U.S.L.S. 17 (1872). - Is on the American side of the river Just below the 
foot of Barnhart Island, 600 feet from the shore, U90 feet S. of road 
to Massena Ft. and on the farm of Andrew Snow. It is 165 feet B. of 
Snow»s barn, I38.O feet N. of a 3/U" drill hole in a 8 x 5 x 2 foot 
high boulder, 115.U feet N. W. of a 3/U" drill hole in a flat U x 5 
foot boulder, 127.3 feet E. of a well pump, and 85.7 feet N. 2. of a 
metal tablet, set in concrete, bearing the name U. S. Lake Survey and 
an arrow which points 30° "to the right of a line to the station. This 
tablet is in a fence line and is E. of and on line with the north side 
of Snow's house. The station mark is the center hole of a triangle 
cut in a stone set 3 feet below the ground surface. 
(Lat. UU-59-51.3U5 X. 381,973.88) 
(Long.7U-Tf-22.U63 Y. 1,821,596.72) 

I .B.C. 10 - On the east end of Barnhart Island. It is an International 
Boundary Commission Reference Monument. 
(Lat. U5-00-15.077 X. 379,306.69) 
(Long. 7U-U7-59.773 T. l,82U f 015.U7) 



154 



I.W. C. 22. - On the most eastern end of Barnhart Island, on the first 

high ground west of the shore line. In the flat top of a conspicuous 
lone rock aoout 6 x 8 feet in size and 5 feet high. It is an Inter- 
national Boundary Commission standard "bronze-disk. 
(Lat. 1+5-00-26.106 X. 379J62.7D 
(Long. 7^7-53.515 T. 1. 825,129. 80) 

I. B.C. 11. - On Cornwall Canal Dike just "below lock 20. It is an Inter- 
national Boundary Commission Reference Monument. 
(Lat. 1+5-00-52.802 X. 379, 2*49. lH) 
(Long. 7I+-I+8-OO.88O T. 1,827,836.1+8) 

I.Vf.C. 36. - On Barnhart Island, about 900 meters east of the west end of 
the island and aoout 275 meters south of the north shore of the island. 
It is an International Boundary Commission standard "bronze-disk station 
mark set nearly flush with the ground in the top of a large rock. The 
subsurface mark is a "brass screw set in a drill hole in a rock 30 inches 
underground. Reference mark Ho. 1 is a drill hole and cross cut in the 
top of a conical rock projecting 6 inches ahove the surface of the 
ground in azimuth 128° 27 1 , distant 1+.288 meters from the station. Ref- 
erence mark No. 2 is a drill hole and cross cut in the top of a rounded 
"boulder, 2 feet across and 8 inches above the surface of the ground, 
under an elm tree with low and heavy twisted "branches, and in azimuth 
59 15* » distant 6.I5I+ meters from the station. 
(Lat. 1+5-00-09. ^2 X. 3fetS10.99) 
(Long. 7^51-07.550 T. 1,823,522.77) 

I .B.C. 15* - On the west end of Barnhart Island. It is an International 
Boundary Commission Reference Monument. 
(Lat. 45-OO-O7.667 X. 363,800.86) 
(Long. 7I+-5I-35.5II Y.l, 823,360.C2) 

I.W.C. J>8, - On Barnhart Island, aoout 150 meters from the west end of the 
island, on a point of the north shore-line just west of a slough and 
ravine. The station is aoout 15 meters "back from the edge of the high 
"bank of the river. It is an International Boundary Commission standard 
"bronze-disk station mark set nearly flush with the ground in a large 
rock. The subsurface mark is a "brass screw set in a drill hole in a 
rock 30 inches underground. Reference mark No. 1 is a drill hole and 
cross cut on a rock 3 * 2-J- feet in size "by 1 foot high in azimuth 281° 
1+-8 1 , distant 11. 698 meters from the station. Reference mark No. 2 is 
a drill hole and cross cut on a rock 1+ x k x 2 feet high in azimuth 
326° 23 1 , distant 26.393 meters from the station. 
(Lat. I+5-OO-I3.238 X. 363,7^9.82) 
(Long. 7IU5I-36.272 Y. l,823,92l+.53) 

I. B.C. 16 = I.W.C. l+i. _ On the west end of Sheek Island. It is an Inter- 
national Boundary Commission Reference Monument. 
(Lat. IJ^-OO-ll+^to X. 358,928-33) 
(Long. 7^52-1+3.389 *. l,82l+, 10S*5k) 



155 






I. B.C. 17. - On Cornwall Canal dike at head of Long Sault Rapids. It is 
an International Boundary Commission Reference Monument. 
(Lat. lf5-00-09.l&9 x - 356, 1 +T0. 1 +91) 
(Long. 7^53-17.5^6 Y. 1,823,589.1*1) 

I.W. C. US. - On Long Sault Island, on a prominent point of the north shore 
line of the island about 2700 meters west of the east end of the island 
and nearly due south of lock 21 of the Cornwall canal. The station is 
about 1^ meters "back from the edge of the high "bank of the river and 
about 30 meters north of a group of large elm trees. It is an Inter- 
national Boundary Commission standard "bronze-disk station mark set nearly 
flush with the ground in the top of a cylinder of concrete 9 inches 
in diameter and 28 inches in depth. The subsurface mark is a "brass sere*, 
set in a circular "block of concrete 28 inches underground. Reference 
mark No. 1 is a drill hole and cross cut on the northern side of a rock 
outcrop U "by 3 feet in size and 2 feet high about 7i meters "back from 
the top of the river "bank, in azimuth 259 09 1 , distant 10.388 meters 
from the station. Reference mark No. 2 is a drill hole and cross cut 
on the northeastern end of an outcrop of shale rising aoout 2^ feet 
a "bove the ground with a perpendicular side facing away from the river 
at a distance of aoout 9 meters from the top of the river bank. The 
mark ie in azimuth 356° 29* , distant IO.U06 meters from the station. 
Reference mark No. 3 is a shallow drill hole and a scratched cross on 
a flat outcrop of rock about 1^ meters back from the edge of the river 
bank in azimuth 18° 3U f , distant 9*930 meters from the station. 
(Lat. Ul4-59.3i.U5g X. 353,297.^5) 
(Long. 7^5^-01.331 T. 1,819,763.65) 

I. B.C. 19. - On Long Sault Island. It is an International Boundary Com- 
mission Reference Monument. 

(Lat. UU-58-57.931 X. 351.386.87) 

(Long. 7U-5U.27.5g2 T. 1,816, 381. Ug) 

I.W.C. 50. - On Long Sault Island, on a sharp and prominent point of the 
north shore line of the island, directly opposite Wagner Island. The 
station is within 3 meters of the edge of the high bank of the river. 
It is an International Boundary Commission standard bronze-disk station 
mark set nearly flush with the ground in the top of a cylinder of con- 
crete 10 inches in diameter and 30 inches in depth. The subsurface 
mark is a brass screw set in a circular block of concrete 30 inches 
underground. 

(Lat. UU-58-57.372 X. 3^9,530.16) 
(Long. 7U-5U-.53.U0g T. 1,816,33^.1^) 

I. B.C. 21. - On North Central side of Croil Island. It is an International 
Boundary Commission Reference Monument. 
(Lat. UU-58-52.5OI X. 33U, 502.05) 
(Long. 7U-5S-22.U32 Y. 1,815,957.95) 



156 



I. B.C. 78-sub. - About 5 miles above Louisville Landing, in a cultivated 
field on the north side of N. Y. highway No. 37-B, 5 meters from the 
north fence line of the highway. The station is about ^5 meters west- 
erly from a "brush covered fence running from the highway fence to the 
river, and about 9 meters easterly from a large tree standing in the 
north fence line of the highway. The station being in a cultivated 
field there is no surface mark. The subsurface mark is a standard 
I. B.C. bronze-disk station mark set in the top of a circular block of 
concrete 9 inches in diameter and 12 inches in depth set 2H inches 
underground. Reference mark Ho. 1 is a standard I. B.C. bronze-disk 
with an arrow pointing toward the station cut on it set in a triangular 
shaped rock 2^- feet on a side and 1 foot high situated in the fence 
line running from the highway to the river, at a distance of 60 meters 
from the highway and 3 meters southernly from a large elm tree. Ref- 
erence mark No. 2 is a like disk with an arrow cut on it set in a rock 
2j by 2\ feet and 1 foot high standing in the line of trees on the south 
side of the highway and 1 meter east of the most westerly of the large 
trees in the row. Reference mark No. 3 is the westerly corner of the 
concrete post bearing the historic marker of "First Protestant Church 
in Canada* 1 . 

(Lat. lA-5h_RU\57i* X. 302,179.^) 
(Long. 75-05-4S % 950 *. 1,792, 1U0.01) 

I.W.C. 90. U.S.L.S. Allison. - About 3-1/ 1 *- miles east of Waddington, New York, 
on the prominent point (Nichols Point) on the south shore of the St. 
Lawrence River due south of Doran Island. The station is among the 
sand dunes on the highest part of the point. It is about 300 meters 
north of New York highway No. 37* It is east of and in line with the 
north face of a gray cottage; about 2 meters south of the range of a 
title chimney on a yellow cottage and the west gable window of a brick 
house; and is about 100 meters northwest of a fence corner. It is a 
standard International Boundary Commission bronze-disk station mark set 
nearly flush with the ground in the top of a cylinder of concrete 9 
inches in diameter and 3^ inches in depth. There are 2 references, each 
a standard U. S. Lake ( Survey bronze-disk reference mark with the arrow 
pointing toward the station set nearly flush with the ground in the top 
of a cylinder of concrete about 8 inches in diameter and encased in 
sheet-iron. 

(Lat. ^53-29. 12U X. 2gS.g55.5H) 
(Long. 75-08-52.895 T. 1,783,61^.93) 



15? 



I. B.C. 91-sub. - At lock 23 at the lower end of the Morrisburg Canal, on 
the embankment "between the old or unused lock and the lock now in use. 
It is 28 meters vnst of the east end of the embankment "between the two 
locks, 3s meters south of the concrete wall on the south side of the 
north or old lock, 8 meters north of the steps fading down from the 
north wall of the south or used lock, and 3 meters west of the first 
cast-iron snubbing post appertaining to the north lock. It is an 
International Boundary Commission "bronze-disk station mark set flush 
with the ground in the top of a cylinder of concrete 9 inches in di- 
ameter and 2^ inches in depth. The subsurface mark is a brass screw 
set in a mass of concrete attached to a large rock, 2k inches under- 
ground. Reference mark No. 1 is the southeastern corner of the con- 
crete wall and walk at the head of the stairs leading down from the 
north or unused lock. Reference mark No. 2 is the northwest corner 
of the concrete walk at the head of the stairs leading down from the 
north wall of the south or used lock. Reference mark No. 3 is the 
center of the first cast-iron sndbbing post on the high level on the 
north side of the south or used lick. 
(Lat. ^53-36.702 X. 281, 655. ^) 
(Long. 75-10-33.020 T. 1,78^,455.90) 

U.S.L.S. Waddington (1872). - On the American side of the river 1-1/2 
miles below Waddington; 680 feet south of a concrete highway bridge; 
260 feet S.E. of Little Sucker Brook; on top of a high bank; and 50 
feet S. of the wood line. It is 60 feet H. 3. of a wire fence line; 
53 feet S. E. of a metal tablet set in concfete bearing the name U.S. 
Lake Survey and an an*ow which points to the station; 67 feet IT. E. 
of 20 w Oak tree; and 113.5 feet N.W. of an 18" Hickory tree. The 
Station mark is the 1" drill hole in a 15 n x 18" stone, set 3-1/2 
feet below the surface of the sandy soil. 
( X. 281,128.12) 

T. 1, 778,022.3*+) 

I. B.C. 35. - On the northeast end of Ogden Island. It is an International 
Boundary Reference Monument. 
(Lat. HIJ-52-5U.3U9 X. 276,892.11) 
(Long. 75-11-38.556 T. 1,780,216.21) 

I.W. C. 95. - About 3A ^ ile wea* of Morrisburg, on the dyke of the Morrisburg 
canal between the canal and the river, 1-1/8 miles above lock No. 23. 
Thessbation is about the middle of the dyke and directly opposite the 
lower end of Ogden Island. It is an International Boundary Commission 
bronze-disk station mark set nearly flush with the ground in the top of 
a cylinder of concrete 9 inches in diameter and 2k inches in depth. 
The subsurface mark is a brass screw set in the top of a circular block 
of concrete 9 inches in diameter and 12 inches in depth placed 2h inches 
underground. Reference mark No. 1 is a drill hole in a rock ahowing l-l/2 
by 1-1/2 feet by 6 inches high above ground on the top of the bank on the 
river side of the dyke and on line from the station to the southern 
tangent of Canada Island. Reference mark No. 2 is a drill hole and an 
arrow pointing toward the station cut in a boulder U. by h by 3 feet on 
the top of the hi^gh bank on the river side of the dyke. 
(Lat. kU-53-05.002 X. 276,216.66) 
(Long. 75-11-^.096 Y. 1,781,302.36) 



158 






I.W.C. 97* - About 1 mile west of Morrisburg, on the embankment of the 
Morrisburg canal "between the canal and the river, at a wide place 
on the embankment about 100 meters east of the southern bend of the 
canal. It is an International Boundary Commission bronze-disk stdion 
mark set nearly flush with the ground in the t^pp of a cylinder of con- 
crete 9 inches in diameter and 2U inches in depth. The subsurface 
mark is a brass screw set in the top of a circular block of concrete 9 
inches in diameter and 12 inches in depth plaoed 2U inches underground. 
Reference mark No. 1 is a drill hole and an arrow pointing toward the 
station cut in a conspicuous boulder U by U by 3 feet in size hear the 
middle of the canal dyke and on line from the station to the center of 
Canada Island. Reference mark No. 2 is a drill hole in a rock showing 
1-1/2 by 1-1/2 hy 1 feet above ground at abtfut 2 meters north of the 
top of the bank on the river side of the dyke. Reference mark No. 3 
is the center of the first cast-iron snubbing post east of Monumant 36. 
(Lat. UU--52-5U.372 X. 275,016.13) 
(Long. 75-12-OU.611 T. 1,780,238.59) 

I. B.C. 38. - Ogden Island. It is an International Boundary Commission Ref- 
erence Monument. 

(Lat. UU-52-02.280 X. 267,935-72) 

(Long. 75-13-U2.136 Y. 1,775,039.35) 

I.W.C. 106. - On the western end of Ogden Island in the St. Lawrence River, 
about U50 meters from the extreme west end of the island and 100 meters 
south of the north shore of the island. The station is in open pasture 
lend, in azimuth 310 13 ! , 90-5 meters distant from Boundary Reference 
Monument No. 39 • There is a row of trees about 120 meters south of the 
station, and a red cottage is to be seen about 2,00 meters to the east 
of the station. It is- an International Boundary Commission standard 
bronze-disk station mark set nearly flush with the ground in the top of 
a cylinder of concrete 9 inches in diameter and 2U inches in depth. The 
subsurface mark is a brass screw set> in the top of a circular block of 
concrete 9 inches in diameter and 12 inches in depth placed 2U inches 
underground. Reference mark No. 1 is a drill hole and an arrow pointing 
toward the station cut in a rock showing U by 5 feet 18 inches high above 
ground to the northeast of the station. Reference mark No. 2 is a like 
mark cut on a rock of about the same size to the northwest of the station. 
(Lat. UIJ-5I-56.6& X. 265,022.25) 
(Long. 75-1U-22.U99 T 1,77^,502.51) 

1.3. C. 103-sub. - At the head of the Morrisburg canal, on the broad part of 
'the dyke between the canal and the St. Lawrence River, about 75 meters 
southwest of the Watergate and lock 2U, about 13 meters northeast of 
where the dyke narrows, about 10 meters toward the canal from the river 
bank of the dyke. It is an International Boundary Commission standard 
bronze-disk station mark set nearly flush with the ground in the top of 
a cylinder of concrete 10 inches in diameter and 2U inches in depth. The 
subsurface mark is a brass screw set in the top of a circular block of 
concrete 10 inches in diameter and 12 inches in depth placed 2U inches 
underground. Reference mark No. 1 is the 2nd cast-iron snubbing post 



159 



west of lock 2^. Reference mark No. 2 is the first cast-iron snubbing 

post west of lock 2U. Reference mark No. 3 is a drill hole and an arrow! 

pointing toward the station cut in a rock 3 V 3 feet "by 1-1/2 feet high! 

on the dvke vest of the lock. 

(Lat. W-52-I3.393 x - 2o5,601.61|) 

(Long. 75-lU_.lk.719 y. 1,776,190.72) 

U.S.L.S. Ames (IS72). - Is located about 2 miles above Wadding ton, 17. T. 
and l/k mile S. of the river. It is in a rock strewn field, about 
830 feet W.S.W. of a road intersection; about 180 feet S. of the river 
road; and 9 feet E. of a rail fence on the E. ed^e of an orchard. It is 
38.6 feet S.W. of a cross cut in a 3 by U by 1-1/2 foot high "boulder; 
5-2. 6 feet E.S.E. of a 3 "by 5 "by 1-1/2 foot high "boulder on the W. side 
of the fence; II9.2 feet S.E. of a cross cut in a 3 "by k "by 1 foot high 
"boulder S. of the road fence; and 18 feet II. of an 18 inch elm tree in 
a fence line. The elevation above the river is about Uo feet. The 
station mark, established in 1872, is a drill hole in a stone below the 
ground surface. The surface mark is a 1 inch triangular drill hole in 
a stone block, 5 inches square, centered over the station mark and about 
l/2 foot below the ground surface. 

(X. 26U, 776.59) 
(y. 1,769,837.80) 

I.W. C. 108. - About 2 miles west of Waddington, about *400 meters upstream 

from the extreme tip of Leishman Point on the south shore of the St. Law- 
rence River. The station is about 23 meters back from the shore of the 
river and 90 meters northwest of an old house. It is an International 
Boundary Commission standard bronze-disk station mark set nearly flush 
with the ground in the top of a cylinder of concrete 10 inches in diameter 
and 2k inches in depth. The subsurface mark is a brass screw set in the 1 
top of a circular block of concrete 10 inches in diameter and 12 inches 
in depth placed 2^ inches underground. Reference mark No. 1 is a drill 
hole and an arrow pointing toward the station cut in a rock 2 by 2 feet 
by 1^ feet high 8 meters back from the edge of the high bank of the river. 
Reference mark No. 2 is a drill hole and an arrow pointing toward the 
station cut in a rock k by 5 feet by 2 feet high on slightly higher ground 
about 60 meters "back from the edge of the high bank of the river. 
(Lat. kU_51-31.227 X. 262,367.79) 
(Long. 75-1U-58.951 T. 1,771,956.21) 

I. B.C. kO. - At Point -hree Points, opposite Leishman Point. It is an Inter- 
national Boundary Commission Reference Monument. 
(Lat. kU.5i-38.658 X. 260,3S7. SO) 
(Long. 75-15-26. 55S T. 1,772,731.25) 

I.W. C. 107-sub. - It is on the north shore of the St. Lawrence River about 
U miles west of Morrisburg and about l/2 mile west of the upper end 
of Ogden Island. The station is about 6 meters back from the edge 
of the high bank of the river at a point where a boathouse extends 
from the high bank to the water's edge. It is an International 
Boundary Commission standard bronze-disk station mark set nearly flush 



160 



with the ground in the top of a cylinder of concrete 10 inches in di- 
ameter and 24 inches in depth. The subsurface mark is a "brass screw 
set in the top of an irregular mass of concrete poured "between some 
large rocks 24 inches underground. Reference mark Ho. 1 is a drill 
hole and an arrow pointing toward the station cut in a "boulder 3 by 3 
feet "by 1 foot high on the edge of the high "bank of the rive£ 3 meters 
west of the "boat-house. Reference mark No. 2 ia International Boundary 
Reference Monument No. 40,. 
(Lat. 44-51-38.357 x - 260,459.08) 
(Long. 75-15-25.563 *. 1,772,699.96) 

U. S.L.S. Jinks (1S72). - Is located about 3i miles above Waddington, N. Y. 
about 1 mile S.E. of the river, and about 530 feet N. of the river road. 
It is on a "bare hill a"bout 130 feet N.E. of its highest part; 40 feet 
Vf. of a stone wall; and 76 feet N. of another stone wall. It is 201, 4 
feet S.E. of a cross cut in a 5 ^y 2 foot high triangular shaped "boulder; 
and 179.5 feet E.N.E. of a cross cut in a l\ "by 1 foot high "boulder. The 
elevation above the river is about 60 feet. The station mark, established 
in 1872, is a drill hole in a stone, 1 foot square, set about 3 feet 
below the ground surface. The surface mark is a 1 inch drill hole in a 
stone block, 5 inches square, centered over the station mark and about 
1 foot below the ground surface. 

(x. 258,271.9?) 

(Y. 1,764,012.74) 

I.W.C. 117-sub. - At Iroquois on the outer pier of lock 25 at the outlet of 
the Galop Canal. The station is on the stone seawall around the outer end 
of the pier and near the southeastern part of the semi-circular end of the 
pier. It is an International Boundary Commission standard bronze-disk 
station mark set in a drill hole in the deck of the stone seawall. Ref- 
erence mark No. 1 is the center of the cast-iron snubbing post near the 
end of the pier. Reference mark No. 2 is a drill hole in the top surface 
of the seawall on the northern side of and near the eastern end of the 
pier. 

(Lat* 44-50-24.436 X. 246,927.90) 
(Long. 75-1&-32.170 T. 1,765,370.92) 

I. B.C. U3. - North end of Iroquois Point. It is an International Boundary 
Commission fteference Monument. 
(Lat. 44-50-07.141 X. 246,331.62) 
(Long. 75-18-40.153 Y. 1,763,626.46) 

I.W.C. 119-sub. - About 3/k mile south of Iroquois, on the southeastern 
shore of Iroquios Point on the north shore of the St. Lawrence River. 
The station is about 4 feet above the normal water level of the river 
and about 5 meters from the water's edge. It is an International 
Boundary Commission standard bronze-disk station mark set in a drill 
hole in a rock 3 "by 3 f ee t by 14,- feet high. Reference mark No. 1 is a 
drill hole and an arrow pointing toward the station cut in a rock 3 by 
3 feet by 6 inches high at the edge of a young apple orchard inland from 
the station. Reference mark No. 2 is a like mark cut in a rock 3 by 4 
feet by lj feet high northwest of the station and just outside of the 
orchard. 

(lat. 44-49-43.727 X. 247,373.10) 
(Long. 75-18-25.305 Y. l,76l,242.U2) 

161 



I. B.C. \\h. - At Rockway Point. It is ail International Boundary Commission 
Reference Monument. 
(Lat. lUuU9.U1.259 X. 2U9,U27.00) 
(Long. 75-17-56.76U T. 1.760,967.97) 

tf.S.l.S. Sharps (1872). - Is located about 5-1/2 miles above Waddington, U.Y. ■ 
and about l/U mile S.E. of the river. It is in a level field about U55 
feet S.E. of the river load, about 30 feet W. of a rail fence, and about 
103 feet S.S.E. of the intersection of the rail and an old stone fence. 
It is 35.0 feet S.S. W. of a 3/U inch drill hole at the point of an arrow 
cut in a 2 by 2 by 1 foot high "boulder in the rail fence line; and 99«^ 
feet S.E. of a 3/U inch drill hole at the point of an arrow cut in a 
1-1/2 by 1-1/2 by l/2 foot high boulder in an old stone fence line and 
brush strip. The elevation above the river is about Uo feet. The station 
mark, established in 1872, is a l/6 inch drill hole which is about 3/U 
of an inch from a 1 inch drill hole in the same stone about U feet below 
the ground surface. The surface mark is a 1 inch triangular dtill hole 
in a stone 5 inches square, set about 1 foot below the ground surface. 
(Lat. X. 250,537.07) 

(Long. 7. 1,757,507.57) 

I.W.C. 118. - On the south shore of the St. Lawrence River, opposite Iroquois 
Point, on the last sharp point of the southern shore line before the 
river turns north through the narrow channel. The station is lU meters 
southwest of the brink of the high bank of the river on the northeast 
side of the point and U2 meters from the brink of the high bank at the 
extreme tip of the point. It is 3 meters northeast of a fence running 
in a southeasterly direction from the point. It is an International 
Boundary Commission standard bronze-disk station mark set nearly flush 
with the ground in the top of a cylinder of concrete 10 inches in di- 
ameter and 2U inches in depth. The subsurface mark is a brass screw 
set in the top of a mass of concrete poured around some large rocks 2U 
inched underground. Reference mark No. 1 is a drill hole and an arrow 
pointing toward the station cut in a pointed rock 3 by 2 feet by 2 feet 
high just "below the top of the high bank of the river and 15 meters east 
of the boat house on the northeast side of the point. Reference mark 
ITo. 2 is a like mark cut in a large rock showing a surface 1 foot in di- 
ameter and 6 inches high 1 meter northeast of the fence. 
"(Lat. UU-U9-II.365 X. 2Ug, 213.52) 
(Long. 75-18-13.112 Y. 1,758,015.29) 






I.W. C. 121-sub. - About lj miles southwest of Iroquois, on the dyke of the 
Galop Canal between the canal and the St. Lawrence River, about 125 meters 
west of where the dyke leaves the land on Iroquois Point. The station is 
at the top of the high bank on the river side of the dyke. It is an 
International Boundary Commission standard bronze-disk station mark set 
flush with the ground in the top of a cylinder of concrete 10 inches in 
diameter and 2U inches in depth. The subsurface mark is a brass screw 
set in the top of a circular block of concrete 10 inches in diameter and 
12 inches in depth placed 2U inches underground. Reference mark Uo. 1 
is a drill hole and an arrow pointing toward the station cut in a rock 
showing 1 by 1^ feet nearly flush with the ground east of the station and 



162 






one foot "below the top of the high hank on the river side of the dyke. 
Reference mark No. 2 is a drill hole and an arrow pointing toward the 
station cut in a rock 2 by lj. feet "by lj feet high ahout half way down 
the slop of the hank to the river. The directions and 
(Lat. &J»9-1S.*59 X. 21+3. Oil. 76) 
(Long. 75-19-25.3S7 *• 1.758, 735.7*0 

I. B.C. U5. - On Toussaints Island. It is an International Boundary Com- 
mission Reference Monument. 
(Lat. UU-Ug-29.691 X. 2UO.U77.23) 
(LOng. 75-19-59.709 Y. 1.753.S27.20) 

1 

I. B.C. U6. - On Galop Canal dike just west of PrV>squ f ile. It is an Inter- 
national Boundary Commission Reference Monument. 
(Lat. UU-Ug-UO.065 X. 236,78(6. 27) 
(Long. 75-20-51.066 Y. 1,75^,923.77) 

I.W.C. 125. - About 1-l/H miles northeast of Cardinal, on the dyke of the 
Galop Canal "between the canal and the §t. Lawrence River, §5 meters east 
of where the dyke widens west of the station, 7 meters from the canal, 
9 meters from the river. It is a "bronze plug with a center drill hole 
set 5 inches underground in the top of a solid concrete post 12 inches 
square and of unknown depth. A flat surface stone marked with a cross 
was found placed over the station mark; it was replaced. Reference mark 
No. 1 is an International Boundary Commission standard "bronze-disk 
station mark with an arrow pointing toward the station cut on it and set 
flus% with the ground i& the top of a cylinder of concrete 7 inches in 
diameter and 26 inches in depth. Reference mark No. 2 is a drill hole 
cut in a rock at the edge of the high hank on the river side of the dyke. 
(Lat. UU-l|g-05.779 X/ 233,5UU.6U) 
(Long. 75-21-35.^3 T. 1,751,^91.68) 

I. B.C. k~f. - On Lotus Island. It is an International Boundary Commission 
Monument. 

(Lat. Uh-U7-07.31S X. 231,251.25) 
(Long. 75-22-06. 20U Y. 1,7^5,599.^1) 

I.W.C. 130. - On the south side of the St. Lawrence River directly opposite 
the town of Cardinal, Ontario; on a rise of ground between the "river- 
road" from Ogdensburg to Waddington and the river. The station is 3 
meters west of the north corner of a rectangle outlined by large stones 
evidently used in years past as the foundation of a building. It is 
30 meters north of the north fence of the highway. 

It is an International 
Boundary Commission standard bronze-disk station mark set nearly flush 
with the ground in the top of a cylinder of concrete 10 inches in di- 
ameter and 2h inches in depth. The subsurface mark is 'a brass screw 
set in the top of a circular block of concrete 10 inches in diameter 
and 12 inches in depth. Reference mark No. 1 is a drill hole and an 
arrow pointing toward the station cut in the rock, 2-1/2 by 3 feet in 
area, at the north corner of the rectangle of rocks. Reference mark 
No. 2 is a like mark cut in the rock, 2 by 3 feet by 1 foot high, at 
the west corner of the rectangle of rocks. 
(Lat. UU-146-31.839 X. 232, 763. kf) 
(Long. 75-21-UU.607 Y. 1,71+1,986.56) 

163 



I. B.C. Ug. - On Galop Canal "bank just west of Cardinal. It is an Inter- 
national Boundary Reference Monument. 
(Lat. 44-1+6-51.838 X. 225,134.94) 
(Long. 75-23-30.72^ Y. 1,7U4,110.22) 

I.W.C. 129-sub. - About 1-1/2 miles west of Cardinal, on the north "bank of the 
St. Lawrence River, on the most southern "bend of the shore line north of 
Galop Rapids, about 150 meters west of the west end of the concrete 
approaches to the upper locks in the Galop Canal. The station is on 
canal property now leased "by a coal company. It is 17 meters east of 
the line of the east face of the coal company's "building, on top of and 
at the edge of the 25-foot high hank extending along the north side of 
the canal property, and 4 meters south of the north line fence of the 
canal property. It is an International Boundary Commission standard bronz> 
disk station mark set nearly flush with the ground in the top of a cylinde: 
of concrete 10 inches in diameter and 24 inches indepth. The subsurface 
mark is a "brass screw set in a mass of concrete poured "between some large 
rocks 24 inches underground. Reference mark Ho. 1 is a drill hole and an 
arrow pointing toward the station cut in a rock 2 "by 2-1/2 feet "by 1 foot 
high one meter north of the line fence and at south end of a long line of 
rocks extending northward. Reference mark Ho. 2 is a similar mark cut in 
a large rock showing a surface 2-1/2 "by 2 feet flush with the ground in the 
line of the canal property fence. Reference mark Ho. 3 is a like mark cut 
in a rock showing 2 by 2-1/2 feet "by 6 inches high one-half meter north of 
the line fence bjhc north of the station. 
(Lat. 44-46-37 .973 X. 221,724.04) 
(Long. 75-24-17.758 T. 1,742,750.^5) 



I.W.C. 132 = Red Mill-U.S.L.S. - On the south side of the St. Lawrence River 
about 6 miles below Ogdensburg, about J>/k miles above Red Mills, about 
200 meters from the river, and about 120 meters northwest of the "River 
road". The station is 4 meters south of a stone wall about 4. feet high 
and 4 feet wide on top. It is 55 meters east-northeast of a gate in the 
stone wall and 35 meters southwest of another gate in the wall. It is 
a drill hole within a triangle cut in a stone block 4 inches square and 
about 15 inches in depth placed with its top flush \*ith the ground. The 
subsurface mark is a drill hole within a triangle cut in a irregular 
shaped granite boulder 14 inches in diameter placed 20 inches underground. 
Reference mark Ho. 1 is an International Boundary Commission standard 
bronze-disk station mark stamped "1" and set in the verticle face of a 
5 by 5 foot black-banded boulder in the wall. Reference mark Ho. 2 is a 
like bronze-disk stamped H 2" and set in 1he verticle face of a 5 hy 5 foot 
boulder in the wall. 
(Lat. 44-45-13.105 X. 223, OSS. 00) 
(Long. 75-2>57.286 T. 1,734,136.46) 

I.W.C. 131-sub. - On the north bank of the St. Lawrence River, 3-l/h miles 
west of Cardinal, at the lower end of the "Horth Channel", opposite the 

north point of Duck Island. The station is about midway between Ontario 
Highway Ho. 2 and the River, and is 4 meters northeast of the fence along 
the northeast side of a cemetery lying between the highway and the river. 
It is an International Boundary Commission standard bronze-disk station 



184 






mark set in a drill hole in the top of a large embedded "boulder showing 
a surface of 2 by 3 feet flush with the ground. There is no sub surface 
mark. Reference mark No. 1 is a drill hole and an arrow head pointing 
toward the station cut in a rock showing a 1 "by 1 foot surface flush 
with the ground 1 meter northeast of the cemetery fence and southeast of 
the station. Reference mark Ho. 2 is a similar mark on a embedded boulder 
showing 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 feet "by 6 inches high just northeast of the 
cemetery fence and northwest of the station. 
(Lat. UIf-.U5-U6.I76 X. 2lU,llU.33) 
(Long. 75-26-02.266 T. 1,737,605.59) 

I. B.C. 52. - On river bank midway between Prescott and Johnstown. It is an 
International Boundary Commission Reference Monument. 
(Lat. UU-U3-2S.135 X. 201, 731. S3) 
(Long. 75-2&-51.150 Y. 1,723.79^.53) 

I.W.C. 135-sub. - On the north bank of the St. Lawrence River about lj miles 
below Prescott, about 1*10 meters north of Windmill P§int lighthouse, 
about 90 meters south of Ontario Highway No. 2. The station is in a 
rocky pasture, 2 meters west of the southwest "bank of an old stone quarry, 
aoout 75 meters northeast of an old stone house with attached barn, and 
about 120 meters southwest of an old stone "barn with a wooden shed attached. 
It is an International Boundary Commission standard bronze-disk station 
mark set nearly flush with the ground in the top of a cylinder of concrete 
10 inches in diameter and 2k inches in depth. The subsurface mark is a 
brass screw set with cement in a drill hole in a rock 30 inches under- 
gro-tfnd. 

(Lat. Ui4-U3-19 % 365 X. 199, 608.37) 
(Long. 75-29-20.386 Y. 1,722,936.27) 

I.W.C. 137. - Just east of Prescott, on the embankment around Fort Wellington, 
about lH meters north of the southeast corner of the embankment. It is an 
International Boundary Commission standard "bronze-disk station mark set 
2 inches below the surface of the lawn in the top of a cylinder of concrete 
8 inches in diameter and 2U inches in depth. The subsurface mark is a 
brass screw set in a circular "block of concrete 8 inches in diameter and 
12 inches in dpeth placed 2k inches underground. There is but 1 reference 
mark, the center of an iron post about 3 inches in diameter and 2U inches 
high that was the center post of a revolving gun which is now replaced by 
a large old cannon on a ^-wheeled truck. The station is about the middle 
of the crest of the emhankment, 1.15 meters from the nearest edge of the 
plank cap on the top of the piling revetment on the inside of the em- 
bankment, and 20.20 meters from the iron post used for a witness. The 
t angle at the station between Station Ferry and the iron post is 8° U2 1 . 
(Lat. UU-U2-U7.U87 X. 19U,520.l6) 
(Long. 75-30-30.215 T. 1,719,780.09) 



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177 






2. Following are descriptions and elevations of all vertical con- 
trol benchmarks that were used on this survey. All are based on Mean Sea 
Level Datum, 4th General Adjustment 1912. Descriptions of the International 
Waterways Commission Monuments were taken from Mr. Hefty's Report noted in 
Chapter II of the main report. Descriptions of the U.S. Deep Waterway bench 
marks were taken from lists obtained from the U.S. Lake Survey noted in 
Chapter II of the main report. The International Boundary Commission Reference' 
Monuments are concrete monuments as shown on the attached photograph. Cana- 
dian benchmark descriptions were taken from publication No. 57 noted in 
Chapter II of the main report. 

£• Description of Ver tical Control Rench Marks in the United 
States . ~ " 

I. B.C. MOTT. - In the St. Regis Indian Reservation, on the south bank of 
the St. Lawrence River about 1-1/4 miles east of the Rooseveltown- 
Cornwall International Bridge, it is on the farm of Angus Tarbell, 
at the north edge of a field, about 7 feet from the edge of the high 
bank of the river. It is about 70 feet east of a small gully, about 
50 feet east of a fence and about 25 feet above the level of the 
set flush with the ground in the top of a cylinder of concrete 9 inches 
in diameter and 30 inches in depth. The subsurface mark is a brass 
screw set in a circular block of concrete 30 inches underground. (Mon. 
set in 1938 by Mr. H. G. Refty(Elev. 176.60 feet) 

P.B.M. 2. - Is near the mouth of the Grass River, the top of a round headed 
brass bolt set into a concrete base on the north side of the Grass River 
Road, just east of the mouth of the Grass River. The bench is 3 feet 
south of the north fence line of the road and on the west fence line of 
house lot of William Tucker. The bench was set 1.2 feet underground 
and marked on the concrete base, U.S. P.B.M. 2.* (Elev. 207.98 feet) 

T.B.M. 552. - Massena Point, on the north bank of the Grass Piver just west 
of its junction with the St. Lawrence River. On the center line of the 
proposed Long Sault Canal at Station 551 + 92.45 about 52 feet east of a 
north and south fence line, it is the top of a 1- iron pipe, 6 feet in 
depth, set flush with the ground. (Elev. I83.38 feet) 

T.B.M. 532. - Massena Point, on the center line of the proposed Long Sault 
Canal at Station 532 + 66.99 on the north bank of a dry run. it is the 
top of a 1» iron pipe 6 feet in length set about 1 foot above around. 
(Elev. 184.22 feet) 

T.B.M. M-201. - Massena Point, on the west side of Woods cross road, 75 feet 
south of Station 475 + 78 on the center line of the proposed Long Sault 
Canal, it is the head of a Railroad spike set in the base of an 18" 
elm tree. (Elev. 195.19 feet) 



178 



T.B.M. "lord". - Massena Point, on northwest side of middle road along 
fence line on prolongation of road running northwest from Massena 
Center and making a T n intersection with middle road. It is 13 
feet southeast of fence line and about 600 feet along the fence from 
Station 37^ + 60 of the proposed Long Sault Canal. Head of Hailroad 
spike set horizontally in l6 inch Elm. (Elev. 20**. 89 feet) 

T.B.M. S-11J. - Massena Point. On Eorton Cross load about one mile south 
of the River Road. In southwest corner of school yard. Head of rail- 
road spike driven in root of 2k inch white ash. (Elev. 233.71 feet) 

T.B.M. 320. - Massena Point. Station 320 + 00 on the proposed Long 

Sault Canal. This is the angle point in the canal. It is the top of 
a 1 inch iron pipe 6 feet in depth set flush with the ground. (Elev. 
215.49 feet) 

P.B.M. 3. - Is 2-l/k miles west of Polly's Gut, the top of a round headed 
brass bolt set into a concrete base 3 foot south of fence on the north 
side of Hiver load, and in the center of the north and south road 
branching off the liver load opposite the farm of John Wood. The bench 
is 25 feet east of a honey locust hedge on the west line of said farm 
and is 1*3 feet under the surface of the ground. The concrete base is 
marked "U.S.P.B.M. 3." (Elev. 20^. 38 feet) 

T.B.M. "A**-". - Massena Point. On north side of River Road at Robinson Bay, 
390 feet east of driveway to Gumming' s farm. It is the head of a rail- 
road spite driven into an electric pole #S.L.U.-121. (Elev, 191.0^ feet) 

P.B.M. k. - Is opposite the head of Barnharts Island, the top of a round 

headed l/H-inch brass bolt, set into a concrete base lh feet underground 
and situated on the south side of the River Road, on line of a stone 
fence running north and south opposite the barnyard of Frank Polly's 
farm. The bench is 5»5 feet from the south fence of the road and 3^ 
feet east of Polly's Creek, and is marked on the concrete base, 
"U.S.P.B.M. H.» (Elev. 221.38 feet) 

T.B.M. 27. - Is opposite the foot of Long Sault Island, top of knob on a 
boulder situated 15 meters north of stone fence on north side of River 
Road, 100 meters east of house on south side of road, 123 meters east 
of house on north side of road and ^75 meters west of Polly's Creek. 
(Elev. 27^.88 feet) 

T.B.M. 30. - Is 2-1/2 miles below head of Massena Canal, top of knob on 
southeast corner stone of foundation of Carton's brick residence, 2H0O 
meters southwest from Polly's Creek on River Road. (Elev. 233«^7 feet) 

P.B.M. 5* - Is 1-1/2 miles below head of Massena Canal, the top of a round 
headed l/U-inch brass bolt set into a concrete base 1.2 feet below the 
surface of the ground and situated on the north side of the River Road 
at the corner of the fence in the turn in the road at the house of Norman 
Hopson. The bench is 2.8 feet from the fence corner and is marked 
"U.S.P.B.M. .5." (Elev. 2^7*36 feet) 



179 



B.M. "High Bridge". - Bridge over Massena Power Canal on the River Road 
about l/k mile "below the entrance to the Canal. It is the top of 
the northwest corner of the east abutment. (Elev. 270.15 feet) 

B.M. "Pontoon". - Bridge over Massena Power Canal about l-l/l* miles "below 
the entrance to the canal. It is a cross cut in the top of the 9outh 
concrete wingwall. (Elev. 216.39 feet) 

B.M. "Alcoa". - Massena, combination railroad and highway bridge over 
Massena Power Canal at the Aluminum plant. It is a cross cut in the 
northeast corner of a 2 foot x l6 foot concrete slab at the north end 
of the bridge. (Elev. 219.92 feet) 

B.M. "Bolt". - Highway bridge across Grass River at the Aluminum Plant at 
Massena. The northwest corner of the bridge. It is a cross cut in 
the top of the northeast bolt of the northwest corner of railing. 
(Elev. 207.33 feet) 

B.M. "rU". - At crossing of middle road and the Aluminum Company Power 
line from Canada. Tower Ho. 3^6. It is the top of the north corner 
of the concrete base of the north leg of the tower. (Elev. 212.66 feet) 

T.B.M. "Transformer". - At crossing of Horton road and Middle raod, 830 
feet south of, along Horton road, and on the east side of the road. 
It is the head of a railroad spike 18 inches above ground in an electric, 
pole holding a transformer. (Elev. 198.78 feet) 

B.M. "S-108". - Massena Center, concrete highway bridge on Massena Center 
Road over Kinney Creek. It is a cross cut on southwest corner of the 
east abutment. (Elev. 191.12 feet) 

I.W, C. 22. - On the most eastern end of Barnhart Island, on the first high 
ground west of the shore line. In the flat top of a conspicious lone 
rock about 618 feet in size and 5 feet high. It ia an International 
Boundary Commission standard bronze-disk. (Elev. 182.07 feet) 

I. B.C. 10. - On the east end of Barnhart Island. An International Boundary 
Commission reference monument. It is the top of the monument, (elev. 
192. kf feet) 

I.W.C. 36. - On Barnhart Island, about 900 meters east of the west end of 
the island and about 275 meters south of the north shore of the island. 
It is an International Boundary Commission standardbronze-disk station 
mark set nearly flush with the ground in the top of a large rock. The 
subsurface mark is a brass screw set in a drill hole in a rock 30 inches 
underground. Reference mark No. 1 is a drill hole and cross cut in the 
top of a conical rock projecting 6 inches above the surface of the 
ground in azimuth 128° 27 1 , distant U.288 meters from the station. Ref- 
erence mark No. 2 is a drill hole and cross cut in the top of a rounded 
boulder, 2 feet across and 8 inches above the surface of the ground, 
under an elm tree with low and heavy twisted branches, and in azimuth 
59° 15'. distant 6.I5U meters from the station. (Elev. 2^U.U5 feet) 



180 



I.W.C. 3^. - On Barnhart Island, about 150 meters from the vest end of 
the island, on a point of the north shore-line just vest of a slough 
and ravine. The station is about 15 meters back from the edge of the 
high bank of the river. It is an International Boundary Commission 
standard bronze-disk station mark set nearly flush vith the ground in 
a large rock. The subsurface mark is a brass screv set in a drill 
hole in a rock 30 inches underground. Reference mark No. 1 is a drill 
hole and cross cut on a rock 3 3C 2-J feet in size by 1 foot high in 
azimuth 281° hS % , distant 11. 698 meters from the station. Reference 
mark Ho. 2 is a drill hole and cross cut on a rock U x H x 2 feet high 
in azimuth 326° 23 1 , distant 26.393 meters from the station. (Elev. 
22U.33 feet) 

I.B.C. 15« - On the vest end of Barnhart Island. An International Boundary 
Commission Reference monument. It is the top of the monument. (Elev. 
259. 6g feet) 

P.B.M. 6. - Is 1-l/U miles above Massena Canal, the top of a round headed 
l/U-inch brass bolt set into a concrete base 1.3 feet underground, 3 
feet north of the south fence line of the River Road and 58»5 feet east 
of the east fence of Isaac Richard's residence at Richards Landing. 
The bench is marked on the concrete base, "U.S. P.B.M. 6". (Elev. 
232.3S feet) 

P.B.K. Louisville Landing. - Is at Louisville Landing, N. Y., the center 
punch mark of a l/U-inch brass bolt cemented into the vest face of the 
hotel of R. B. Mathevs at Louisville Landing; 2.6 feet from the north- 
west corner of the building, in a foundation stone, .9 feet above the 
ground, marked "U. S." (Elev. 230.01 feet) 

P.B.M. 7» - Is 2-l/U miles above Louisville Landing, N. Y. , the top of a 
round headed l/h-inch brass bolt set into a concrete base l.k feet 
underground and situated on the north side of the River Road, 22.7 feet 
vest and on vest fence line of Charles Whalen's house. The bench is 
3 feet east of said Whalen fence and on the fence line of the River 
Road and is marked "U. S. P. B. M. 7. w (Elev. 22*1.21 feet) 

P.B.M. 9. - Is about 600 meters northeast of the bridge across Coles Creek 
near its mouth; it is the top of a round headed l/k-inch brass bolt 
set into a concrete base 1.2 feet belov the ground, on the north side 
of the River Road abreast of Egg Island (or Ruthefords or Carrs Island) 
in Coles Creek. The bench is nearly on said north road line and 5.8 
feet south of the south corner of a large vooden barn of William Hosmer 
and on the concrete base is marked "U.S. P.B.M. 9." (Elev. 238. £3 feet) 

P.B.M. 10. - Is Z\ miles belov Waddington, N. Y. ; it is the top of a round 
headed l/h_inch brass bolt set into a concrete base covered by 1.2 feet 
of earth and 'situated on the north side of the river road, 18.5 feet 
south of a fence corner and on the property line between Scott and 
Dart is lots, 22.2 feet southeast of a 30 inch elm tree, 72-5 feet north- 
east of a chisel mark on northeast corner of culvert headvall and 
opposite a tvo-story green frame house on south side of highvay No. 37* 
The concrete base is marked "U.S. P.B.M. 10." U.S. Deep Watervay B. M. f 
1898. (Elev. 236.26 feet) 

181 



P.B.M. "B". - Is at Waddington, N. Y., is the center punch mark on a l/k 
inch "brass bolt cemented into the foundation masonry on the northeast 
face, 1.9 feet from the north corner and 0.8 feet above the ground on 
the town hall. Bench mark is marked M U.S.B. H (Elev. 276. 06 feet) 

U.S.L.S. H W2". - On the south side of Ogden Island at the highway entrance. 
It is a standard U. 5. Lake Survey Bronze-disk set in top of large 
"boulder at fence corner on east side of road. (Blev. 233*^9 feet) 

P.B.M, 11. - Is at Waddington, N. Y., is the center punch mark on a l/k 

inch brass bolt cemented into the upper foundation stone, 3 inches from 
the south corner and 2k inches above the ground, on the southwest face 
of St. Pauls Episcopal Church; the letters "U. S. 11." are cut into 
the stone. (Elev. 278.140 feet) 

I. B.C. 38. - On Ogden Island. An International Boundary Commission Reference 
Monument. It is the top of the monument. (Elev. 239*95 feet) 

I.V.C. 106. - On the western end of Ogden Island in the St. Lawrence River, 
about U50 meters from the extreme west end of the island and 100 meters 
south of the north shore of the island. The station is in open pasture 
land, in azimuth 310° 13*. 90*5 meters distant from Boundary Reference 
Monument Ho. 39 • There is a row of trees about 120 meters south of the 
station, and a red cottage is to be seen about 200 meters to the east 
of the station. It is an International Boundary Commission standard 
bronze-disk station mark set nearly flush with the ground in the top of 
a cylinder of concrete 9 inches in diameter and 2k inches in depth. The 
subsurface mark is a brass screw set in the top of a circular block of 
concrete 9 inches in diameter and 12 inches in depth placed 2k inches 
underground. Reference mark Ho. 1 is a drill hole and an arrow pointing 
toward the station ctffc in a rock showing k by 5 feet 18 inches high above 
ground to the northeast of the station. Reference mark No. 2 is a like 
mark cut on a rock of about the same size to the northwest of the station. 
(Elev. 2k6.lk feet) 

T.B.M. 70. - Is 2-l/*4- miles above Waddington, N. Y., being top of spike in 
root of a 30-inch pine situated on the south side of the River Road, 80 
meters southeast from the residence of Luther Marshall. (Elev. 251.02 fee 

I.W.C. 108. - About 2 miles west of Waddington, about *J00 meters upstream 

from the extreme tip of Leishman Point on the south shore of the St. Law- 
rence River. The station is about 23 meters back from the shore of the 
river and 90 meters northwest of an old house. It is an International 
Boundary Commission standard bronze-disk station mark set nearly flush 
with the ground in the top of a cylinder of concrete 10 inches in diameter! 
and 2^ inches in depth. The subsurface mark is a brass screw set in the 
top of e circular block of concrete 10 inches in diameter and 12 inches 
in depth placed 2k inches underground. Reference mark No. 1 is a drill 
hole and an arrow pointing toward the station cut in a rock 2 by 2 feet 
by 1^ feet high 8 meters back from the edge of the high bank of the river.) 
Reference mark No. 2 is a drill hole and an arrow pointing toward the 
station cut in a rock k by 5 feet by 2 feet high on slightly higher ground 

about 60 meters back from the edge of the high bank of the river. (Elevf 
238.87 feet) 

182 



» 



P.B.M. 12. - Is 3-l/ 2 miles above Waddington, N. Y. , "being the top of a 
round headed l/M-inch brass bolt cemented into the top of a large 
granite boulder on the south side of the River Road at the turn just 
west of Point Three Points (Better known as White House or Waddell f s 
Point); the boulder forms the end of a stone wall near the entrance 
to the property of Waddell and is marked "U.S. P.B.M. 12." (Elev. 
253.30 feet) 

I. B.C. kk. - At Rockway Point. An International Boundary Commission 

Reference Monument. It is the top of the monument. (Elev. 2U1.7H feet) 

U.S.L.S. SHARPS (1S72). - Is located about 5-1/2 miles above Waddington, N. Y. 
and about l/U mile S.E. of the river. It is in a level field about ^55, 
feet S.E. of the river road, about 30 feet W. of a rail fence, and about 
103 feet S.S.E. of the intersection of the rail and an old stone fence. 
It is 35.0 feet S.S.Vf. of a 3/k inch drill hole at the point of an arrow 
cut in a 2 by 2 by 1 foot high boulder in the rail fence line; and 99«*+ 
feet S.E. of a 3/^ inch drill hole at the point of an arrow cut in a 
1-1/2 "by 1-1/2 by l/2 foot high boulder in an old stone fence line and 
brush strip. The elevation above the river is about Uo feet. The station 
mark, established in'lS72» ia a l/b inch drill hole tehich is about 3/^ 
of an inch from a 1 inch drill hole in the same stone about k feet below 
the ground surface. The surface mark is a 1 inch triangular drill hole 
in a stone 5 inches square, set about 1 foot below the ground surface. 
(Elev. 2g5.ll feet) 

P.B.M. 13. - Is at Tilden Post Office, N. Y. , is the center punch mark in a 
l/l]-inch brass bolt cemented into foundation stone of Tilden Post Office 
situated on the north side of the River Road on the town line between 
Lisbon and Waddington, N. Y. The mark is on the southeast face of the 
building, 7«2 feet from the south corner and 0*8 feet above the ground. 
The letters "U. S. H are cut into the stone. (Elev. 269.95 feet) 

I.W. C. 118. - On the south shore of the St. Lawrence River, opposite Iroquois 
Point, on the last sharp point of the southern shore line "before the 
river turns north through the narrow channel. The station is lU meters 
southwest of the brink of the high bank of the river on the northeast 
side of the point and k2 meters from the brink of the high bank at the 
extreme tip of the point. It is 3 meters northeast of a fence running 
in a southeasterly direction from the point. It is an International 
Boundary Commission standard bronze-disk station mark set nearly flush 
with the ground in the top of a cylinder of concrete 10 inches in di- 
ameter and 2k inches in depth. The subsurface mark is a brass screw 
set in the top of a mass of concrete poured around some large rocks 2^- 
inches underground. Reference mark No. 1 is a drill hole and an arrow 
pointing toward the station cut in a pointed rock 3 by 2 feet by 2 feet 
high just below the top of the high bank of the river and 15 meters east 
of the "boat house on the northeast side of the point. Reference mark 
No. 2 is a like mark cut in a large rock showing a surface 1 foot in di- 
ameter and 6 inches high 1 meter northeast of the fence. (Elev. 2U2.26 feet) 

P.B.M. 1*4-. - Is 1 mile above Boice Post Office, N. Y. , being the top of a 
round headed l/H-inch brass bolt set into a concrete base, covered by 1 
foot of earth, on the north side of the River Road at the bend in the road, 

183 



on the east property line of Silas Samon ! s Property. The "bench is 7 
feet west from a large sugar maple tree "blazed and marked n U. S. w The 
concrete base is marked "U.S.P.B.M. lU. M (Elev. 273.52 feet) 

I. "B.C. k"J, - On Lotus Island. An International Boundary Commission Reference 
Monument. It is the top of the monument. (Elev. ?U6.05 feet) 

I.W.C. 130. - On the south side of the St. Lawrence River directly opposite 
the town of Cardinal, Ontario; on a rise of ground between the •river- 
road" from Ogdensburg to Waddington and the river. The station is 3 
meters west of the north corner of a rectangle outlined by large stones 
evidently used in years past as the foundation of a building. It is 
30 meters north of the north fence of the highway. It is an Inter- 
national Boundary Commission standard bronze-disk station mark set 
nearly flush with the ground in the top of a cylinder of concrete 10 
inches in diameter and 24 inches in depth. The subsurface mark is a 
brass screw set in the top of a circular block of concrete 10 inches 
in diameter and 12 inches in depth. Reference mark No. 1 is a drill 
hole and an arrow pointing toward the station cut in the 'rock, 2-1/2 
by 3 feet in area, at the north corner of the rectangle of rocks. 
Reference mark No. 2 is a like mark cut in the rock, 2 by 3 feet by 
1 foot nigh, at the west corner of the rectangle of rocks. (Elev. 
293.28 feet) 

I. B.C. North Galop. - On the Galop Island, about U/X) feet south of the ex- 
treme north end of the northeast point of Galop Island. It is an 
International Boundary Commission standard bronze-disk set in a boulder 
flush with the ground. Reference arrows are cut into two nearby flat 
rocks. (Elev. 2Ug.gl feet) 

P.B.M. 15. - Is 7 miles below Ogdensburg, N. Y. , being center punch mark in 
in a l/^-inch brass bolt cemented into the corner stone on the west 
corner of the Episcopal stone church at Lisbon Post Office. The church 
is on the south side of the River Road. The bench is on the north face 
of the church, 10 inches from the west corner, 28 Inches above the ground 
and is marked "U.S. 15." (Elev. 27S.72 feet) 

I.W.C. 132 = Red Mill-TJ.S.L.S. - On the south side of the St. Lawrence River 
about 6 miles below Ogdensburg, about "}/k miles above Red Mills, about 
200 meters from the river, and about 120 meters northwest of the "river 
road". The station is k meters south of a stone wall about k feet high 
and k feet wide on top. It is 55 meters east-northeast of a gate in the 
stone wall and 35 meters southwest of another gate in the wall. It is 
a drill hole within a triangle cut in a stone block k inches square and 
about 15 inches in depth placed with its top flush with the ground. The 
subsurface mark is a drill hole within a triangle cut in a irregular 
shaped granite boulder ik inches in diameter placed 20 inches underground 
Reference mark No. 1 is an International Boundary Commission standard 
bronze-disk station mark stamped M l" and set in the verticle face of a 
5 by 5 foot black-banded boulder in the wall. Reference mark No. 2 is a 
like bronze-disk stamped n 2 n and set in the verticle face of a 5 ^7 5 *°° 
boulder in the wall. (Elev. 310.27 feet) 



184 






T.B.M. S7 - Is 1*400 meters above Lisbon Post Office, N. Y., being top of 
a knob on a boulder U feet by 3 feet by 3 feet situated on the north 
side of the River Road, 50 meters east from the residence of Aldan 
Dawson and Uo meters below the 6th mile post northeast from Ogdesnburg. 
(Elev. 307.65 feet) 

P.M.B. 16 - Is 3 miles below Ogdensburg, N. Y. t being the center punch 

mark in a l/U-inch brass bolt cemented into red sandstone coping on 
the north side of the infirmary building in the New York State Hospital 
grounds, below Ogdensburg, N. Y. The mark is 12.7 feet from the west 
corner of said building and 50.5 feet from center of doorway on the 
north side, and is k feet above the ground. The letters "U.S." are 
cut into the coping above the mark. (Elev. 2S2.?3 feet) 

b. Description of Vertical Control Bench Marks in Canada . 

B.M. MCMLXXIII. - Cornwall; New York Central Railroad bridge over north 

channel of St. Lawrence river, between Canadian main shore and Cornwall 
island. North concrete abutment, west face of top stone of coping at 
west side of track. Bolt set horizontally. (Elev. 22U.25 feet) 

I. B.C. II. - On Cornwall Canal Dike, just below Lock 20. An International 
Boundary Commission Reference Monument. It is the top of the monument, 
(Elev. 200. hi feet) 

B.M. MCMLXIX. - Stone retaining wall at south side of Lock 20, Cornwall 
canal, 1-l/U miles southeast of Mille Roches. Bolt set horizontally 
in south face, 7 inches below top, of the southerly one of the two blocks 
of stone whose east ends are semicircular, 30 feet east of heel of lower 
gate. (Elev. 203. 6l feet) 

B.M. MCMLXJJ. - Swing highway bridge over Cornwall canal in Mille Roches. 
East face of south abutment, bolt set horizontally at centre of first 
block of stone above coping of canal retaining wall. (Elev. 206.2U feet) 

B.M. MCMLXXXV. - In Ault park, Sheek island, in large boulder bearing tablet 
in memory of Simon William Ault and Caroline Brownell Ault, on top of 
bank above Long Sault rapids. Bolt set horizontally in highest vertical 
face, 20 inches above ground. (Elev. 225*33 feet) 

I. B.C. 16. - On, west end of Sheek Island. An International Boundary Com- 
mission Reference Monument. It is the top of the monument. (Elev. 
206. 9U feet) 

I. B.C. 17. - On Cornwall Canal Dike at head of Long Sault Rapids. An 
International Boundary Commission Reference Monument. It is the top 
of the monument. (Elev. 207.62 feet) 

B.M. MCMLXXXIV. - International Boundary Commission's concrete feference 
monument No. 17, on strip of land between Cornwall canal and Long Sault 
rapids, opposite a point l-l/2 miles east of main corners. Bolt set 
horizontally, facing north. (Elev. 206.^0 feet) 



185 



3.K. MCMLXXX. - Lock 21; Stone retaining wall at south side of lower 
entrance to Lock 21, Cornwall canal, J>/k mile east of main corners. 
Bolt set horizontally in east end of north face of wall, in top 
course of stonework 125 fee* east of heel of gate, (Elev. 20U.77 feet) 



I.W.C. 91-suD. - At lock 23 at the lo.wer end of the Morrishurg canal, on 
the emhahkment "between the old or unused lock and the lock now in use. 
It is 28 meters west of the east end of the emhankment "between the two 
locks, 3-1/2 meters south of the concrete wall on the south side of the 
north or old lock, 8 meters north of the steps leading down from the 
north wall of the south or used lock, and 3 meters west of the first 
cast-iron snubbing post appertaining to the north lock. It is a 
standard International Boundary Commission "bronze-disk station mark set 
flush with the ground in the top of a cylinder of concrete 9 inches in 
diameter and 2k inches in depth. The subsurface mark is a brass screw 
set in a mass of concrete attached to a large rock, 2h inches underground. 
Reference mark No. 1 is the southeastern corner of the concrete wall and 
walk at the head of the stairs leading down from the north or unused lock. 
Reference mark No. 2 is the northwest corner of the concrete walk at the. 
head of the stairs leading down from the north wall of the south or used 
lock. Reference mark No. 3 is the center of the first cast-iron snuhhing 
post on the high level on the north side of the south or used lock. 
(Elev. 227. Uh feet) 

B.M. MMLX. - Morris"burg; Curved stone wall at south side of lower entrance to 
old lock 23, Morrishurg canal. Bolt set horizontally facing east, in 
second course of stonework ahove floor of mooring pier, k feet south of 
north edge of same. (Elev. 219.32 feet) 

B.M. MMLVTII. - Morrishurg; Stone wall along south bank of Morrishurg canal, 
at point where wall ends and rip-rap "begins, opposite the foot of 
Stafford street. Bolt set vertically in coping of wall, 18 inches from 
west end, 2 feet 2 inches from north edge and 110 feet west of a concrete 
block power house. (Elev. 229. 13 feet) 

I.W.C. 95. - About 3/U mile west of Morrishurg, on the dyke of the Morrishurg 
canal "between the canal and the river, 1-1/8 miles ahove lock No. 23. 
The station is ahout the middle of the dyke and directly opposite the 
lower end of Ogden Island. It is an International. Boundary Commission 
bronze-disk station mark set nearly flush with the ground in the top of 
a cylinder of concrete 9 inches in diameter and 2h inches in depth. 
The subsurface mark is a "brass screw set in the top of a circular "block 
of concrete 9 inches in diameter and 12 inches in depth placed 2k inches 
underground. Reference mark No. 1 is a drill hole in a rock showing l-l/2 ' 
"by 1-1/2 feet "by .6 inches high ahove ground on the top of the hank on the 
river side of the dyke and on line from the station to the southern 
tangent of Canada Island. Reference mark No. 2 is a drill hole and an 
arrow pointing toward the station cut in a "boulder k by k by 3 feet on 
the toiD of the high bank on the river side of the dyke. (Elev. 228.93 
feet) 



186 






I»V.C. qy. _ About 1 mile west of Morrisburg, on the embankment of the 
Morrisburg canal "between the canal and the river, at a wide place 
on the embankment about 100 meters east of the southern bend- of the 
canal. It is an International Boundary Commission bronze-disk station 
maxk set nearly flush with the ground in the top of a cylinder of con- 
crete 9 inches in diameter and 2k inches in depth. The subsurface 
mark is a brass screw set in the top of a circular block of concrete 9 
inches in diameter and 12 inches in depth placed 2k inches underground. 
Reference mark No. 1 is a drill hole and an arrow pointing toward the 
station cut in a conspicuous boulder k by k by 3 feet in size near the 
middle of the canal dyke and on line from the station to the center of 
Canada Island. Reference mark No. 2 is a drill hole in a rock showing 
1-1/2 by 1-1/ 2 by 1 feet above ground at about 2 meters north of the 
top of the bank on the river side of the dyke. Reference nark No. 3 
is the center of the first cast-iron snubbing post east of Monument 36. 
(Elev. 229. ^3 feet) 

I.B.M. 36. - On Morrisburg Canal Dike, opposite the east end of Ogden Island. 
An International Boundary Commission Reference Monument, it is the top 
of the monument. (Elev. 231*35 feet) 

B.M. MMLVII. - International Boundary Commission's concrete reference monu- 
ment No. 36, on south bank of Morrisburg canal, l-l/2 miles west of lock 
23 and almost opposite Mrs. Jacob Duval's residence. Bolt set horizontally 
facing southwest. (Elev. 229*57 feet) 

B.M. MMLIV. - Concrete footbridge over weir immediately south of lock 2k t 

Morrisburg canal, 3-3-/2 miles west of main corners. Bolt set horizontally 
in north end face of reinforced concrete girder at east side of bridge, 
9 inches above stone coping of wall of weir. (Elev. 231.10 feet) 

I.W. C. 103-sub. - At the head of the Morrisburg canal, on the broad part of 
the dyke between the canal and the St. Lawrence River, about 75 meters 
south west of the Watergate and lock 2k t about 13 meters northeast of 
where the dyke narrows, about 10 meters toward the canal from the river 
bank of the dyke. It is an International Boundary Commission standard 
bronze-disk station mark set nearly flush with the ground in the top of 
a cylinder of concrete 10 inches in diameter and 2k inches in depth. The 
subsurface mark is a brass screw set in the top of a circular block of 
concrete 10 inches in diameter and 12 inches in depth placed 2^- inches 
underground. Reference mark No. 1 is the 2nd cast-iron snubbing post 
west of lock 2k, Reference mark No. 2 is the first cast-iron snubbing 
post west of lock 2k. Reference mark No. 3 is a drill hole and an arrow 
pointing toward the station cut in a rock 3 "by 3 feet by 1-1/2 feet high 
on the dyke west of the lock. (Elev, 230. U9 feet) 

I. B.C. Uo. - At Point Three Points, opposite Lieshmans Point. An International 
Boundary Commission Reference Monument. It is the top of the monument. 
(Elev. 23H.79 feet) 



187 



B.M. MMLII. * Iroquois; International Boundary Commission's concrete reference 
monument No. Uo, 3 miles east of Bank of Montreal, 50 feet south of south 
fence of Mont real- Tor onto highway and opposite the residence of W. 6. 
Robertson. Bolt set horizontally facing river. (Elev. 232.99 feet) 

I.W. C. 107-sub. - This station occupies the point at which the mark for 
station 107-1 .W.C. was found. Observations showed that the original 
station mark had "been disturbed and its position could not he held, hence 
the station is given a new designation. It is on the north shore of the 
St. Lawrence Pwiver ahout U miles west of Morrishurg and about l/2 mile 
west of the upper end of Ogden Island. The station is ahout 6 meters hack 
from the edge of the high hank of the river at a point where a boat-house 
extends from the high bank to the water's edge. It is an International 
boundary Commission standard bronze-disk station mark set nearly flush 
with the ground in the top of a cylinder of concrete 10 inches in diameter 
and 2k inches in depth. The subsurface mark is a brass screw set in the 
top of an irregular mass of concrete poured between some large rocks 2k 
inches underground. Reference mark Ho. 1 is a drill hole and an arrow 
pointing toward the station cut in a boulder 3 "by 3 feet by 1 foot high 
on the edge of the high bank of the river 3 meters west of the boat-house. 
Reference mark No. 2 is International Boundary Reference Monument No. ^10. 
(Elev. 229.35 feet) 

B.M. 907- - Interior Department B. M. In top of concrete bench mark pier, 

one mile east of Iroquois, 5 feet north of south line of G. T. Ry. right- 
of-way, 26 feet east of a farm crossing, and 600 feet east of east end of 
a plate girder bridge at mileage 235*65 f r o m Toronto. (Elev. 255*^3 feet) 

I.W.C. 117-sub. - At Iroquois, on the outer pier of lock 25 at the outlet of 
t&e Galop Canal. The station* is on the stone seawall around the outer end 
of the pier and near the southeastern part of the semi-circular end of the; 
pier. It is an International Boundary Commission standard bronze-disk 
station mark set in a drill hole in the deck of the stone seawall. 
Reference mark No. 1 is the center of the cast-iron sndbbing post near the 
end of the pier. Reference mark No. 2 is a drill hole in the top surface 
of the seawall on the northern side of and near the eastern end of the 
pier. (Elev. 23U.ll feet) 

B.M. MMXLIX. - Iroquois; Curved stone wall at south side of lower entrance to 
lock 25, Galop canal, in village. Bolt set horizontally, facing east, 
in third course of stonework below top, 12 feet, 6 inches north of south 
end of wall. (Elev. 235.00 feet) 

B.M. MMXLVII. - Swing highway bridge over Galop canal, at head of lock 25. 
North stone abutment,, west end of south face, 1 foot above coping of 
canal wall. Bolt set horizontally. (Elev. 2U6.8S feet) 

I. B.C. U3. - North end of Iroquois Point. An International Boundary Com- 

nission Reference Monument. It is the top of the monument. (Elev. 2^6. #9 
feet) 



188 



I.W.C. 121-sub. - About l-l/2 miles southwest of Iroquois, on the dyke of tne 
Galop Canal "between the canal and the St. Lawrence River, about 125 meters 
west of where the dyke leaves the land on Iroquois Point. The station is 
at the top of the high bank on the river side of the dyke. It is an Inter- 
national Boundary Commission standard bronze-disk station mark set flush 
with the ground in the top of a cylinder of concrete 10 inches in diameter 
and 2U inches in depth. The subsurface mark is a "brass screw set in the 
top of a circular block of concrete 10 inches in diameter and 12 inches in 
depth placed 2h inches underground. Reference mark No. Lisa drill hole 
and an arrow pointing toward the station cut in a rock showing 1 by l-l/2 
feet nearly flush with the ground east of the station and one foot below 
the top of the high bank on the river side of the dyke. Reference mark 
No. 2 is a drill hole and an arrow pointing toward the station cut in a 
rock 2 by 1-1/2 feet "by l-l/2 feet high about half way down the slope of 
the bank to the river. (Elev. 2U5.71 feet) 

I.B.C. U5. - On Toussaints Island. An International Boundary Commission 

Reference Monpaent. It is the top of the monument. (Elev. 239*31 feet) 

I.B.C. U6. - On Salop Canal Dike just west of Presqu'ile. An International 
Boundary Commission Monument. It is the top of the monument. (Elev. 
2U6.95 feet) 

B.M. MMXL7II. - International Boundary Commission's concrete reference monu- 
ment No. U6, on strip of land between Galop canal and St. Lawrence river, 
2-l/U miles east of bridge at entrance to Cardinal and opposite a point 
100 feet west of Mrs. Persis Wallace's farm house at north side of Montreal 
Toronto highway. Bolt set horizontally, facing south. (Elev. 2^5.28 feet) 

B.M. MMXLIV. - Swing highway bridge over Galop canal at entrance to Cardinal. 
West curved retaining wall at north end of bridge, bolt set horizontally 
in east face of large "block of dressed stone at south end of wall t two 
feet above sidewalk. (Elev. 278.79 feet) 

B.M. MMXLVI. - Curved stone retaining wall at south side of lovrer entrance to 

lock on abandoned canal at south side of Benson park. Bolt set horizontally 
facing east, in third stone from south end of wall and second course "below 
top. (Elev. 2H2.7U feet) 

I.B.C. US. - On Galop Canal "bank just west of Cardinal. An International 
Boundary Commission Reference Monument. - It is the top of the monument. 
(Elev. 2U5.72 feet) 

B.M. MMXL. - Cardinal; Concrete retaining wall at south side of Galop canal, 
1-l/U miles west of bridge at entrance to Cardinal and 1,050 feet west 
of upper gate of lock 2S. Bolt set horizontally in west face of short 
wall at right angles to canal, at extreme west end of banal bank wall, 
7 feet 3 inches south of inner edge of same and 1 foot below top. (Elev. 
2U7.67 feet) 

I.W.C. 129-sub. - About 1-1/2 miles west of Cardinal, on the north bank of the 
St. Lawrence River, on the most southern bend of the shore line north of 
Galop Rapids, ahout 150 meters west of the west end of the concrete 



189 



approaches to the upper locks in the Salop Canal. The station is on 
canal property now leased by a coal company. It is 17 meters east of 
the line of the east face of the coal company's "building, on top of and 
at the edge of the 25- foot high bank extending along the north side of 
the canal property, and h meters south of the north line fence of the 
canal property. It is an International Boundary Commission standard bronze, 
disk station mark set nearly flush with the ground in the top of a cylinder 
of concrete 10 inches in diameter and 2U inches in depth. The subsurface 
mark is a brass screw set in a mass of concrete poured between some large 
rocks 2h inches underground. Reference mark Ho. 1 is a drill hole and an 
arrow pointing toward the station cut in a rock 2 by 2-1/2 feet ^oy 1 feet 
high one meter north of the line fence and at south end of a long line of 
rocks extending northward. Reference mark No. 2 is a similar mark cut in 
a large rock showing a surface 2-1/2 by 2 feet flush with the ground in the 
line of the canal property fence. Reference mark Ho. 3 is a like mark cut 
in a rock showing 2 by 2-1/2 feet by 6 inches high one-half meter north of 
the line fence and north of the station. (Elev. 276.27 feet) 

I.W.C. 131- sub, - On the north bank of the St. Lawrence River, 3-l/h miles 
west of Cardinal, at the lower end of the "North Channel", opposite the 
north point of Duck Island. The station is about midway between Ontario 
Highway No. 2 and the River, and is H. meters northeast of the fence along 
the northeast side of a cemetery lying between the highway and the river. 
It is an International Boundary Commission standard bronze-disk station 
mark set in a drill hole in the top of a large embedded boulder showing a 
surface of 2 by 3 feet flush with the ground. There is no subsurface mark. 
Reference mark No. 1 is a drill hole and an arrow head pointing toward the 
station cut in a rock showing a 1 by 1 foot surface flush with the ground 
1 meter northeast of the cemetery fence and southeast of the station. Ref- 
erence mark No. 2 is a similar mark on a embedded boulder showing 1-1/2 by 
2-1/2 feet by 6 inches high just northeast of the cemetery fence and north- J 
west of the station. (Slev. 279.37 feet) 

B.M. MKXXXIV. - Johnstown; At northeast end of long dike extending upstream fron 
head of Spencer island, about 1 mile below Johnstown. Bolt set horizontally 
in northwest face of concrete ret? "ning wall at southwest side of sluiceway 
through dike, 5 feet g inches from angle of wall and 7 inches below top. 
(Slev. 2h^.6h feet) 

B.M. MMXXXV. - Johnstown; Steel light beacon at upstream end of long dike ex- 
tending from head of Spencer island, about 3 A mile out in St. Lawrence 
river from Johnstown. Bolt set horizontally in southeast bevelled corner 
of concrete base, 6 inches above flooring of dike. (Elev. 250.01 feet) 

B.M. MKLV. - International Boundary Commission's concrete reference monument 

No. 52, 2 miles east of post office, l/k mile east of Windmill point light- 
house, 115 feet south of south edge of pavement on disused section 6f Montre 
Toronto highway and 220 feet east of Arthur Dean's frame cottage. Bolt set 
horizontally, facing south. (Elev. 255. ^9 feet) 



190 



PART FOUR 



LAND ACQUISITION 
STATUS OF PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATIONS 



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PART FIVE 



POWER DISTRIBUTION FOR CONSTRUCTION 
ANALYSIS OF DESIGN AND ESTIMATE OF COST 



Appendix A-2 



ST* LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 
CONSTRUCTION POWER 

DESIGN ANALYSIS 
POWER DISTRIBUTION FOR CONSTRUCTION 



1* INTRODUCTION 

The plan of distribution is based on a premise that 
6,600 volt switches and switch gear will be available at 
Fort Peck for transfer to this work* If such equipment 
is not available when needed, it would be more economical 
to use a higher feeder voltage. 

2, CONSTRUCTION 

The construction proposed is as follows t 

a* Transmission Line 

H-frame, class 4, wood pole line, 110 k*v* v 
single circuit, 8 disc insulators per string, 300 
to 350 ft* spacing, two overhead ground wires* 

b* Feeder Lines 

Class 4 wood pole, 6*6 k*v,, single circuit or 
double circuit as indicated, pin type insulators* 
average 250 ft* spacing, no ground wire* 

£ • Substation 

Transformers: 3-8333 kva, single phase, 
110*000/6,600 volt, self cooled* 

Breakers! No 110 kv breakers as it is thought 
the power company will have breakers at its sub- 
station* There will be a breaker on each feeder* 
Lightning protection will be provided on both the 
high and low sides of the substation* 

High and low tension buses will be of copper 
bars or tubing* 

Switch boards and metering equipment will be 
provided* Batteries and charger for D*C* operation 
of switches* All equipment except transformers 
will be indoors* 

The contractors must furnish their own otep- 
down transformers (if any are required) and switches. 



211 



3« COST DATA 



The cost estimate is based on the following data: 



Length of Circuit 


Number of 




Size of 


Location 


in feet 


Circuits 


Load KVA 


Conductor 


Alcoa to Gov't 13,400 


1 


25,000 


#2 


substation 










£• 


Power Feeder Circuits 6,600 


volts 




From Substation 


Length of Circuit 


Number of 




Size of 


to 


in feet 


Circuits 


Load EVA 


Conductor 


Powerhouse 


20,500 


2 


7,500 


500,000 c 


Grass River Lock 


18,000 


1 


3,000 


3/0 


Long Sault Dam 


10,300 


1 


5,500 


3/0 


Robinson Bay Lock 


2,500 


1 


3,000 


Vo 


Seaway, N« T« 


5,200 


1 


2,500 


4/0 


Guard Gate Switch 


7,300 


1 


3,500 


3/0 


From Guard Gate 










Switch to 




• 






Guard Gate 


4,000 


1 


1,500 


#4 


llassena Intake 


14,200 


1 


2,000 


Vo 



212 



ESTIMATE OF COST 



CONSTRUCTION POWER 



POKER DISTRIBUTION FOR CONSTRUCTION 



!• TRANSMISSION LINE 



Item 


Designation 


Unit 


Quantity 


Unit Price Amount 


1 


Poles, 35 * 9 Class 4 


ea* 


2 


$ 12*00 


$ 24*00 


2 


a 40 f t n 4 


ea* 


10 


15*00 


150*00 


3 


■ 45 », ■ 4 


ea* 


32 


20*00 


640*00 


4 


■ 50», • 4 


ea* 


12 


30*00 


360*00 


5 


■ 60 », " 4 


ea* 


2 


42*00 


84*00 


6 


Cross Arms and Fittings 


Sets 


35 


24*00 


840*00 


7 


Insulators, Suspension Type 


ea* 


840 


1*75 


1470*00 


8 


Hardware for Insulators 


Sets 


105 


3*00 


315.00 


9 


Guy Wire and Hardware 


Sets 


10 


15*00 


150*00 


10 


Wire, copper, #2 strand 


lbs* 


9000 


•20 


1800.00 


11 


Overhead Ground Wire and 












Fittings 


Job 




— — 


800*00 


12 


Cross Braces and Fittings 


Sets 


30 


10.00 


300.00 


13 


Bolts 


Job 






15*00 








Material 


$ 6948*00 








Labor 




3652.00 
|10600*00 




Engineering and Contingencies $ 18% 


2000*00 



Total 



|12600*00 



213 



2. DISTRIBUTION FEEDERS 

a. Cost per pole, single circuit excluding conductors 
Item Designation Unit Quantity Unit Price Amount 

1 Pole, 40 1 , Class 4 ea« 1 $ 

2 Cross Arm, 3i" x 4£ n x 9» 

3 Bolt, 5/8 ■ x 14" 

4 Carriage Bolts 

5 Washers, 2-1/4 x 2-1/4 x 3/16 ea. 

6 Lag Screw 



ea« 


1 


ea. 


1 


ea« 


1 


ea* 


2 


16 ea. 


4 


ea* 


1 


ea* 


2 


ea* 


1 


ea* 


3 


lb. 


1 


per pole 




ea* 


2 


per pole 





7 Insulator Pins 

8 , Pole Top Pin 

9 Insulators, Pin Type 

10 Tie Wire 

11 Guy yaterial 

12 Cross Arm Braces 

13 Lightning Arrester and 
Grounding 

Total cost per pole excluding conductor $ 25.50 



b» Cost per pole, double circuit, excluding conductor 



15.00 


| 15.00 


2.59 


2.59 


.18 


.18 


•05 


.10 


•02 


.08 


.05 


•05 


.55 


1,10 


1.00 


1,00 


.20 


•60 


•22 


•22 


2.00 


2*00 


•18 


.3* 


2*22 


2.22 



Item 


_Designation 


Unit 


Quantity 


Unit Price 


Amount 


1 


Pole, 40', Class 4 


ea* 


1 


$ 15.00 


| 15.00 


2 


Cross Arms, 3£" x 4£" x 9" 


' ea. 


2 


2.59 


5*18 


3 


Bolt, 5/8 x 14" 


ea. 


2 


.18 


•36 


4 


Carriage Bolts 


ea* 


4 


.05 


•20 


5 


Washers, 2-1/4" x 2-l/4"x3/16" ea. 


8 


•02 


•16 


6 


Lag Screws 


ea. 


2 


• 05 


.10 


7 


Insulator Pins 


ea. 


6 


• 55 


3.30 


8 


Insulators, pintype 


ea. 


6 


•20 


1,20 


9 


Tie Wire 


lb. 


2 


•22 


•44 


10 


Guy Material 


per pole 




2.00 


2.00 


11 


Cross Arm Braces 


ea. 


4 


•18 


.72 


12 


Lightning Arrester and 
Grounding 


per pole 


-•" 


4.44 


4.44 




Total cost 


per pole excluding 


conductor 


t 33.10 



Note: The above unit prices include a 10£ additon to 
allow for necessary double arming. 



214 



COST OF FEEDERS 



Power House Line 



82 poles at $ 33*10 f 2,714.20 

189,420 lbs* of conductor at | «20 37,884*00 



Grass River Lock Line 



72 poles at $ 25*50 1,836*00 

28,283 pounds of conductor at $ .20 5,656*60 



Long Sault Dam Line 



41 poles at $ 25*50 1,045*50 

6,216 pounds of conductor at | .20 1,243*20 



Robinson Bay Lock Line 



10 poles at $ 25*50 255*00 

2,478 pounds of conductor at $ .20 495*60 



Seaway, N.Y. Line 



21 poles at $ 25*50 ' 535*50 

10,285 pounds of conductor 2,057*00 



Guard Gate Switch Line 



29 poles at $ 25.50 739*50 

11,448 pounds of conductor at $ .20 2,289*60 



Guard Gate Line 



16^ poles at $ 25.50 408.00 

1,561 pounds of conductor at $ .20 312.20 



Massena Intake Line 



57 poles at | 25.50 1,453.50 

14,018 pounds of conductor at $ *20 2.803*60 

Material $ 61,729*00 

Labor 33,671*00 

95,400*00 

Engineering and Contingencies t 18# 17.000*00 

Total Cost of Distribution Feeders $112, 400*00 



215 



5. SUBSTATION 



Building $ 1,500.00 

Transformers 50,000.00 

♦Switches and Switchgear 12,500.00 

Miscellaneous 9,000.00 

Material $ 73,000.00 
Labor 5.000.00 

78,000.00 
Engineering and Contingencies t 18^ 14.000.00 

Total Cost of Substation $ 92,000*00 

♦This price is based on the Ft. Peck transfer price 
for this equipment. 



Summary of Cost of Power Distribution 

Transmission Trine $ 12,600.00 

Distribution Feeders 112,400.00 

Substation 92.000.00 

Total $217, 000.00 



216 



PART SIX 



House Document No* 978, 76th Congress* 3rd Session 
Bouse Document No* 153, 77th Congress. 1st Session 



Anpendix A-2 



76th Congress ■«=" ° F f^^EMTATIVES ^^^ 

3 d Session ___________ No* 979 



DEVELOPMENT OF THE INTERNATIONAL RAPIDS SEC- 
TION OF THE ST. LAWRENCE RIVER 



MESSAGE 



From 
THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES 



Transmitting 



A RECOMMENDATION 10 E THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE INTERNATIONAL RAPIDS SECTION OF 
THE ST. LAWRENCE RIVER WHICH HAS BEEN RECOMMENDED BY THE FEDERAL PGW£R COM- 
MISSION AND THE NATIONAL POWER POLICY COMMITTEE 



October 17. 19^0. — Referred to the Committee of the Whol« House on the State 
of the Union and ordered to be printed 



TO THE CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES: 

The surveys of the Federal Power Commission and the National Power Policy 
Committee have convinced me that the development of the International Rapids 
section of the St. Lawrence River should be undertaken at the earliest possible 
date as a part of adequate provision to meet the continuing power requirements 
of the defense program in certain essential centers of war material production 
in the Northeastern States. 

The potential power at this site is best adapted to meet the requirement s 
of expansion in certain essential defense industries, including alumr.num, 
magnesium, ferro-alloys, chemicals, etc. Actually, the Aluminum Co. of America 
has recently arranged for the import of 30,000 kilowatts of additional power 
from Canada to meet the pressing requirements of its existing plant located 
at the very site of the proposed St. Lawrence project and, I am reliably 
informed, is seeking additional supplies from across the border. Such imported 
supplies are, in effect, on an annual basis, subject to being withdrawn if 
required by the Canadian power market. 

It is urgent that this project be undertaken at the present time, not 
only from the point of view of our own defense but aJso in terms of those of 
our neighbor, Canada. The Province of Ontario needs to be able to count upon 
the early availability of this power to meet its growing load. The project 
may, therefore, be considered as an essential part of the program of con- 
tinental defense which is being actively worked out by representatives of the 
two peoples. 

I am informed that if the potential power of the International Rapids is 
is to be available to carry the peak load of 19^5 » preliminary investigations, 
particularly engineering surveys of the site, including core borings, test 
pits, soil analyses, etc., must be undertaken immediately. I have therefore 



217 



allocated $1,000,000 of the special defense fund to the Federal Fo T .v-~ r 
Commission and Corps of Engineers, United States Army, for this preliminary 
work and have appointed a Committee of Four tc advise me in planning the 
work and to cooperate with appropriate agencies of the Canadian Government. 
The members of this committee are Leland Olds, Chairman of the Federal Fower 
Commission, as Chairman; A. A. Eerie, Assistant Secretary of State; Erig. 
Gen. Thomas M. Robins, of the Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbours, 
Corps of Engineers, United States Army; and Gerald V. Cruise, representative 
of the trustees of the Power Authority of the State of New York. I have 
directed the United States Corps of Engineers to begin the necessary investi- 
gations immediately. 

The preliminary investigations which I have authorized involve no actual 
construction or commitment to construct. In taking this means of advising 
Congress of the surveys I am having made, I wish to make it clear that Congress 
will be kept advised of such further steps as may be necessary. 

Franklin D. Roosevelt. 

The White House, October 17, 1940. 



218 



nn*x. n co HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tw„mon+ 

77th Congress Document 

1st Session No. 15. 



■<> 



TEXT OF AN AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENTS OF 
THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA FERTAIN1NG TO THE 
ST. LAWRENCE RIVER 



MESSAGE 



From 
THE FRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES 

Transmitting 

THE TEXT OF AN AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES AND THE 
GOVEftflflENT OF CANADA PROVIDING FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF DAMS AND POWER WORKS 
IN THE INTERNATIONAL RAPIDS SECTION OF THE ST. LAWRENCE RIVER t AND PROVIDING FOR 
COMPLETION OF THE ST. LAWRENCE DEEP WATERWAY. 



March 21, 1941* — Referred to the Committee of the Whole House on the state of 
the Union and ordered to be printed. 



TO THE CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES: 

I transmit herewith for the information of the Congress the text of an 
agreement between the Government of the United States and the Government of 
Canada providing for the construction of dams and power works in the inter- 
national rapids section of the St. Lawrence River; and providing for com- 
pletion of the essential links in the Great Lakes -St .Lawrence Deep Waterway 
when the Governments of the United States and Canada agree that circumstances 
require it. 

The terms of the agreement contemplate that it shall be made effective 
by concurrent legislation of the Canadian Parliament and of the Congress 
of the United States. 

I expect to request introduction, in due course, of legislation designed 
to make this agreement effective. 

Franklin D. Roosevelt. 

The White House, March 21, 1941 • 



219 



(Text of Agreement) 

The President of the United States of America and His Majesty the King 
of Great Britain, Ireland and the British dominions beyond the Seas, Emperor 
of India, in respect of Canada, have decided to conclude an Agreement in 
relation to the utilization of the water in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Basin 
and to that end have named as their respective plenipotentiaries: 
The President of the United States of America: 
Jay Pierre pont Moffat, 

Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the United 
States of America to Canada ; 
Adolf Augustus Berle, Jr., 

Assistant Secretary of State; 
Leland Olds, 

Chairman of the Federal Power Commission; 
His Majesty the King of Great Britain, Ireland and the British dominions 
beyond the Seas, Emperor of India, for Canada: 
The Right Honourable W. L. Mackenzie King, 

Prime Minister, President of the Privy Council and Secretary of State 
for External Affairs; 
The Honourable Clarence D. Howe, 

Minister of Munitions and Supply; 
John E. Read, 

Legal Adviser, Department of External Affairs; 
Who, after having communicated to each other their full powers found in 
good and due form, have agreed upon the following Articles. 

PRELIMINARY ARTICLE 

For the purposes of the present Agreement, unless otherwise expressly 
provided, the expression: 

(a) "Joint Board of Engineers" means the board appointed pursuant to an 
agreement between the Governments following the recommendation of the Inter- 
national Joint Commission, dated December 19, 1921; 

(b) "Great .Lakes System" means Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron (Including 
Georgian Bay), Erie and Ontario, and the connecting waters, including Lake 
St. Clair; 

(c) "St. Lawrence River" includes the river channels and the lakes forming 
parts of the river channels from the outlet of Lake Ontario to the sea; 

(d) "International Section" means that part of the St. Lawrence River 
through which the international boundary line runs; 

(e) "Canadian Section" means that part of the St. Lawrence River which 
lies wholly within Canada and which extends from the easterly limit of the 
International Section to Montreal Harbour. 

(f) "International Rapids Sections" means that part of the International 
Section which extends from Chimney Point to the village of St. Regis; 

(g) "Governments" means the Government of the United States of America 
and the Government of Canada; 

(h) "countries" means the United States of America and Canada; 

(i) "Special International Niagara Board" means Ihe board appointed by 
the Governments in 1926 to ascertain and recommend ways and means to preserve 
the scenic beauty of the Niagara Falls; 

(j) "deep waterway" means adequate provision for navigation requiring a 
controlling channel depth of 27 feet with a depth of 30 feet over lock sills, 
from the head of the Great Lakes to Montreal Harbour via the Great Lakes 
System and St. Lawrence River, in general accordance with the specifications 

220 



set forth in the Report of the Joint Board of Engineers, dated November 
16, 1926. 

ARTICLE 1 

1. The Governments agree to establish and maintain a Great Lakes- St. 
Lawrence Basin Commission, hereinafter referred to as the Commission, 
consisting of not more than ten members of whom an equal number shall 

be appointed by each Government. The Duties of the Commission shall be: 

(a) to prepare and to recommend plans and specifications for 
the construction of works in the International Rapids Section in ac- 
cordance with and containing the features described in the Annex attached 
to and made part of this Agreement , with such modifications as may be 
agreed upon by the Governments; 

(b) upon approval of the plans and specifications by the 
Governments, to prepare a schedule allocating the construction of the 
works in the International Rapids Section on such a basis that each 
Government shall construct the works within its own territory or an equiva- 
lent proportion of the works so approved; 

(c) to approve all contracts entered into on behalf of either 
Government for the works in the International Rapids Section; 

(d) to supervise the construction of the works and to submit 
reports to the Governments from time to time, and at least once each ca- 
lendar year, on the progress of the works; 

(e) upon satisfactory ccmpletion of the works, to certify to 
the Governments that they meet the plans and specifications drawn up by 
the Commission and approved by the Governments; 

(f) to perform the other duties assigned to it in this Agreement . 

2. The Commission shall have the authority to employ such person and to 
make such expenditures as may be necessary to carry out the duties set forth 

in this Agreement. It shall have the authority to avail itself of the services 
of such governmental agencies, officers and employees of either country as may 
be made available. The remuneration, general expenses and all other expenses 
of its members shall be regulated and paid by their respective Governments; 
and the other expenses of the Commission, except as provided for under Article 
III, paragraph (b) of this Agreement, shall be borne by the Governments in 
equal moieties. 

3* The Governments agree to permit the entry into their respective coun- 
tries, within areas immediately adjacent to the Niagara River and the Inter- 
national Section to be delimited by exchange of notes of personnel employed by 
the Commission or employed in the construction of the works, and to exempt 
such personnel from the operation of their immigration laws and regulations 
within the areas so delimited. In the event that the Cornmission, pursuant to 
the provisions of paragraph 1 (b) of this Article, allocates to either of the 
Governments the construction of works, any part of which is within the terri- 
tory of the other Government, the latter Government shall make provision for 
the according, within the area in which such a part is situated, of such 
exemption from customs, excise and other imposts, federal, state and provincial, 
as may be reasonably practicable for the effective and economical pros»ecution 
of the work* Regulations providing for such exemptions may be settled by the 
Governments by exchange of notes. 



221 



4» The Governments shall, by exchange of notes, prescribe rules and 
regulations for the conduct of the Commission. They may by the same means 
extend or abridge its powers and duties and reduce or after reduction increase 
the number of members (provided that there must always be an equal number 
appointed by each Government and that the total number of members shall at 
no time exceed ten); and, upon completion of its duties, the Governments may 
terminate its existence. 

ARTICLE II 

The Government of Canada agrees: 

(a) in accordance with the plans and specifications, prepared by the 
Commission and approved by the Governments, to construct the works in the 
International Rapids Section allocated to Canada by the Commission; and to 
operate and maintain or arrange for the operation and maintenance of the works 
situated in the territory of Canada; 

(b) to complete, not later than December Jl t 1948 t the essential Canadian 
links in the deep waterway, including the necessary deepening of the new Wel- 
land Ship Canal and the construction of canals and other works to provide the 
necessary depth in the Canadian Section of the St. Lawrence River; provided 
that, if the continuance of war conditions or the requirements of defence 
justify a modification of the period within which such works shall be com- 
pleted, the Governments may, by exchange of notes, arrange .to defer or ex- 
pedite their completion as circumstances may require, 

ARTICLE III 



The Government of the United States of America agrees t 

(a) in accordance with the plans and specifications prepared by the 
Commission and approved by the Governments, to construct the works in the 
International Rapids Section allocated to the United States of America by the 
Commission; and to operate and maintain or arrange for the operation and main- 
tenance of the works situated in the territory of the United States of America; 

(b) to provide, as required by the progress of the works, funds for the 
construction, including design and supervision, of all works in the Inter- 
national Rapids Section except (1) machinery and equipment for the develop- 
ment of power, and (2) works required for rehabilitation on the Canadian side 
of the international boundary; 

(c) not later than the date of completion of the essential Canadian links 
in the deep waterway, to complete the works allocated to it in the Inter- 
national Rapids Section and the works in the Great Lakes System above Lake 
Erie required to create essential links in the deep waterway. 

ARTICLE IV 

The Governments agree that: 

(a) they may, in their respective territories, in conformity with the 
general plans for the project in the International Rapids Section, install or 
arrange for the installation of such machinery and equipment as may be desired 
for the development of power and at such time or times as may be most suit- 
able in terms of their respective power requirements; 

(b) in view of the need for co-orination of the plans and specifications 
prepared by the Commission for general works in the International Rapids 



222 



Section with plans for the development of power in the respective countries, 
the Commission may arrange for engineering services with any agency in 
either country which may be authorized to develop power in the International 
Rapids Section; 

(c) except as modified by the provisions of Article VIII, paragraph (b) 
of this Agreement, each country shall be entitled to utilize one-half of the 
water available for power purposes in the International Rapids Section; 

(d) during the construction and upon the completion of the works pro- 
vided for in the International Rapids Section f the flow of water out of Lake 
Ontario into the St. Lawrence River shall be controlled and the flow of water 
through the International Section shall be regulated so that the navigable 
depths of water for shipping in the harbour of Montreal and throughout the 
navigable channel of the St* Lawrence River below Montreal, as such depths 
now exist or may hereafter be increased by dredging or other harbour or 
channel improvements, shall not be injuriously affected by the construction 

or operation of such works, and the power developments in the Canadian Section 
of the St. Lawrence River shall not be adversely affected; 

(e) upon the completion of the works provided for in the International 
Rapids Section, the power works shall be operated, initially, with the water 
level at the power houses held at a maximu elevation 238. 0, sea level datum as 
defined in the Report of the Joint Board of Engineers for a test period of ten 
years or such shorter period as may be approved by any board or authority 
designated or established under the provisions of paragraph (f) of this Article; 
and, in the event that such board or authority considers that operation with 
the water level at the power houses held to a maximum elevation exceeding 
238.O would be practicable and could be made effective within the limitations 
prescribed by paragraphs (c) and (d) of this Article', the Governments may, 

be exchange of notes, authorize operation, subject to the provisions of this 
Article, and for such times and subject to such terms as may be prescribed in 
the notes, at a maximum elevation exceeding 233.0; 

(f) the Governments may, by exchange of notes, make provision for giving 
effect to paragraphs (c) , (d) and (e) of this Article; 

(g) during the construction of the works provided for in the International 
Rapids Section, facilities for 14 ft. navigation in that Section shall be 
maintained. 

ARTICLE V 

The Governments agree that nothing done under the authority of this 
Agreement shall confer upon either of them proprietary rights, or legislative, 
administrative ro other jurisdiction, in the territory of the other, and that 
.the works constructed under the provisions of this Agreement shall constitute 
a part of the territory of the country in which they are situated. 

ARTICLE VI 

The Governments agree that either of them may proceed at any time to 
construct, within its own territory and at its own cost, alternative canal 
and channel facilities for navigation in the International Section or in waters 
connecting the Great Lakes, and to utilize the water necessary for the operation 
of such facilities. 



223 



ARTICLE VII 

The High Contracting Farties agree that the rights of navigation 
accorded under the provisions of existing treaties between the United States 
of America and His Majesty shall be maintained notwithstanding the provisions 
for termination contained in any of such treaties, and declare that these 
treaties confer upon the citizens or subjects and upon the ships, vessels and 
boats of each High Contracting Party, rights of navigation in the St. Law- 
rence River, and the Great Lakes System, including the canals now existing or 
which may hereafter te constructed, 

ARTICLE VIII 

The Governments, recognizing their common interest in the preservation 
of the levels of the Great Lakes System, agree that: 

(a) each Government in its own territory shall measure the quantities of 
water which at any point are diverted from or added to the Great Lakes System, 
and shall place such measurements on record with the other Government semi- 
annually; 

(b) in the event of diversions being made into the Great Lakes System 
from other watersheds lying wholly within the borders of either country, the 
exclusive rights to the use of waters which are determined by the Governments 
to be equivalent .in quantity to any waters so diverted shall,- notwithstanding 
the provisions of Article IV, paragraph (c) of this Agreement, be vested in 
the country diverting such waters, and the quantity of water so diverted shall 
be at all times available to that country for use for power below the point of 
entry, so long as it constitutes a part of boundary waters; 

(c) if any diversion of water from the Great Lakes System or the Inter- 
national Section, other or greater in amount than diversions permitted in 
either of the countries on January 1 1940 is authorized, the Government of 
such country agrees to give immediate consideration to any representations 
respecting the matter which the other Government may make; if it is impossible 
otherwise to reach a satisfactory settlement, the Government of the country 
in which the diversion of water has been authorized agrees, on the request 

of the other Government, to submit the matter to an arbitral tribunal which 
shall be empowered to direct such compensatory or remedial measured as it may 
deem just and equitable; the arbitral tribunal shall consist of three members, 
one tc be appointed by each of the Governments, and the thdrdD, who will be 
the chairman, to be selected by the Governments; 

(d) the Commission shall report upon the desirability of works for com- 
pensation and regulation in the Great Lakes System, and, upon the approval by 
the Governments of any such works, shall prepare plans and specifications for 
their construction and recommend to the Governments an equitable allocation 
of their cost; the Governments shall make arrangements by exchange of notes 
for the construction of such works as they may agree upon. 

ARTICLE IX 

The Governments, recognizing their primary obligation to preserve and 
enhance the scenic beauty of the Niagara Falls and River, and consistent with 
that obligation, their common interest in providing for the most beneficial 
use of the waters of that River, as envisaged in the Final Report of the 
Special International Niagara Board, agree that: 



224 



(a) the Commission shall prepare and submit to the Governments plans and 
specifications for works in the Niagara River designed to distribute and 
control the waters thereof, to prevent erosion and to ensure at all seasons 
unbroken crest lines on both the American Falls and the Canadian Falls and 

.,0 preserve and enhance their scenic beauty, taking into account the recom- 
mendations of the Special International Niagara Board; the Governments may make 
arrangements by exchange of notes for the construction of such works in the 
Niagara River as they may agree upon, including provision for temporary diver- 
sions fo the waters of the Niagara River for the purpose of facilitating 
construction of the works; the cost of such works in the Niagara River shall 
be borne by the Governments in equal moieties; 

(b) upon the completion of the works authorized in this Article, diver- 
sions of the waters of the Niagara River above the Falls from the natural 
course and stream thereof additional to the amounts specified in Article 5 °^ 
the Boundary Waters Treaty of 1909 may be authorized and permitted by the 
Government to the extent and in the manner hereinafter provided: 

(1) the United States may authorize and permit additional 
diversion within the State of New York of the waters of the River above 
the Falls for power purposes, in excess of the amount specified in 
Article 5 of the Boundary Waters Treaty of 1909. not to exceed in the 
aggregate a daily diversion at the rate of five thousand cubic feet of 
water per seoondj 

(2) Canada may authorize end permit additional diversion within the 
Province of Ontario of the waters of the River above the Falls for power 
purposes, in excess of the amount specified in Article 5 or> the Boundary 
Waters Treaty of 1909* not to exceed in the aggregate a daily diversion 
at the rate of five thousand cubic feet of water per second; 

(c) upon completion of the works authorized in this Article, the Com- 
mission shall proceed immediately to test such works under a wide range of 
conditions, and to report and certify to the Governments the effect of such 
works, and to make recommendations respecting diversions of water from Lake 
Erie and the Niagara River, with particular reference to (1) the perpetual 
preservation of the scenic beauty of the Falls and Rapids, (2) the require- 
ments of navigation in the Great Lakes System, and (3) the efficient utili- 
zation and equitable apportionment of such waters as may be available for 
power purposes; on the basis of the Commission's reports and recommendations, 
the Governments may by exchange of notes and concurrent legislation determine 
the methods by which these purposes may be attained. 

ARTICLE X 

The Governments agree that: 

(a) each Government undertakes to make provision for the disposition of 
claims and for the satisfaction of any valid claims arising out of damage or 
injury to persons or property occurring in the territory of the other in the 
course of and in connection with construction by such Government of any of 
the works authorized or provided for by this Agreement * 

(b) each Government, is hereby released from responsibility for any dam- 
age or injury to persons or property in the territory of the other which may 
be caused by any action authorized or provided for by this Agreement, other 
than damage or injury covered by the provisions of paragraph (a) of this 
Article ; 

(c) each Government will assume the responsibility for and the expense 
involved in the acquisition of any lands or interests in land in its own 



225 



territory which may be necessary to give effect to the provisions of this 
Agreement . 

ARTICLE XI 

This Agreement shall be subject to approval by the Congress of the 
United States of America and the Parliament cf Canada. Following such 
approval it shall be proclaimed by the President of the United States of 
America and ratified by His Majesty the King of Great Britain, Ireland and 
the British dominions beyond the Seas, Emperor of India in respect of 
Canada. It shall enter into force on the day of the exchange of the in- 
strument of ratification and a copy of the proclamation, which shall take 
place at Washington. 

In witness whereof the respective plenipotentiaries have signed this 
Agreement in duplicate and have hereunto affixed their seals. 

Done at Ottawa, the nineteenth day of March, in the year of our Lord 
one thousand nine hundred and forty-one. 

(Seal) Jay Pierrepont Moffat 

(Seal) Adolf A. Berle, Jr. 

(Seal) Leland Olds 

(Seal) W. L. Mackenzie King 

(Seal) C. D. Howe 

(Seal) John E. Read 



226 



ANNEX 

Controlled Single Stage Project (238-242) 

For Works in the International Rapids Section 

(See Article 1, Paragraph 1 (a)) 

The main features of the Controlled Single Stage Project (238-242) , 
described in detail with cost estimates in the report of the Temporary Great 
Lakes-St. Lawrence Basin Committees dated January 3» 1941. are as follows : 

(1) A control dam in the vicinity of Iroquois Point, 

(2) A dam in the Long Sault Papids at the head cf Branhart Island and 

two power houses, one on either side of the international boundary, 
at the foot of Barnhart Island. 

(3) A side canal, with one lock on the United States mainland to carry 

navigation around the control dam and a side canal, with one guard 
gate and two locks, on the United States mainland south of Barnhart 
Island to carry navigation from above the main Long Sault Dam to 
the river south of Cornwall Island. All locks to provide 30f"t» 
depth of water on the mitre sills and to be of the general dimen- 
sions of those of the Welland Ship Canal. All navigation channels 
to be excavated to 27ft. depth. 

(4) Dykes, where necessary, on the United States and Canadian sides of 

the international boundary, to retain the pool level above the Long 
Sault Dam. 

(5) Channel enlargement from the head of Galop Island to below Lotus 

Island designed to give a maximum velocity in the navigation channel 
south of Galop Island not exceeding four feet per second at any time 

(6) Channel enlargement between Lotus Island and the control dam and from 

above Point Three Points to below Ogden Island designed to give a 
maximum mean velocity in any cross-section not exceeding two and 
one-quarter feet per second with the flow and at the stage to be 
permitted on the 1st of January of any year, under regulation of 
outflow and levels of Lake Ontario. 

(7) The necessary railroad and highway modifications on either side of 

the international boundary. 

(8) The necessary works to permit the continuance of 14 ft. navigation 

on the Canadian side around the control dam and from the pool above 
the Long Sault Dam to connect with the existing Cornwall Canal. 

(9) The rehabilitation of the towns of Iroquois and Morrisburg, Ontario. 
All the works in the pool below the control dam shall be designed to 

provide for full Lake Ontario level but initially the pool shall be operated 
at maximum elevation 238 .0. 



«i 



27 



ST. LAWRENCE RIVER 

PROJECT 



FINAL REPORT 

|942 ****CN75A 0on 



.: 



^ 



SEISMIC EXPLORATION 



1940 & 1941 






■LTV 








CORPS OF ENGINEERS, U.S. ARMY 

U.S. ENGINEER OFFICE • MASSENA, NEW YORK. 



APPENDIX B- 2 



ST. LAWRENCE RIVER 
PROJECT 



* * * * * 



PINAL REPORT 
1 9 k 2 



SEISMIC EXPLORATION 

l 9 U & l 9 if 1 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS, U.S. ARMY 
U.S. Engineer Office - Massena, Nev; York 
July , 19te 



APPENDIX B-2 



St. Lawrence River Project 
Seismic Exploration 194° ai ±d 1941 

CONTENTS 

Par. No. Paragraph Title Page No. 

I. INTRODUCTION 

1. Purpose of Report 1 

2. Description of Project 1 
3« Regional Geology 1 

II. FIELD EXPLORATION 

4. Exploration Prior to October 1940 1 

5. Exploration October 1940 to January 1942 1 

6. — - 1 

7. 2 

8. 2 

III. ORGANIZATION 

9. General 2 

10. 2 

11. -— 3 

IV . THEORY OF SEISMIC METHOD 

12. Principles Involved 3 

13. 3 

14. 3 

15. — - 3 

16. 4 

V. EQUIPMENT 

17. General 4 

18. Special Equipment 4 

19. 4 

VI. PROCEDURE OF FIELD WORK 

5 

5 
5 

c 

2k'. 6 

25. 6 

26. Work in Channel at long Sault Dam Site 6 

27. 6 

28. 7 

« 

VII. ANALYSIS OF DATA 



20. 


General 


21. 


Land Work 


22. 


Work In Quiet Water 


23. 





29 



General 7 

30. 7 

31. 8 






-A- 



Par. No. Paragraph Title Page No. 

VII. ANALYSIS OF DATA (Cont'd) 

33. - — 9 

34* Determination of Overburden Conditions 9 

35. .... 9 

36. 10 

37# Determination of Rock Elevation in Channel 

at Long Sault Dam Site 10 

38. 10 

39. ---- 11 

VIII. VALIDITY OF RESULTS 

40. General 11 

41. 11 

42. Point Rockway Canal 12 

43. — - . 12 

44. Effect of Frozen Ground 12 
45 • Correlation with Drill Holes 12 



-E- 



St. Lawrence River Project 
Seismic Exploration 1940 and 1941 

TABLES 

I* Location of Seismic Lines 
II. Seismic Data and Results 
III* Comparison of Seismic Interpretation with 
Drilling Records 

PLATES 

I. Site Map of Project 

II* Typical Time -Distance Graph 

III. Portable Seismograph 

IV. Pipe Detector Mounting 

V* Tripod Detector Mounting 

VI. Sketch of Swift Water Method 

VII. Typical Time-Distance Graph With Computations 

VIII* Typical Single Overburden Graph 

IX. Typical Three Overburden Graph 

X. Typical Shallow Rock Graph 

XI. Frozen Ground Graph 



APPENDIX A 
LOCATION OP SEISMIC EXPLORATION 

A- I* Chimney Island 

A- II. Galop Island 

A- III* Vicinity of Galop Island 

A- IV. Lotus Island, Sparrowhawk Point and Toussaints Island 

A-V. Iroquois Dam Site 

A- VI. Point Rockway Canal 

A- VII* Vicinity of Point Three Points to Doran Island No* 1 

A- VIII* Vicinity of Point Three Points to Doran Island No* 2 

A- IX* Bradford Point and Louisville Dikes 

A-X. Massena Canal Intake Works 

A- XI* Long Sault Dam 

A- XII* Long Sault Canal, Station 265t 40 to 340 + 70 

A- XIII* Long Sault Canal, 

A-XIV. Long Sault Canal, 

A- XV. Long Sault Canal, 

A- XVI* Grass River Lock 

A- XVII* Barnhart Island Powerhouse 

A- XVIII* Cornwall Canal Relocation 

A-XIX* Massena Power Canal Railroad Bridge Site 

A-XX* Cornwall Island and Racquette Point 

A-XXI. Quarry Site Survey 



Station 340 + 


70 


to 


412 + 90 


Station 412 + 


90 


to 


485 4. 25 


Station 485 «■ 


25 


to 


534 -h 70 



-C- 



ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 
SEISMIC EXPLORATION I940 AND 1941 

I INTRODUCTION 

1. Purpose of Report . - The purpose of this report is to discuss the 
results and to describe in detail the seismic investigations made between 
November 1940 and October I94I on the St. Lawrence River Project. The 
seismic investigations were conducted by the St. Lawrence River District of 
the U. S. Corps of Engineers with an office located at J/assena, New York. 

2. Description of Project . - The St.* Lawrence River Project is located 
in what is known as the International Rapids Section of the St. Lawrence 
River and extends from Ogdensburg, New York to a few miles downstream from 
Cornwall, Ontario, as shown on Plate I. The main features of the controlled 
single-stage project are (1) a control dam at Iroquois Point, (2) a dam in 
the Long Sault Rapids between Barnhart Island and the U. S. mainland, 

(3) two powerhouses, one on either side of the International Boundary, at 
the foot of Barnhart Island, (4) a side canal with one lock on the U. S. main- 
land to carry navigation around the control dam, (5) a side canal with 2 locks 
on the U. S. mainland to carry navigation around the main Long Sault Dam, 

(6) channels and cuts to produce suitable navigation and hydraulic conditions, 

(7) all required dikes, railroads and highways, (8) necessary works to per- 
mit usual operation of the present navigation canal in Canada, and (9) 
necessary control structure to permit the continual operation of the J/assena 
Power Canal. 

3. Regional Geology . - The St. Lawrence valley is a region of low re- 
lief which has been greatly modified by glaciation and marine invasion. The 
area of the valley in which seismic investigations have been conducted is 
underlain by sedimentary rocks, mainly dolomite and limestone of Lower 
Ordovician age. In general glacial action has removed the residual, soft, 
weathered rock, leaving a generally smooth, undulating, hard rock surface of 
low relief broken by occasional valleys, ridges, and faults. The overburden 
consists of deposits of variable glacial till in the form of elongate ridges 
and deposits of clays, silts, and uniform sands in the valleys between the 
till ridges. 

II FIELD EXPLORATION 

4. Exploration Prior to October 192iO . - Prior to October 1940, sufficient 
studies and investigations had been made to determine the plan of the project 
and the general - location of each feature. The exploration at the site of each 
structure, except at the Long Sault Dam and powerhouse sites consisted of a 
very few drill holes from which the general rock elevations could be determined. 
At the Long Sault Dam and powerhouse sites relatively more exploration had 
been completed than at other sites. 

5« Exploration October 192iO To January 1942 . - Since October 1940, the 
exploration completed through January 1942 has consisted of i486 drill holes, 
930 test pits and auger holes, 822 probings in soft overburden, 457 seismic 
lines and single determinations, and extensive geological reconnaissance. 
Complete data on all exploration are on file in the district office. 

6. At the outset of the present exploratory program it was recognized 
that subsurface conditions were favorable to the seismic method of investi- 
gation and that the interface between the hard rock and the overburden could 

-1- 



be determined with fair accuracy, also that some success in the class- 
ification of the overburden might be achieved. 

7. To obtain information regarding the elevation cf bedrock for 
the preliminary design and the definite location of structures , a 
program of drilling and siesmic investigations were conducted. The 
overburden conditions were determined by drilling and to some extent 

by seismic explorations. Extensive tests were conducted at sites where 
very little information was available to determine general rock and 
soil conditions for preliminary layouts. The results of the seismic 
investigations were used to plan a limited drilling program to obtain 
more detailed information. At s-ites where sufficient data was available 
for laying out a drilling program, only a few seismic determinations 
were made. In general, the seismic method was used to obtain data be- 
tween the drill holes. In this manner, the drilling program was kept 
to a minimum. 

8. The locations and results of all seismic lines and single shot 
determinations are shown on Plates AT to AXXI , inclusive of Appendix A 
to this report. Locations where the results were not considered suff- 
iciently accurate to be of value have been omitted from the plates. 
Table I lists each line fired, the transverse mercator coordinates of 
the center point, the azimuth of the line, the general location of the 
line as to site and the plate on which the line is plotted. 

Ill ORGANIZATION 

9. General . - Seismic exploration was originally organized under 
the Soils and Foundation Section, which provided the supplies and all 
personnel. At a later date the operations Division supplied and con- 
ducted all phases of the field operations while the Soils and Foundation 
Section continued to handle the technical aspects of the work. Field 
work was begun on November 13, 1940t at which time Rl*. E. R. Shepard , 
Office of the Chief of Engineers, organized a field party and remained 
with it until November 19 , after which time Dr. A. E. Wood, Associate 
Geologist of the Binghamton District, assumed technical direction of the 
work and personally analyzed and interpreted most of the field data until 
early in February, 1941* when he was recalled to the Binghamton District, 
He was assisted in his interpretations by W . A. Wells of the RSssena 
Office, who thereafter interpreted the field data during Vr. Shepard' s 
absence. On February 25, 19^1. ••^ , « Shepard returned to iassena and in 
the following ten days reviewed all of the data that had been collected 
up to that time. 

10. Because frost in the ground began to seriously interfere with 
the accuracy of the interpretations, field work was suspended from 
Tarch 3 until April 28, after which date it continued until October 17, 
1941. From T.'ay 12, 19/j.l . until completion of the work, with minor in- 
terruptions, lie . Shepard gave his entire time to interpretation and 
analysis of field data and to the development of special apparatus and 
technique for exploration under water. 



-2- 



11. Following are the names of several operators who were 
responsible for the field work, together with the periods during which 
each served: 

K. J. Bassett, Binghamton District, November 13 , I940 to Nov. 26, 1940 

Paul Shea, Providence District, Nov. 27, I940 , to Dec. 23, 1940. 

E. J. Bassett, Binghamton District, Dec. 27, I940 , to March 3, 1941. 

K. J. Bassett, • » , April 28, 1941 , to May 10, 1941 . 

M. J. Verville, Massena District, May 12, 1941. "to June 2, 1941. 

L. T. Abele, South Atlantic Division, June 3, 1941t to July 24, 1941* 

Walter Wright, Massena District, July 25, 1941i to Sept. 16, 1941. 

Walter Wright, » • , Oct. 13, 1941, to Oct. 17, 1941- 



IV THEORY OF SEISI/JC METHOD 

12. Principles Involved . - A comprehensive discussion of the 
principles involed in seismic exploration will not be given as the 
subject is adequately treated in voluminous literature. A brief * 
description of the theory is necessary, however, if the significance 
of the data here presented is to be understood. 

13. The seismic method of exploration is based on the fact that 
the velocity of wage propagation in the earth's crust differs greatly 
in different substances. Granular and plastic materials such as sand, 
clay, and gravel transmit wave disturbances at velocities of roughly 
800 to 8,000 feet per second, while rigid rack transmits such dis- 
turbances at 10,000 to 20,000 feet per second. This wide range in 
velocities in different kinds of soils and rocks is dependent on their 
elastic properties, a factor closely related to their rigidity and 
hardness. Many factors such as moisture, texture, compaction, void 
space, cementation, and homogeneity enter into the problem and must be 
reckoned with in analyzing any particular condition. 

14. To obtain data from which the velocities of wave propagation 
and depths of various materials can be determined, detectors (Usually 
three) are placed on the ground surface and charges of dynamite are 
exploded at various distances from the detectors. The time interval 
for the wave to travel from the charge to the detector is photograph- 
ically recorded with an oscillograph to which the detectors and the 
detonating circuit are electrically connected. A time scale, made by 
an electrically driven tuning fork, is recorded on the oscillograph 
film. From the film records the time interval of the first arrival of 
wave travel from each shot to each of the detectors is read and the data 
are plotted to the form of a time-distance graph, as shown on Plate II. 

15 • In a homogeneous material the time-distance relation will 
be a straight line through the origin. This is evident from the fact 
that in such a medium the velocity of wave propagation is constant, or 
the time of travel is proportional to the shooting distance. It is 
also evident that the slope of such a graph is a measure of the 
velocity in the medium. 



-3- 



§ 



16. When a layer of homogeneous soil is underlain by one through 
which waves travel at a higher velocity, such as that designated as 
clay (See Plate II), there will be a critical distance, OF, for which 
the time of travel through the upper medium is just equal to the time 
of travel over the longer path which penetrates the lower medium. At 
this critical distance there will be a break in the time-distance 
graph to a different slope, CD, which represents the velocity of wave 
propagation in the second medium. In like manner when ,the critical 
shooting distance, OG, is passed, the first arrivals will be through 
the high-velocity rock and the time-distance graph will assume the 
new trend, Di, the slope of which determines the velocity in the rock 
stratum. From the ordinates OA and AB on the time axis and the veloci- 
ties indicated by the slopes of the several elements of the graph, it 
is possible to calculate the thickness of each stratum of overburden. 



V EQUIPMENT 



17 • General. - The seismograph used throughout the investigation 
was one of a type designed by E. R. Shepard of the Office of the Chief 
of Engineers, and leased from the Binghamton U. S. Engineer District» 
This apparatus consisted of one or more detectors or geophones and an 
oscillograph recorder. A photograph of the instrument and detector 
is shown on Plate III. 

18. Special Equipment . - To satisfactorily conduct subaqueous 
exploration, it was necessary to waterproof the detectors and so mount 
them that they would assume a vertical position when lowered to the 
bed of the river. A waterproof housing for each detector was made con- 
sisting of a 3i-ineh steel pipe 10 inches long with the lower end 
closed with a steel plate and the upper end closed with a cap containing 
a 3/4-inch pipe nipple. A detector, to which a pair of rubber covered 
leads about 30 feet in length were attached, was placed in the housing 
and held tightly with cotton waste packed around the sides and over 
the terminals. The leads passed through the nipple. It is of course 
important that the detector rest firmly" on the bottom of the housing. 

19* Two methods were used to keep the detectors in a vertical 
position on the bed of the river. For depths not in excess of 10 feet, 
the detectors were mounted as shown on Plate IV. Where the water was 
more than 10 feet deep the detector assembly shown on Plate V was used. 
The detector in the waterproof housing was suspended from the apex of 
a heavy iron tripod. When lowered into position the detector assumed 
a vertical position regardless of the configuration of the river bed 
and although the detector did not rest directly on the bottom, it re- 
ceived the shock from the explosion through the legs of the tripod and 
the suspension wire. 



-4- 



VI fROCEDURS OF FIELD WORK 

20. General . - The seismic field party consisted of an operator, 
who was also party chief in complete charge of all phases of the field 
work; and six helpers, one an authorized powder or dynamite man. A 
light truck served as transportation for the party and equipment. The 
seismic operator was responsible for recording all information valuable 
to the interpreter of the data or anyone else who may be interested in 

a particular line. In a field notebook were recorded the number of each 
shot, remarks regarding each shot and distance of each of the detectors 
from each shot. The operator also made a small sketch showing the 
location of the line with reference to local features to aid surveyors 
in locating the line, and recorded weather conditions, ground conditions, 
depth of frost, and any other information which may aid in the inter- 
pretation of the data. All film records were developed by the Burkett 
Studio of Massena and were always available for interpretation on the 
morning following that on which they were shot. All field notes and 
seismic film are on file in the district office. 

21. Land Work . - The general locations of the desired seismic 
lines on land were plotted on maps in the office. The operator then 
located himself in the field by the topography and landmarks shown on 
the map, and laid out the line along a contour. An effort was made 
to stay on one type of overburden. The half of the line extending 
down river or toward the river from the center was called "Ahead* and 
the half extending up river or away from the river was called "Back." 
In ordinary field procedure three detectors were placed on the ground 
in a line at intervals of Jj.0 feet and connected to the oscillograph 
with lead wires. Dynamite charges varying from \ to \\\ sticks were 
buried to a depth of about 3 feet and were then fired successively and 
at increasing distances along the detector line, beginning at 10 feet 
from the center detector and extending the shooting distance by inter- 
vals of about 50 feet to such lengths as was required. A shooting 
distance of three or four times the depth to which information was 
desired was usually necessary. The charges were fired by means of a 
detonating circuit which is controlled by the oscillograph. Prior to 
firing the shots relative elevations of shot and detector points to 
the center of the line were taken with a hand level. The location and 
elevation of the center and the azimuth of each line was determined by 
field surveys. 

22. Work in Quiet Water . - The need for information on the char- 
acter and depth of overburden in the bed of the river in the vicinity 
of Chimney Island and Galop Island (See Plates AI, All, and AIII of 
Appendix A), necessitated the development of the special apparatus des- 
cribed in paragraphs 18 and 19 and a revised testing technique. 

23. The laying out of a line was accomplished by a float or 
marker line constructed by attaching wooden blocks at designated points 
on a 3/8" hemp rope approximately 600 feet long. 



-5- 



Measured from the center of the line, floats were attached at the following 
points: 0, 10, 40, 80 , 130 , 180, and 230 feet in both directions. The 
center float and those at 2j.O feet either side of the center marked the 
detector positions, while the other blocks marked the shot points as on 
a normal land line. 

24. One end of the float line was anchored on the bed of the 
river approximately 300 feet upstream from the center of the seismic 
line along which information was desired. The line was then allowed 
to float downstream until it assumed a stable position. Where the 
current was not strong enough to stretch the line it was necessary to 
anchor both ends after maneuvering it into the desired position. In 
some instances it was necessary to anchor the center of the line also 
to prevent it from drifting with the wind or current. It was usually 
necessary to attach buoys to the line at anchor points to keep the 
markers afloat. Empty oil cans of 2 or 5 gallon capacity were found 
satisfactory for this purpose. Soundings were taken at each shot and 
detector positions to ascertain the variation in elevation along the 
line. Observers on shore determined the position of each line and the 
elevation of the water surface. 

25. After stretching and anchoring the float line, three detectors 
were placed with the special equipment described in paragraphs 18 and 

19 and shown on Plates IV and V. For depths of water not in excess of 
10 feet a pipe or rod was driven at each detector position and the de- 
tector assembly shown on Plate IV was lashed to the pipe or rod in a 
vertical position. Where the water was more than 10 feet deep, the 
detector assembly shown on Plate V was lowered to the river bottom with 
a rope after the nipple was sealed against entrance of water. A boat 
containing the receiving apparatus was anchored about 50 feet from the 
center detector and the three pairs of leads used in land work were 
connected to the auxiliary leads attached to the detectors. The charges 
of dynamite were lowered in position using a rock tied to a piece of 
flagging or burlap to act as a sinker. Connections were made and the 
charges were fired as in land practice. Where working in swift or deep 
water, allowance was made for the probable drift of the charge. 

26. Work in Channel at Long Sault Dam Site . - A method differing 
from those just described was developed for the purpose of exploring 

in the river channel at the Long Sault Dam site where exceptionally 
swift water made it impossible to place detectors in water or to satis- 
factorily maneuver boats. Plate VI illustrates both the arrangement of 
apparatus and method of analysis. The detectors and the oscillograph 
were placed on shore close to the region to be explored. The detectors 
were placed near a drill hole or a seismic line where the depth to rock 
was known. The velocity of the waves in the overburden under the de- 
tectors was determined by the usual land procedure. Single disseminated 
charges of dynamite were placed with a float or boat and fired by means 
of the usual detonating system. 

27. One group of shots, SS3674 to SS368O, inclusive, were placed 
and fired while the detectors were at drill hole D-1059* The firing 
line and a heavy sinker were attached to the charge and a boat then 



-6- 



carried the charge out in the river and dropped it. The location of the 
charge when dropped was determined by observations made on land by two 
observers with transits. Soundings were taken at the time of dropping 
the charge if possible, otherwise the approximate elevation of the 
river bottom was obtained from a map showing the sub-aqueous contours 
in the vicinity. The application of this method was limited owing to 
the difficulty of handling the shot line in swift water. 

2d. The other group of single shots, S l\15 to s 4^8, inclusive, 
were placed and fired while the detectors were 120 feet from drill 
hole D-I364 and at the center of line S 414 ° n tb - e shoal in the channel. 
The firing line and a heavy sinker were attached to the charge and the 
charge was then placed on a float made of two oil drums lashed together. 
The float attached to a cable was allowed to drift downstream with the 
current but was controlled by a wincn mounted on the shoal. To keep 
the firing line from breaking it was threaded through rings on the cable.. 
When the float was at the desired location, a boat came alongside and 
the charge was released into the river. The location of the charge was 
determined by the observers on shore. The float was then pulled 50 to 
100 feet upstream and the shot fired. The depth of the river at the 
location of the shot was determined by actual soundings or from the map 
showing the subaqueous contours. 

VII ANALYSIS OF DATA 

29. General. - The analysis of the seismic data consisted of 
reading the film, plotting the time -distance graphs, and computing 
the depths to rock in the manner described in the article "The 
Seismic Method of Exploration Applied to Construction Projects" by 
E. P. Shepard, the Military Engineer, September-October, 1939* A 
typical time-distance graph is shovn on Plate VII, which illustrates 
the manner of plotting and the analysis of the data. All field notes, 
film, r d irne-distance graphs and depth computations are on file in 
the district office. 

30. Determination of Elevation of Bedrock by Two-Way Shooting. 
In the determination of the elevation of bedrock by the seismic 
method, the main problem is the determination of the true velocities 

in the media as these velocities are used in the computations. Because 
of the discrepancies' between the true and apparent velocities several 
shots from opposite directions on a line through the detectors were 
made to obtain accurate results. The discrepancies are a result of 
sloping interfaces between different strata and velocity irregularities 
in the upper-soil, this latter cause being the most prevalent. When 
shooting up dip along a sloping interface the apparent velocity in the 
deeper medium is higher than the true velocity and when shooting down 
dip the apparent velocity is less than the true velocity. Variations 
in moisture content, compaction, and other physical properties of soil 
immediately beneath the detectors gave rise to similar effects produced 
by sloping interfaces. In order to obtain the nost accurate results an 
experienced interpreter who thoroughly understood the theory of the 
seismic computations and also the overburden conditions as they existed 
in the field made the choice of overburden velocities and method of 
calculation. 



-7- 



31. A typical time-distance graph is shown on Plate VII which illustrates 
the manner used for plotting and analyzing the data from land lines or lines in 
quiet water. With three detectors spaced at 40-foot intervals along the shot 
line, three points along the graph were obtained from each shot as shown. Shots 
ahead of the center are shown by open characters, and shots back of the center 
are shown by corresponding closed characters. A study of the graph will show 
that for shooting distances up to 15 feet, first arrivals were through the 
upper-soil, in which the velocity was 1,430 feet per second. For shooting 
distances from 15 to 250 feet first arrivals were through a compact material 

in which the velocity of 6200 feet per second was determined. For shooting 
distances greater than 250 feet, the arrival times v.ere shorter by way of the 
deep rock than through the overburden. The apparent velocity in rock, V , when 
shooting from the "Ahead" end of the line or up dip is just twice as great as 
the apparent velocity, V , when shooting from the "Back" end of the line or 
down dip. The true velocity in the rock, V_ , was determined by taking the 
harmonic mean of the apparent velocities and was found to be 16,400 feet per 
second . 

32. After the velocities have been determined the actual computations 
for the depth to rock are relatively simple. The formulas used to determine 
the depth to rock were developed by Ewing, Crary, and Rutherford and are de- 
rived in the article "The Seismic Method of Exploration Applied to Construction 
Projects", £. R. Shepard , The Military Engineer, September-October 1939' These 
formulas in the forms most frequently used are as follows: 



«i • !l Vi 



2 cos 



a- 



H 2 



T 2 V 2 _ H l C0S , 1 V 2 

2 cos$ V, cos - 2 



H = T 1 V 3 . H l C ° S 1 V 3 _ H 2 c°s^V : 



where 



2 cos * V x cos * V JL cos yi- 

H-,, Ho, Ho • Thickness of various layers 

V-p Vo, Vo = Wave velocities in corresponding layers 

T, , T ot T q = Total travel times for paths through corresponding 

layers. 

ri & t 

LA» j rSj U s Angles of refraction 
sin(X=!i ; sin3l = li • sin/?. - li 

v 2 v 3 r^ v 3 

sin/Vl = V l sin V- . V 2 x* V 3 

k v 4 v 4 

-8- 



In some instances it was possible to use a simpler form of computation 
which amounts to a short cut over the above standard method. This 
shorter method of interpretation is described and its applicability 
discussed in the article "Application of the Seismic Refraction Method 
of Subsurface Exploration to Flood Control Projects", E. R. Shepard and 
A. E. Wood, American Institute of Kining and I/ettallurgical Engineers, 
Technical Publication No. 1219, June 1940. 

33. On Plate VII the elevation of bedrock at the center of the 
line was computed as shown using the velocities previously determined. 
The method used in the computations of the rock elevation for this 
particular line was the short cut method referred to above. From the 
computations it will be seen that the depth of the upper-soil layer, 
H-i » in which the velocity of wave propagation was 1,430 feet per sec- 
ond, is J.I4. feet. T-, in this instance is the point of intersection of 
Vo on the time axis or 1.6. H2 (ahead) or the thickness of the glacial 
till under the ahead end of the line is computed to be 89.5 feet. 
To in this case is the difference between the intercepts of V3 (ahead) 
and V2 on the time axis and equal to 5-3k« Similarly H2 for the back 
half of the line was computed to be 77 O feet. The total depth of 
overburden ahead and back equals 9^-9 ar 'd 84.9 feet respectively. The 
depth at the center is assumed to be the average of, these two values 
or 90«9 feet. Theoretically any depth determination was arrived at by 
taking one-half the sum of the depths at the shot point and the detector 
or receiving point, neither of which depth was Known. The recorded 
depth for any line was the average of the mean or normal depths so de- 
termined for the two end- of the line. Be causa of the prevalent varia- 
tion between the apparent and velocities in most of the areas 
investigated, it was believed unwise to attempt- to determine slopes in 
the rock surface from apparent velocities predict multiple rock 
elevations along a shooting line and only one rock elevation on each 
line has been recorded in the final analysis of the data. The recorded 
elevation was designated as ths;i at the cen ; r of the line, however, 
in preparing rock contour n ., c • an ares he general rock trends as 
determined by the seismic line tave been )f great assistance. 

34* De termination of . j. 1 '6 onditions. - In most locations 

considerable success has been att s n classifying the overburden 
with respect to hardness end om ion us nail as determining the 
elevation of rock. In areas w] 3 the characteristics of the overburden 
were generally known the seismic . • wei be leficial in determining 
the depths of the individual strata. The seismic results have aided 
considerably in the studies mads : tig verburden conditions at 
structure sites and where exca g will be made for proposed hy- 
draulic cuts and navigation channels, 

35* From correlation between drill holes and seismic lines over the 
entire project, the range of velocities for the various types of overburden 



-9- 



have been determine'd. Thus it was generally true that in areas investigated 
velocities of 1,000 to 2,000 feet per second indicated very loose material, 
velocities of 4»5°0 to 5»°0° f ee "t P e r second usually were indicative of 
relatively soft material such as silt or clay, however, in some instances 
such velocities did indicate fairly loose deposits of glacial till, and 
velocities in excess of 5t000 feet per second usually indicated the presence 
of compact glacial tills. One exception to the last statement was detected 
at the eastern end of Barnhart Island where velocities from 6,000 to 8,000 
feet per second were obtained in a deposit of stratified partially water- 
laid sands and gravels. 

36. A reference to Table II will show that a large majority of the sites 
investigated, two types of overburden exist, as indicated on Plate VTI. On 
the till ridges, velocities usually ranged from 1,000 to 2,000 feet per 
second, to depths of from 5 to 8 feet. This zone of loose material is in- 
dicated by the steep portion of the graph through the origin* Beneath this 
zone of loose material, the velocity usually changed to a much higher value, 
the magnitude of which depended on the character of the material. Along the 
margin of the river and also in the bed of the river, overburden of a single 
velocity was often found, the graphs obtained being similar to that shown on 
Plate VIII. In some locations, three types of overburden were found, as 
shown on Plate IX, The soil profile as indicated by such graphs may not 
always be recognized in drill logs or by visual inspection, as velocity 
characteristics are determined by the depth of frost action, compaction, and 
other factors which may not appear from sampling. However, it is generally 
believed that velocities' afford a fair index of the labor involved in ex- 
cavating overburden. 

37. Determination of Rock Elevation in Channel at L ong Sault Dam Site .- 
The method of analyzing the data obtained in the channels at the long Sault 
Dam site differed from the usual method of analysis as the knowns and unknowns 
were different and the necessary assumption more radical. On Plate VT is 
shown a diagrammatic sketch of the method used to explore the channel and 
also a typical time distance graph to aid in the explanation of the method 

of analysis described below. 

38. The only information obtained from the film record was the total 
time, T, which elapsed from the shot instant to the arrival of the shock at 
the detector » D» This total time.T, was made up of t]_, the time of transit 
through the overburden at the shot S, t2 the time of transit through the 
rock from B toC, and to, the time of transit through the Overburden CD. The 

value T was plotted on the time-distance coordinates at Q, fSr the shooting 
distance OR, as shown. As the velocity in the rock was known from previous 
tests onshore, it was possible to draw the line 1^1 which gives BI or t ? as 
the time of -transit in the rock* Also the depth CD was known from boring and 
seismic records and the velocity ^ of wave propagation in the overburden from 
seismic tests, it was possible to lay off ON as to, the time of transit in the 
overburden at CD. This left MN, or tji as the time consumed in the over- 
burden SB. To compute the depth H, or SB, it was necessary to assume the 
same overburden velocity there as at CD. 



-10- 



39* The results as obtained from shooting in exceptionally swift water 
have certain probable inherent inaccuracies which should be considered. The 
assumption that the overburden and rock velocities were the same at SB as at 
CD could be in error 9 however, any error in this assumption v.ould only be 
proportional to velocity variations from place to place in the overburden or 
rock. A more likely source of error would probably be that in obtaining the 
true value of ti» Where the depths to be measured are not great, the value 
of ti would be small in comparison with T, and any errors in determining t2 
and t« will be carried into t^ and may seriously affect its accuracy. A- 
nothei 1 source of error which should be kept to the minimum possible is in the 
determination of the shooting distance. With the velocity ratio of 17000/ 
5000 as shown, an error of 3.4 feet in the shooting distance would result in 
a 1-foot error in H]_. The accuracy of the rock determination also depended on 
the accuracy of the sounding of the river bottom. For large values of Hi 
these Brrors are relatively small but where attempts are made to measure shallow 
overburdens in this manner the indications would probably be entirely mis- 
leading* 

VIII - VALIDITY OF RESULTS 

40. General . - The validity of the aeismic results is believed to be very 
good in general with the exception of lines shot which were affected by 
frost, artificial fill, or where the depth of overburden in the Point Rock- 
way Canal area was very shallow. The lines fired in shallow water are 
believed to be reliable but the results of lines shot in deep water and shots 
fired in the exceptionally swift water are questionable because the location 
of shots doubtful. Any appreciable error in the shot distance causes an 
appreciable error in the rock elevation. Table III is a tabulation of seismic 
and drilling data at all locations where a drill hole was close enough to the 
center of the seismic line to make a comparison of the data significant. In 
practically all locations listed in Table III, the difference in depths of 
overburden as determined by the two methods are within the limit of the re- 
lief in the rock surface. The results of all the seismic lines are given in 
Table II which has been arranged as to location. Lines on which the data were 
insufficient to justify a depth calculation and lines on which the calculated 
depths are uncertain are so indicated in Table I and these lines have been 
omitted from the location maps (See Plates AI to AXHt inclusive of Appendix 
A of this report)* 

41 • The seismic method of exploration heretofore has been considered prim- 
arily or reconnaissance investigations and has not been used for making 
more detailed analysis. In the case of the St. Lawrence River Project, the 
information obtained by seismic investigation has been used more broadly 
than is generally the case. All important structure sites have been explored 
by drilling with a small number of seismic lines to supplement the drilling 
program. However, alH. proposed cuts and channels with the exception of the 
canals, have been explored primarily by seismic methods with the addition of 
a few drill holes to determine overburden conditions and to verify seismic 



-11- 



results where bedrock occurred above or near excavation grade. Consequently 
the results of seismic exploration have been used to a large extent as the 
basis for quantity and cost calculations. 

42. Point Rockway Canal . - In one area in the Point Rockway Canal 
difficulty was encountered in properly identifying hard rock which was with- 
in a few feet of the ground surface. The graph shown on Plate X is 
typical of several obtained in the canal area where the drilling disclosed 
hard rock within 1 to 5 feet of the surface. In the original analysis of 
the data, the intermediate material, indicated by the 5.000 foot per second 
limb of the graph, was believed to be clay or till, although the irregularity 
of the data threw some doubt on this interpretation, and indicated the 
possible presence of a zone of seamed or fractured rock. Upon checking with 
the drill, relatively sound cores were obtained in this zone. The com- 
paratively low velocity of 5.000 feet per second for shallow and fractured 
rock is not uncommon in other formations but because of the unusually sound 
character of the rock previously encountered in these investigations, this 
condition was not anticipated. The low velocity is probably the result of 
open seams caused by frost action and the absence of a heavy overburden. 
Under a heavy overburden it is believed that this rock would have exhibited 
a much higher velocity. 

43« To further investigate and study the condition found in the Rockway 
Canal, experimental seismic tests (S 388 to S 391 inclusive) were conducted 
in the vicinity of the Northern Quarries near Norfolk, New York. At the 
quarries, where the rock face was exposed it could be seen that a fractured 
and weathered zone existed to a depth of several feet. This rock was under 
a shallow overburden and of the same origin as that in the Point Rockway 
Canal. The seismic tests adjacent to the quarries produced graphs very 
similar to those shown on Plate X, verifying the results obtained in the canal. 

44* Effect of Frozen Ground . - The velocity of wave propagation in 
frozen soil is much higher than that in normal or unfrozen topsoil and this 
condition leads to uncertainties in the interpretation of seismic data. Be- 
ginning about December 1, 1940, frozen ground began to affect the seismic 
data and introduced uncertainties into the interpretations. The effect of 
6-inches of frozen ground is shown on Plate XI. Velocities of 5,000 to 7,000 
feet per second, values abnormally high for topsoil, were obtained up to 
shooting distance of about 100 feet. For longer shooting distances the crust 
of frozen ground did not carry sufficient energy to register on the film. 
Probable solutions as indicated by the dotted lines on Plate XI were worked 
out for many of the lines" affected by frost. These are believed to be reason- 
ably accurate as regards 'total depth of overburden but the graphs are of 
little value for indicating the soil profile or character of the overburden. 
Unfortunately many of the lines affected by frost were in the Long Sault Canal 
area where it was desired to obtain overburden information. 

45» Correlation with Drill Holes . - The correlation between seismic in- 
formation and drilling data has been thoroughly investigated over the whole 
project. Table III compares data from seismic lines and drill holes less than 
250 feet apart. In a few locations drill holes were spotted at or near the 
centers of seisiric lines for the express purpose Of checking the seismic pre- 
dictions. This is true for lines 203 and 246 on Galop Island and line 318, 320 , 
323, and 325 in the Rockway Canal area. 



-12- 



On Galop Island the checks were remarkably close being 1 foot in a depth of 
42.3 feet and 1.5 feet in a depth of 54«0 feet, respectively. Correlations 
in the Rockway Canal area were not entirely satisfactory, owing to the pre- 
sence of shallow rock as previously described. At line 269, near the 
Ivassena Power Canal intake an error of 9*9 feet in a depth of 67.2 feet 
occurred. Failure at this location to determine the depth of rock more 
accurately is the result of an artificial condition created by the dumping 
of spoil from the excavation of the power canal. The fill in the area 
covered by line S 269 is very deep at places and quite shallow at others. 
As a result of this condition the time-distance graph for this line is very 
erratic and difficult of precise interpretation. Ttfith the exception of this 
line and few of those in the Rockway Canal area the correlations in Table III 
are quite satisfactory and indeed much better than ordinarily obtained in 
geophysical explorations. For the greater depths the differences are rel- 
atively small while for the shallower overburdens such as at lines S 89, 
S I64, S 175, 5 3I8, and S 325, the actual differences, although only a few 
feet, may represent a large percentage of error. It should be noted, how- 
ever, that in all cases the drill record gives the depth of the overburden 
at one precise location while the seismograph records an average depth over 
a considerable length of line. 



-13. 



TABLE I 
LOCATION OF SEISMIC LINES 
ST. LAWRENCE RIV1E PROJECT 



SEISMIC 


LOCATION 


PLOTTED IN 

APPENDIX A 

PLATE NO. 


COORDINATES 


AZIMUTH 


GROUND 
ELEV. 


ROCK 
ELEV. 


DATA 




LINE NO. 


NORTH 


EAST 




S-l 
S-2 

S-3 
S-4 

s_ 5 


Long Sault Dam 
Long Sault Dam 

H 

n 

H 


A- XI 
A- XI 

H 

II 
n 


1 , 819 . 246 
1,820,005 

1,819 ,9^2 
1, 819,098 
1.819.290 


36U.231 

763,198 
362/696 
361,507 
361.992 


79° U7» 
101° 52' 
21U 1+9 

213° 18 

237° 1+2 


174.5 
174.8 
176.0 

227.9 
278.1 


140.2 
145.1 

151.9 
157.9 

148.7 


Satisfactory 
n 

it 

n 
it 




S-b 

s-7 

S-S 
S-9 
S-10 


n 
>i 
n 
H 
11 


* 

A-XI 
11 

H 

II 


1,819,145 

1,820,725 
1,821,226 
1,820,350 
1.820.638 


^60,623 
361,207 

161,279 
36l, 070 

361.371 


210° 07 
192° 04 
82° 79 
263 02 
187° 17 


179.2 
202.8 
173.5 
177.3 
214.9 


163.I 
158.1 

154.1 
_JJ22- U 


No data 
Pair 

Satisfactory 
n 

11 




S-ll 
S-l 2 

S-13 

S-14 

s-i 5 


H 
n 

H 

n 
11 


H 
H 

II 

n 

11 


1,820,626 
l,«20,6l4 
1,820,738 
1,820,191 
1.820.752 


761,597 
361,786 
762,018 
762,262 
762.51+1 


177" 07 
17I+ sU 
175 1+2 

^5° 17 
70° 26 


212.7 
212.5 
212.2 
172.2 
172.9 


156.1 
160.0 

157.3 
161.7 

165.0 


it 

11 
11 

H 

H 




S-lb 
s-17 

S-13 
S-19 
S-20 


Long Sault Island 
n 

n 

11 

ti 


n 

it 
11 

H 

* 


1,820,595 
1,821,192 
1,821,193 
1,819,929 

1.819.085 


75^,272 
355. *85 
756, U2U 

3=5, 1*93 
155.311 


22l+ u 04 

370 17 

218° 02 
223° 00 

207 25 


227.6 
233.3 
271.1+ 
2U9.U 
262.0 


178.6 
189.1 
184.2 
167.6 


It 

n 
it 
it 

No Data 




S-21 
S-22 
S-23 
S-24 

S-25 


11 

H 

n 

Long Sault Canal 
11 


A-XI 
11 

* 
A-XI 

H 


1,818. 5^5 
1,819,392 
1,820,210 
1,817.621 
1.815.838 


355,882" 
356,718 
756,911+ 
152,786 
355. 0U7 


206° 11 

213° 33 
225° 24 

229° 52 
1+8° 12 


222.7 
225.7 
228.0 
221+.7 
202. 1+ 


168.9 
I63.O 

167.2 
156.1 


Pair 

Satisfactory 
No data 
Satisfactory 
Fair 




S-2b 
S-27 
S-28 
S-29 
S-30 


Powerhouse 
n 

Massena Canal Int. Wks. 
n 

11 


A- XVI I 

11 

* 

A-X 

• 


1,824,492 
1,824,521 

1,806,753 
1,807,358 
1.808.06U 


378,601+ 
178.339 
31+6,617 
3!+5, u 6l 
3l+5.8i+g 


173° 27 

17l+° 1Q 

168° " 

p4° 17 

135° 21 


21 5. U 
202.5 
21+2.0 
231.9 
1 220.8 


149.9 
138.8 

162.5 


Pair 

Satisfactory 
Unsatisfactory 
Satisfactory 
No data 




S-31 
S-32 

S-33 
S-3I+ 

S-35 


tt 
n 

Power House 
11 

New Cornwall Canal 


• 
* 
A-XVII 

H 

A-XVII I 


1,808,213 
1.808J77 

1 , 827 , 101 
1,827,155 
I.826.3U9 


11+5,321 

3^7,119 
17^,658 
179, ^50 
382.1*74 


1+0° 58 

U9 15 

313° 45 

323° 00 

308° 01 


' 227.5 
' 225.9 
1 185-9 
1 185.6 
1 1Q1.9 


151.0 
142.0 
133.2 


Unsatisfactory 

Unsatisfactory 

Pair 

Satisfactory 
11 




S-36 

s-37 
s-3S 
s-39 
s-4o 


11 
n 
n 
n 
11 

H 

Long Sault Dam 

n 
Iroauois Dam 

H 


11 

A-XVII I 
A-XVII I 

11 
n 
11 

A-XI 

• 
A-V 

H 


1,827,981 
1.828.U77 

1,828,81*3 

1,829.973 
1.830.576 


181.553 
380, qoH 
379,921 
379,157 
381.150 


297° 30 
95° 38 
138° 02 
329° 56 
258° 1+2 


20li.5 
214.3 
211.8 
1 210.6 
209.8 


155.7 

145.3 
164.4 

158.9 
162.O 


it 

n 

Fair 
Fair 
Satisfactory 




S-4l 
S-42 

S-U3 
S-44 
S-l«5 


1,831,082 
1.819,757 

1.815,516 
1,763.327 
1.762.913 


178,088 
163,152 

156,91+7 
2U6.561+ 
21+6.300 


701° 28 
115° 50 
2I+90 53 
127° 21 
131° 20 
116° 11 


231.8 
245.2 

229.2 

229.2 
229.0 


161.4 
148.2 

212.0 
200.8 


H 
H 

No data 

Fair 

Fair 




S-^6 
s-i+7 

S-48 

s-49 
s-50 


n 
n 
11 

H • 

Point Rockway Canal 


II 
It 
It 

n 
A- VI 


l,7bl,007 
1,761,938 
1,761,387 
1,762,077 
1.760. 508 


21+7,115 

21+7,082 
21+7,037 
2U6.691 
21+9.891 


25" 11 
125° 55 
152° 23 
ii+9 11 

106° 08 


230.2 
229.9 
245.7 
268.7 
231.5 


171.0 
170.0 
175.0 
192.7 
206.5 


Fair 

Satisfactory 
11 

a 

H 




s-51 
s-52 
s-51 
S-5U 
s-55 


Iroauois Dam 
11 

Point Rockway Canal 
n 

Iroquois Dam 


A-V 
11 

A-VI 
11 

A-V 


1,761,050 
1,761,1*2 
1,760,762 
1,760,526 
1.762.337 


21+9,398 
2l+9,76l 
250,196 

250,553 
21+9.072 


152° 1+1+ 

155° 00 

327° 28 
" Ui° 1+7 
32l*° 22 


241.1 
257.4 
241.6 
232.4 
266.3 


185.6 

167.3 
215.0 
207.0 
203.7 


It 
H 
It 
It 
II 




s-56 
s-57 

S-58 
S-60 


Long Sault Island 
n 

11 

H 

Long Sault Canal 


A-XI 
A-XI 

H 
It 

A-XI I I 


1,819,21+7 

1,819,739 
1,819.556 

1,819,128 

1. 817. 568 


15^, 312 
353,992 
353,287 

3*3,676 
369 . 660 


tf J 13 
269 ° 1>+ 
137° 13 
222° 1+7 

72° 08 


221.5 

217.7 
224.0 

217.7 

254.3 


170.3 
170.0 
176.7 
162. 8 
159.2 


It 
II 
H 

II 
It 




s-61 
S-62 
s-61 
s-64 
s-65 


11 
11 

H 
It 

n 


it 
n 
n 
A- XVI 

H 


1,816,985 
1,814,212 
1,815,534 
1,816,2% 
1.817,871+ 


167,91+1+ 
366,01+1+ 
366,006 
182,11+7 
182,193 


3>+0 39 
2U50 y 

27° V 
175" 28' 
280° 1+7 


23^.9 
!' ?45.0 
250.2 
245.0 
181.5 


149-9 
158.1 
152.2 
<i55.o 
127.0 


fl 
H 

II 

Fair 
Fair 




s-66 
s-67 
s-6s 
s-69 
s-70 


n 
11 

n 
11 

Ogden Island 


It 

A-XI I 
A-XIII 

A-Xiv 
A r VII 


1.817,697 

1,813,997 
1,814,084 

1.817,607 
1,778.1+79 


383,853 
363,1+73 
367.700 

176,866 
271.158 


277° 52 
IP 3 19 
235 06 

84° 23 


184.0 
221.4 
199.7 


109.7 
139.0 
114-5 

127.5 

194.2 


Satisfactor; 
11 

jk lr me No. 

Sheet 1 

Satisfactory 


S-i 
of " 



TABLE I 
LOCATION OP SEISMIC LIKES 
ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 



SEISMIC 
LINE NO. 



LOCATION 



PLOTTED IN 
APPENDIX A 
PLATE NO. 



COORDINATES 



NORTH 



EAST 



AZIMUTH 



GR0UN8 ROCK 
ELEV. ELEV. 



DATA 



s-71 

s-72 
S-73 

S-74 

1=Z5- 



Ogden Island 



A- VI I 
• 

H 
It 
II 



1,777.918 270,281 



778,039 271 



778,157 
774,750 

77 U .V9 



272 

265 
26U 



759 
292 
427 
500 



280° 15 
28° 54 
85° 09 
128° 3U 
249° 49 
2?6° U 3 



247. 3 221.7 Satisfactory 



262.5 
242.7 
252.1 
229.0 



m 



202.2 

197.3 
179.1 

182. U 



Fair 

Satisfactory- 
Satisfactory 



S-76 
S-77 
S-78 

S-79 
S-SO 



Leishmans Point 

a 

a 

Ogden Island 



A- VI I 



A- VII I 



773,^15 
771,244 

771,23*+ 

770,699 
779.921 



2T3 
26U 
263 
262 
216 



978 
590 
1+15 
U53 
408 



193* 15 

106° 07 

59° 25 

19 6° 58 



236T7 
23U.U 
237.2 
243-7 
228.9 



198.9 
212.0 
193-4 
205.6 
168.9 



169. 8 

184.8 

191.6 

193.7 

.115^2 



Fair 
Satisfactory 



S-81 

S-82 

S-83 
S-S4 

#5- 



779.331 276" 
778,799 275 



A-VII 



774,928 
775,208 
H5.00 



272 
271 
270 



5^22 SI© 

u,9gi+ 269 



301 

66U 

060 
897 
960 



+1° 51 
219 48 
64° 05 
241° 1+1 
81° W+ 
75° 32 
78° 28 



239.1 

2U5.6 

232.6 
230.1 
230.5 



S-S56 
S-87 
S-88 
S-89 
S-90 



Point Roclcway Canal 

1 



A- VI 
a 



774.98 

774,575 
768,168 
767,416 

766.548 



2 

270 

258 

257 

251 



987 
251 
368 
823 
726 

682 
556 
399 
863 



287 J 13 

239° 59 
2lU° 00 

38° 13 

208°12' 



232.2 
23I.6 
228.5 
229.5 
230.3 



209.5 

178.9 
201.7 
199.5 

195.5 



s-91 
s-92 
s-93 
s-gU 



s-96 
s-97 
s-98 
s-99 
s-100 



IroquoiB Dam 

Point Three Points 

1 



Point Rockvay Canal 
Long Sault Canal 



A-V 
A-VI 

A-VII 

n 

A-VI 



A-XIII 

11 



760.752 
769,342 
769,978 
769,579 
768.826 



768,295 
765, 104 

813,742 
814,035 
^16.917 



?Uq 
256 
257 
257 
255 



255 
256 
36U 

365 

J7_5_ 



228 
218 
557 
209 
612 



332° 5^ 

228° 43 

67° 52 

63° 01 

243° 2 



§ 



233.5 
236.5 
235.7 
247-7 
235-6 



212° 

32° 05 
208° 10 
?04° 12 

84° 01 



2U6.1 
233.2 
233.7 
237.9 
202.7. 



195.2 
179.8 
190.6 
191.5 

175X 

199.6 

145.1 

151.5 



Fair 



Satisfactory 

11 
a 
11 



Unsatisfactory 



S-101 
S-102 
S-103 
S-104 
S-105 



S-106 
S-107 
S-108 

S-109 
S-110 



A- XIV 
n 

XII 

B 



A-XV 



815.561+ 

"15.631 
814, g05 

813.793 
817.584 



816,871 
815,665 
814,776 

814,954 
814. 763 



375 
376 
359 
362 

JZ2 



380 
379 
365 

366 
366 



224 
207 
334 
289 

2IL 



089 
685 
567 

502 
22L 



195 02 

148° 18 
291° 23 
248° 26 
257° 58 



27? 19 
186° Ug 
6° 1+6 
217° 08 
223° 11 
227° 00 



23L7 
230.8 
226.3 
216.0 

184.1 



<13L7 
<120.8 

175.5 
151.0 



Satisfactory 

11 

11 

a 

No data 



205.3 
235.7 
254.3 

2U7.6 
208.0 



Unsatisfactory 
<134.0 Fair 

Unsatisfactory 

No data 

11 



15^.7 
<152.0 

1*7.5 
201.1 

226.0 



S-lll 
S-112 

S-113 

S-114 
S-115 



Long Sault Dam 
11 

Point Rockway Canal 



A-XIII 

A-XI 

H 

A-VI 

a 



814,823 
818,917 
a9,567 
763,511 
762.976 



35T 
362 

363 
255 

_252 



507 

484 
271 

138 

813 

m~ 

627 
2U3 

678 

2I£ 



"258°" 21 

67° 4 3 

139° 37 

60° 18 

68° 21 



200.7 
271.3 
252.5 
240.1 
2Ul._5_ 



Fair 
Satisfactory 

a 

Satisfactory 

a 



S-116 
S-117 
S-118 
S-119 
S-120 



Ogden Island 

a 
11 

Long Sault Canal 



A-VII 



762,331 
774,645 

775,275 
775,179 
815.007 



25? 
269 
269 
26? 
368 



47° l! 

17°09' 

295° 32 

?6l° 30 
70 u 7 



iff 



235.8 179.1 Fair 

234.9 212.7 Satisfactory 
275-5 207.0 Fair 

235.1 207.0 Fair 

198. g Unsatisfactory 



S-121 
S-122 

5-123 

S-124 
S-125 



S-126 
S-127 
S-12g 
S-129 
S-130 



S-1JI 

S-132 
S-133 
S-I3U 
S-135 



Massena ftanal Int. Wks. 
Ogden Island 

H 

Leishmans Point 
a 



• 

A-VII 

a 
11 
ti 



Long Sault Canal 



~0S,46l 
775,077 
775,839 
772,371 



3*7 
269 

27^ 
?67 
267 



772,182 
771,956 
818,049 

"18,775 
819. Ugg 



820,241 
818,034 

*lg.75 u 
819, 47 g 
820. Ig2 



263 
262 
38U 
384 
384 



025 

390 

273 
U5U 

079 



164" 20 
2q5 c 44 
232° 29 
170° 01 



24?. 9 

235.5 
238. U 

238.8 

234. c . 



053 
570 
682 
790 
097_ 



383 
^83 
787 

383 
J21 



796 
622 
316 
021 
023 



216° 22 
38° 49 
15S°1V 
158° 05 
3^7° 36 



217.5 
192.9 
203.1 
203. " 



Satisfactory 

Fair 

Fair 

Fair 



244.7 201.1 Satisfactory 

244.7 200.2 Fair 

184.0 Unsatisfactory 

187.8 " 
188.8 No data 



338° 39 
157° 19 
158° 01 
157° 20 
24° 47 



193.6 

185-9 
18Q.5 
195.6 
196> 



Unsatisfactory 
No data 
No Bat a 
Unsatisfactory 



File No. S-A- 2/ 
Sheet 2 9f 7 



TABLE I 
LOCATION OP SEISMIC LDfES 
ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 



SEISMIC 
LINE NO. 



LOCATION 



PLOTTED IN 
APPENDIX A 
PLAflS NO. 



COORDINATES 



NORTH 



EAST 



AZIMUTH 



GROUND ROCK 
ELEV. ELEV. 



LATA 



S-I36 

S-137 
S-I38 

s-139 

S-1++0 



Long Sault Canal 



S-lUl 
S-l»+2 
S-IU3 

s-iM 

S-lU' 



8- 



1, 817,^76 381+.588 

1,817,151 383.865 

1.816,825 383.133 

1,818,889 381,029 

1 .819.689 380.988 



■XT 1,817, 3^5 380,736 

1,818,568 379,916 

1,816, GHk 371,520 

1.815,989 372.756 

1.816.661 373.262 



2U5 ok 
2H5 22 
2l+6° Oil 
180° 1+7 

25H 58 



7U" 25 
172° 29 
132 23 

261° 38 
222 17 



176° 53 
165° U7 
173° 26 
2U2 16 

5U° 5*+ 



176.0 
180.0 
196.7 
I96.8 

go? -3 



Unsatisfactory 

» 



N data 
No data 



188. 7 

197.1+ 

201+.1 
200.7 
201.6 



105.3 



Pair 

No data 

Unsatisfactory 



S-l 

S-11+7 
s-ii+s 
s-iUg 

s-150 



Ogden Island Cut 
1 » 



a-xit 

A-VII 



1,818,551 377.239 

1.817,589 377.U16 

1,816,396 377,660 

1,772,289 269,398 

1. 771.79*+ 268.768 



220.8 
186.U 
202.9 
23U.O 
255. k 



97.7 
225.7 
21U.2 



Pair 

Pair 
Fair 



S-*5* 
S-152 

S-153 
S-15 1 * 
S-155 



S-155 
s-157 

S-158 

S-159 
S-l 60 



s-161 
S-162 
S-163 

S-16U 

s-165 



S-l 66 
S-167 
S-l 68 

s-i 69 
s-170 



s-171 
s-172 

s-173 
S-17& 

S-l 7 



s-17 
s-177 

S-178 

S-179 
S-l 80 



S-l 81 
S-182 
S-l 83 
S-l 84 
S-185 



S-186 
3*187 
S-188 
S-l 89 
S-190 



S-191 
S-192 

S-193 
S-I9U 

S -195 



S-196 
S-197 
s-iqs 
s-199 
s-200 



s-201 
s-202 
s-203 
S-20U 

s-205 



Long Sault OwJ. 



Ogden Islard 

Me. s sens Canal in' . 



A- XIII 



A-X 



A-X 



SparrowhA--. 
« 



Point Rockvav Ccual 

■ 



A~IV 



A-VI 

it 

~i 

R 
* 

n 



Cornwall Island 



11 

n 

11 
* 



Lotus Island 

« 

N. T. Mainland Opp.M&seena PI. 
Lotus Island 



n 

A- IV 
A- IV 



Lalone Island 

N 



A-III 

A-lIi 

ii 



Toussaints Island Channel 



A-IV 
R 



Galop Island Channel 



n 
it 

H 

A-II 



1,816,205 368,792 
1,816,287 369, 18U 
1.815,6^ 369,519 
Experimental Line-Not 

1.808.055 3^5.890. 

1,808,176 3^5.638 



rco 13 

51° 18 

2Ul° 30 

plotted 

152° U-8 



1,^08,199 
1,808,362 
1,807,837 
1.808.210 



1,752,890 
1.752.82U 
1,752,252 
I.769.O65 
1.767.861 



31+5,522 
31+5,280 

3115,1+1+1+ 



180° 13 

19 1+° 31 

22l+° 15 

281° 05 

198° 11 



226.9 

205.5 
W8.7 

222.0 



153- 



1,768,995 
I, 767, 568 

1.765,185 
1,766,083 
1.765.389 



238,056 
237.661 
236,91+1+ 

258,995 
259.062 



'■, 765, 61+I 
1,763,1^6 
1,763.998 
l,762,6lH 
1.762,105 



258,008 
257,089 

255.^5 
256,601 

257 . 018. 



l"*8g 23 

1+9 29 

20° 27 

19° 21 

.1760 



23O 

23^.7 

218.1+ 176.? 

228. 1+ 

227.8 171. 



8 



1,761,811+ 
1,760.188 
1,760,570 
1.761,263 



257.772 
255.952 
256,721 
251+.807 
253.898 



22- 5 
20U° 05 
220° 37 
207° 20 

189° a* 



250.1 
238.1+ 

253.^ 
228.0 
2U6.7 



253,036 
250,652 
251.563 
252,369 



52" 33 
236 02 
1+5° 19 
80° 38 
65° 21 



23^.7 
2UI+.5 

268.3 

233. u 

233.1 



178.2 

177.9 
206.9 
207.0 



Pair 

No data 

No data 

No data 

Unsatisfactory 

H 

n 

Fair 

Unsatisfactory 

Satisfactory 



Pair 
Satisfactory 
Pair 
Satisfactory 



50 31+ 

251° 31+ 

231+° 1+7 

2330 25 



21+1.7 
237.1 
236.0 
21+3.8 
21+1.1 



211.2 
207.8 
192.3 
195.5 
200.6 



220.3 
211.8 
222.7 
206.O 
232.1 



239.8 219. 5( 
231.5 212.9 
23U.U 20I+.1 
23I+.8 2?2.1i 
Depth 1+0.6 



23I+.5)' 



1. 7^5,330 231.350 
1JH5.S91 231,381 
Quarry Survey — Not pi 
I.7I+6.IUU 232,ll+9 



1,745, ^88 
1.7U3,U5 
ljl+2,620 
1,71+3,198 

1.743.965 



1,7^3,506 

1,71+3,21+8 
1,7*3.701 
1,753,906 
1 .75>+.207 



2^2,036 
231.156 
230,392 
229 , 502 

229. u 07 



l60° 28 
351° 28 
otted 
105° 39 



1.754,279 
l,75 l +,630 
1.754,973 
1,755,133 
1.737 .602 



229,819 

229,859 
230,155 
21+0,272 
240,708 



72^ 23 
231 30 
2I+5 1+7 
160° i+U 

jjg U3 



189° 14 

69° 27 

206° 05 

1+5° 51 
207° 06 



1,737, 842 
1.738,070 
1,738,299 
1,738,746 

1,738,178 



239,982 
2U0.HO 
21+0,73!+ 
241,^0 

_22°,j6i- 
220,910 
21Q , 81+5 
220,172 
220,178 
220, 761 



50° 

£• 

570 



hi 
02 
Ul 



1.33° 52 

18 



330' J 
33I+ 
358° 



35 
06 
1+6 

80° 2l+ 



Depth 1+6.0 
21+5.6 
244.1 180.2 

Depth 9I+.8 
21+6.6 190. 9 



No data 
Satisfactory 



21+6.7 
253.0 
256. U 
260.8 
_2J7 1 I_ 



251+ 
256.3 
260. 2 
21+0.1 
215J 



187.0 
219.6 
223.7 
201.7 
. 202-7 



49. u <i7i+ 



2149TU 

250.3 
21+1+.1+ 

239.0 
2*5.7 



215.0 

213.1 

216.1 

<l68.0 

< 157-0 



<i7*.o 

<183.0 

<159-C 
-O^.O 

i»18* 



257.2 

21+1+.7 
21+7.7 
21+6.5 
257. 4 



211+.0 
202.7 

206.1+ 
213.1 
210.1 



'He No. S-A-. 2/32 
Sheet 3 of 7 



TABLE I 
LOCATION OF SEISMIC LINES 
ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 



SEISMIC 
LINE NO. 



LOCATION 



PLOTTED IN 
APPENDIX A 
PLATE NO. 



COORDINATES 



AZIMUTH 



NORTH 



EAST 



GRO TT ND ROCK 
ELEV. ELEV. 



DATA 



s-206 


Galop Island Channel 


A-II 


1.738.669 


219,579 


296° 27 


255.0 


218.9 


Satisfactory 


s-207 


Lalone Island 


A-III 


ljUz.UUg 


271,190 


40 25 


236.5 


221.5 




S-208 


N 


11 


1,742,207 


231.314 


234° 35 


257.2 


223.6 
204.6 




*>209 


Point Rockway Canal 


A-VI 


1,759.918 


250,122 


181° 56 


' 231.9 




S-210 


it 


11 


1.760.526 


250.350 


180° 58 


' 232.6 


204.4 




S-211 


n 


11 


1.759.877 


250,40 8 


27" 20 


' **7.0 


213.0 




S-212 


8 


R 


1,760,360 


251,180 




?33.o 


210.2 




S-213 


n 


It 


1,760,32? 


251,802 


254° 17 


238,0 


203.8 




S-21U 


H 


It 


1,760,020 


25?,090 




2*5.0 


226.2 




S-215 


Galop Island Channel 


A-II 


1.738.578 


221.028 


216° 34 


258.5 


202.6 




S-216 


n 


11 


1,739,124 


221,700 


16^° ?*' 


?65.4 


182.3 




S-217 


11 


N 


1.739.112 


219,448 


2©9 27 


2#5-'5 


22J.5 




S-218 


n 


n 


1,739.482 


219,406 


212° 33 


279.0 


227.8 




S-219 


n 


H 


1.738.905 


219,128 


326° 39 


243.9 


239.0 




S-220 


n 


it 


I.739.767 


2W.957 


*?5 D 03 


asg.4 


231.6 




S-221 


n 


it 


1,739.2% 


220,653 


345" 38' 


* '2*0.6 


214.0 




S-222 


H 


it 


1,739, 18>+ 


220,400 


143° 28' 


255.4 


<184.U 




S-223 


11 


n 


1,740,224 


220,293 


218° US' 


241.0 


226.9 
•C202.4 




S-224 


it 


H 


1.739.781 


220,610 


71° 58 


259.3 




S-225 


H 


11 


1.739.703 


221.160 


285 50 


272.5 


197.5 




S-226 


H 


it 


1,740,452 


221,097 


90° 02 


268.8 


222.1 




S-227 


n 


H 


1,740,720 


220,667 


42° 06 


240.5 


228.7 




S-228 


it 


11 


1,740,174 


221,165 


?76° 53 


274.2 


217.3 




S-229 


11 


n 


1.739,922 


221,641 


329 05' 


254.4 


179.9 




S-230 


11 


H 


1.739.409 


221.720 


267° 39 


266.7 


188.0 




S-2U 


n 


It 


1,738.855 


222,146 


181° 58» 


252.3 
257.4 


240.6 




S-232 


it 

1 


II 


1,739,088 


222,314 


1700 29 • 


245.4 




S-233 


it 


II 


1.739,279 


222,055 


261° 46' 


251.8 


203.8 




S-23U 


H 


n 


1.739.63H 


222,331 


3340 01" 


239.2 


230.U 




S-235 


It 


11 


1.739.655 


222.678 


8° 06 


240.1 


232.1 




S-236 


It 


n 


1.739.689 


222,923 


171° 54 


280.5 


?3t.5 




S-237 


It 


it 


1.7^0,205 


222,708 


357° 51 


239.3 


223.2 




S-238 


II 


11 


1,740,530 


223,019 


357° 51 


239.2 


219.7 




S-239 


II 


11 


1,740,151 


223,651 


237° 54 


239.4 


234.2 




S-2U0 


H 


it 


1.740.707 


2?3.985 


181° 27 


239.1 


232.7 




S-241 


It 


n 


1,741,200 


?24,040 


22° 10 


1 239.9 


210.5 




S-242 


11 


N 


1,741,130 


2?4,369 


161° 35 


239.4 


231.1 ' 




S-247 
S-244 


It 


H 


1,741,230 


224,987 


180° 27 


1 239.6 


233-6 




II 


It 


1,741,972 


2^5,120 


134° 26 


' 239.2 


201.9 




S-24"j 


It 


n 


1.742.342 


??5.545 


148° 39 


» 238.5 


215.8 




S-2U6 


H 


11 


1,7 U 2,13C 


?->5,U4o 


354° 47 


1 250.2 


197.7 




S-2U7 


It 


it 


1,741,771 


225,709 


163° 31 


1 238.3 


2^6.3 


11 


S-248 


II 


* 


1,740,856 


22% 133 


181° 53 


1 272.4 


231.7 


N 


S-2U9 


II 


A-III 


1,742,902 


226,216 


357° 3 U 


1 236.9 


199.4 


11 


S-250 


II 


11 


1.742.865 


226.^43 


147° 19 


1 236.6 


202.2 


it 


S-251 


It 


it 


1,742,315 


2?6,?83 


349" 34 


237.3 
245.6 


203.1 - 


11 


S-252 


It 


A-fl 


1,737,825 


220,036 


115° 02 


208.7 


H 


s-253 
s-254 


H 


H 


1,738,436 


219,549 


302° 02 


244.4 


222.4 


II 


H 


It 


1,73«.531 


219,876 


312° 22 


257.3 


218.8 


II 


s-255 


Power House 


A- XVI I 


1.823.56^ 


379.147 


206° 51 


160.0 


100.5 


n 


S-25b 


11 


11 


1, 82li, 056 


37=1.275 


214° 37 


iqo.6 


112.0 


Satisfactory 


S-257 


11 


n 


1,824; 345 


379,791 


42° 41 


159.5 


110.3 


n 


S-258 


n 


11 


1,824,0,77 


379.916 


758° 43 


159.1 


110.8 


n 


S-259 


n 


it 


1,825,573 


381,023 


281° 26 


160.5 


100.9 


n 


S-260 


11 


11 


1.825.515 


781,409 


88° 19 


159.8 


107.6 


• 


S-261 


n 


11 


1,825,66? 


782,124 


74° 19 


160.0 


109.0 




S-262 


Galop I*land Channel 


* 


1,736,306 


218,236 


154° 52 


2U3.6 




Unsatisfactory 


S-263 


11 


A-an 


1,735, 8*6 


218,420 


349° 26 


242.9 


202.9 


Satisfactory 


S-26U 


11 


H 


1.735,312 


218,771 


275» 31 


2*8-9 


204.1 


n 


S-265 


it 


■I 


1.734.378 


218,001 


167 49 


246.9 


191.2 


n 


S-266 


Massena Canal Int. Wks. 


A-X 


1,887.814 


345.3 C »3 


100° 48 


225.9 


170.8 


n 


S-267 


11 


11 


1,808,039 


345, 484 


106° 09 


227.4 


170.1 


n 


S-2b8 


11 


n 


1,808,082 


345,758 


179° !3 


222.4 


169.4 


n 


S-269 


11 


• 


1, 80*,192 


345,529 


216° 02 


23U.I 




Unsatisfactory 


S-270 


Galoo Island Channel 


A-II 


1.737*186 


220,291 


123° 50 


237-7 


209.7 


Satisfactory 



File No. S-A-2/33, 
Sheet 4 of 7 



TABLE I 
LOCATION OF SEISMIC LIKES 
ST. LA WHENCE RIVER PROJECT 



SEISMIC 
Lira NO. 



LOCATION 



PLOTTED V 

APPENDIX A 

PLATE NO. 



COORDINATES 



AZIMUTH 



NORTH 



EAST 



GRO"TTD ROCK 
ELEV. ELEB. 



DATA 



s-271 


Galop Island Channel 


A-III 


1,715,878 


219 , 187 


121° 


50' 


216.8 


221.8 


Satis 


factory 


S-272 


it 




A-II 


1.737,199 


219,783 


124° 14« 


236.4 


199.4 




11 


S-273 


11 




A-III 


1,736,498 


219,186 


1?4° 


l4t 


218.9 
240.4 


211.4 




ti 


S-27U 


n 




a 


1,715,917 


218,014 


124° 


14' 


211.4 




n 


S-275 


it 




A-II 


1.718. 013 


219.537 


126° 


46' 


217.4 


201.0 

206.4 




n 


5-276 


11 




A-III 


1,717, ^15 

1,716,851 


219,060 


126° 


46' 


238.4 


11 


S-277 


rt 




n 


218,646 


126° 


b6' 


239.4 


211.7 




it 


S-278 


n 




A-II 


1,740,7*9 


222 ,1-J4 


158° 
746° 


54' 


232.1 


?12.2 




Fair 


S-279 


11 




11 


1,739.919 


222,401 


47' 


231-3 


221.4 




Fair 


S-280 


11 




ti 


I.7U0.562 


222.481 


744o 


21 > 


230.3 


212.7 


Satis 


factory 


S-2S1 


n 




11 


1.719,979 


222.461 


22° 


57* 


233-3 


218.8 




H 


S-282 


11 




n 


1, 7^0,16$ 


221,783 


83° 


09' 


211.9 


195-3 




n 


S-287 


H 




11 


1,740,826 


221 , 204 


61° 


40' 


226.7 


211.3 




H 


S-284 


n 




it 


1,740,971 


223,675 


63° 


51' 


210.7 


217.5 




n 


S-285 


n 




11 


1.740.459 


227,260 


328° 


48' 


210.0 


219.3 




n 


S-286 


n 




11 


1,740,577 


221,501 


729° 


54' 


229.8 


221.5 




11 


S-287 


11 




11 


1,740,746 


221,692 


758° 


30' 


210.0 


227.0 




it 


S-288 


n 




11 


1,741,450 


224,402 


731° 


46' 


230.5 


214.5 




n 


S-289 


n 




11 


1,741,780 


224,408 


46° 


39' 


230.5 


203.5 




11 


S-290 


n 




n 


1.741.140 


2?4. 60 8 


86° 


40' 


233.5 


228.2 




it 


S-29I 


11 




ti 


1,741,279 


221,643 


85°. 


49 • 


229.6 


227.0 




N 


S-292 


11 




11 


1,741,516 


224, q 60 


3° 


58' 


234.7 


223.5 




II 


S-293 


Racauettc- 


Point Cut 


A-XX 


1,820,969 


199,587 


279° 


31' 


151.8 


101.2 




It 


S-29U 


11 




11 


1,820,158 


390,668 


185° 


08' 


104.7 


96.9 




It 


s-295 






11 


1 . ?21 . 270 


400.246 


68° 


06' 


15--9 


110.9 




H 


s-296 


It 




it 


1,820,486 


^00,214 


% 


17' 


192.3 


101.7 




It 


s-297 


Itoquois 


Dam 


A-T 


1,761,216 


24o,237 


161° 


20' 


232.6 


168.1 




II 


s-298 


n 




H 


1.761,73; 


249,205 


172° 


52' 


230.5 


194.3 




II 


s-299 


n 




n 


^,760,667 


249,515 


152° 


28' 


213-5 


201.9 




It 


s-300 


it 




it 


I.76O.929 


249,59* 


1050 


59' 


239-1 


189.1 




It 


s-301 


n 




11 


1,760,792 


249,771 


1080 


01 • 


238.6 


203.3 




a 


s-302 


n 




n 


1.761,538 


24o,296 


159° 


42' 


259-0 


170.6 




11 


s-303 

S-304 


R 




n 


1,762,216 


249,151 


330° 


53' 


266.0 


199-5 




it 


R.R. Bridge, Power Canal 


A-XIX 


1,802,255 


356,716 


1700 


4 7 ' 


212.3 


146.0 




H 


s-305 


11 




it 


1.802.480 


156.075 


127° 


02' 


211.1 


139.8 




11 


S-306 


11 




11 


1,802,250 


35 c , 863 


3110 


43 » 


199.9 


145.2 




n 


s-307 


11 




tt 


1,802,037 


156,094 


ll6o 


55' 


200.2 


147.5 




it 


S-308 


Racouette Point Channel 


A-XX 


1,820,188 


402,043 


354° 


14' 


183.8 


89.3 




11 


S-309 


Leishmans 


1 Point 


A- VI I 


1,771,118 


265,013 


112 B 


22' 


225.6 


218.0 




11 


S-310 


if 




it 


1.770.444 


261. 6°1 


120 


25' 


226.1 


206.9 




it 


S-3.ll 


H 




ti 


1,770,461 


263,015 


2550 


39' 


232.2 


192.2 




n 


S-312 


II 




tt 


1,772,728 


263,155 


680 


20' 


225.8 


199.3 




11 


S-313 


n 




H 


1,772,254 


262,5^4 


47° 


17' 


225.6 


193.0 




11 


S-714 


11 




It 


l,771,6oo 


?62,1'4 


11° 


44' 


225.9 


197.3 




tt 


S-315 


Point Roc 
n 


:kvay Canal 


A-VI 


1.761.207 


255 '. 439 






237-0 


208.2 




11 


S-316 




n 


1,761,229 


255, 073 






279.9 


210.5 




11 


S-317 


11 




n 


1,762,915 


254,562 






239.4 


218.4 




11 


S-3I8 


n 




it 


I.762.726 


254,67? 






240.1 


209.7 


Fair 




S-319 


11 




H 


1,762,345 


254,191 






237.9 


224.3(230.9)**Satie. 


S-320 


n 




ti 


1,762,611 


253.680 






277.1 


222.5(232.6)' 


•Fair 


S-321 


n 




11 


1.762,716 


251,169 






235-3 


198.5 


Satii 


sfactory 


3-322 


it 




it 


1, 7&2.128 


251.285 






238.2 


232.4 




it 


5-323 


11 




n 


1,761,782 


253,146 






244.6 


223. 9( 


?40.3)**' 


S-32U 


11 




H 


1,762,001 


252,658 






234.3 


218.0 




n 


S-325 


11 




it 


1,761.656 


2^2,519 






233.2 


226.5(229.5)*'" 


S-326 


11 




11 


1.764,481 


25b, 280 






230.1 


224\i 




tt 


s-327 


11 




11 


1,764,058 


2^5,800 






238.8 


230.2 




tt 


S-328 


it 




ti 


l,76l,95i 


255,995 






233.6 


227.1 




n 


S-329 


11 




it 


1,767,848 


256,100 






233-1 


217.0 




N 


S-330 


ti 




it 


1,764,586 


256. 085 






238.2 


215.0 




II 


S-331 


it 




11 


1.764,376 


256,474 






216.7 


213.9 




tt 


S-332 


11 




11 


1,764,904 


256,759 






235. i 


212.9 


Fair 




S-333 


it 




it 


1,765,014 


256,155 






271.8 


208.6 


F»ir 




S-33U 


Iroouois 


Dam 


A-T 


1,761,080 


249,266 






229.8 


I69.O 


Satis 


.factory 


s-335 


Chimney 


Island Channel 


A- 1 


1,710.378 


212.065 






235-0 


183-7 




11 



File No. S-A-2/74 
Sheet 5 of 7 



TABLE I 
LOCATION OF SEISMIC LINES 
ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 



SEISMIC 
LINE NO. 



LOCATION 



PLOTTED IN 

APPENDIX A 

PLATE NO, 



COORDINATES 



NORTH 



EAST 



AZIMUTH 



GROUND ROCK 
ELEV. ELEV. 



DATA 



5-336 

£ -337 
s-338 
s-339 

S -3U0 



Chimney Island Channel 



A-I 

H 
H 
H 



1,730,391 

1,730,197 
1,731,072 
1,770,671+ 
1.731.012 



211,798 
211.151 
217,709 
201,1+ug 



239-0 
233.1 
200.1 
23U.O 
222.0 



182.0 
176.1 
182.6 
175.0 
185.8 



Satisfactory 
n 

Fair 
S?tisfactory 



S-3^1 
S-3U2 

$-3 1 +3 
S-3UU 
S-31+5 

s^r 

S-3U7 

s-31+8 

S-3Uq 

s-_I5_9_ 



1,731,218 
1.732.032 
1.730.0U7 
1,730.-589 
1.729.711 



21U.1U5 
21U.225 
211,^67 
210,735 



18° 22 



20° 01 

5I+ 02 

2Ul° 1+3 

22° 37 

59 53 

6U0 2b 

58° 5U 
?3S° 78 

58° *3 
238° 16 



236X 

203.9 

271.0 

219.0 

212.0 



178.2 
<200.0 

185.0 
< 200.0 

181.2 



16"?.0 
I8U.5 
200.0 
207.9 
210.5 



Fair 

Satisfactory 
Fair 
Satisfactory 



Salop Island Channel 



N 

n 

n 

A-II 



1.7°9.855 
1.729,377 

1.729.66H 

1,7'"', 0^3 

1.738.191 



20Q.715 
209.558 
211,706 
220,181 
220,1+77 



227.0 
224.0 
2UU.1 

2U5.5 
2U8.7 



256.7 
258.3 
27U.3 

259.1 
256.8 



S-351 

s-35a 
s -353 
S-35^ 
*35L 



b-356 
s-357 
s-358 
S-359 

5-360, 



s-361 
s-362 

s-367 
2-36U 
S-365 



N 



1,7^8,795 

1, 71+0,038 
1,739.872 
1,739.515 
1-7^9.360 



220,803 
221,511 
221,171 
220,657 
'20 .U02 



1,739.057 
1,738,920 
1,739,2^6 
1,739,07^ 
1 .739.^06 



219 , 8U8 
21P.581 
''21,860 
221,618 
221.1+29 



198° 31 

182° 59 

2314a l+i 

3UU° 55 

'38° 28 



255.1 
260.3 
25^.5 
265.9 
266.6 



201.0 

190.3 
199.6 
205.9 
186. 5 



261. 6 
261.O 
2U6.7 
2I+7.I 
258.7 



217.3 
227.3 

29?. 

191.9 
195.9 



S-366 

S-367 
S-368 
S-769 
S-370 



1,739,206 
1,7^8.P75 
1.7^8,675 
1.7^8,927 
1.738.771 



220,970 
220,667 
220,178 
220,178 

319.9? 7 



58° 71 



162 



1,739,088 
1,739.21+7 
1,739, ^8 
1,739,886 

1,7^,^1 



220, U77 
220,695 
•520,957 
222 , 853 
'25.771 



58 

1+5 
1° 51 

8° 25 



188.2 
190.7 
215.2 
219.3 

222.U 



1530 77 

58° US 

57° 23 

7° 31 

1+0° 05 



256.7 
258.7 
265.3 
269.3 
260.7 



189.7 
179-8 
186.1 

233.3 

222.7 



216.5 
217.2 
215.1+ 
21+2.1 
2U3.O 



S-371 
S-372 
Sr373 
S-37U 
S-375 



F376 
S-377 

S-378 

S-379 
S-780 



1,737,626" 
1,738,181 
1.738.506 
1.739,215 

AJ32 



# 



1,738, 
1,739,551 
1.7 i +0,2Ul+ 
1,71+0, 56U 
I.7U0.912 



220,650 
221,773 
221.8U0 
222,839 
2 23,328 



219.228 
221,609 

2211,288 
22l+,7l+0 
'25,229 



S80 58 
Jl9° 22 
5 H° 51 

8° 57 
235° 11 



250.3 
257.3 
253-7 
272.5 
280.1 



327° 37 

31+0° 11 

510 71+ 

5U 58 

51° 58 



?1+1+.C 
257.8 
277.6 
269.Q 
271.0 



27 7 .8 
20U.2 

21+1+.0 
31+3-7 
230.6 



Fair 
Satisfactory 



S-781 
S-382 
S-787 
S-38U 

S-785 



Point Rockvay Canal 
Louisville Dike 

N 
II 

Bradford Pt. Dike 



A-VI 
A- IX 



Not on site 



1.791+.677 311+.628 338° 02' 



237.6 
Depth 
Denth 
Depth 
2U1.6 
?!+7.U 
?67.6 



191.2 

>1C2' 

>io6' 
>106' 
171.2 



S-38b 
i-787 
S-388 
S-389 



II 



Borman Quarry 



11 



1,797,1+06 215.UU1+ 31+5°" 07' 
1,792,650 716,190 312° 33' 
Experimental line — not plotted 



150.5 
l6l.3 



S-391 
S-392 

S-393 
S-39I+ 

S-395 



S-396 
S-397 
s-398 
S-399 
S-l+OO 



Point Rockway Canal 
Long Sault Da™ 

H 

Long Sault Island 



A-VI 

A-XI 
11 



1,819,1+72 757,^71 15^° 03' 
1,^19,321+ 356,878 26° 1+0' 
Not on site — not nlotted 



225.1 180.0 

183. U 159.8 

182.0 159.3 

Depth 57.7' 



Satisfactory 

11 

H 

II 



II 


II 


H 


11 


II 


H 


II 


it 


11 


n 


H 


II 


11 


H 


it 


II 


n 


K 


H 


n 




11 


n 


II 


ti 



Depth 
fiepth 
Depth 
Depth 

Depth 



T+TX 
53.1 
55.2 
57.1 
62.2 



File ..v*. J-A-<i/35 
Sheet 6 of 7 



TABLE I 
LOCATION OT SEISMIC LINES 
ST. LAWRENCE EI7IB PBOJECT 



SSI SMI C 
LINE NO. 



LOCATION 



P LOTT ED II 
APPENDIX A 
PLATE NO. 



CQ01DIHAM3 



NOETH 



BAST 



AZIMUTH 



OROT1ND 
XLEV. 



ROCK 

ELEV. 



DATA 



s-4oi 


Long Sault Island A-II 


1,820,235 


354,934 


183° 4M 


221.1 


171.5 


Satlf 


factory 


S-402 




1,819,710 


354J94 


15° 36' 


21*. 4 


165.9 




n 


S-403 
s-4o4 




1,819,903 


35 1 +. 1 +7l 


79* 36' 


197.1 


169.I- 




1 




1,820,111 


355.107 


200° 39' 


245.8 


168.9 




n 


1-405 




1.819.990 


355.522 


320 00" 


249.4 


160.1 




n 


S-4o6 




1,819,672 


355.218 


177° 36' 


257.9 


166.2 




11 


S-U07 




1,819,923 


^55,961 


182° 19' 


260.8 


175.1 




11 


s-Uog 




1,819,873 


356,344 


205 06 • 


249.0 


176.6 




11 


S-U09 




1.819.587 


355.613 


231° 52' 


260.1 


168.0 




it 


S-410 




1.819.924 


356.777 


47° 04 • 


182.7 


171.0 




11 


S-411 




1.819,585 


356,558 


205° 15' 


180.9 


I69.3 




n 


S-412 




1.819,573 


356, 040 


270° 21 • 


275.5 


180.0 


Hair 




S-U13 

S-UlU 


Long Sault Dam " 


1,820,772 


361.276 


70 08« 


204.5 


161.2 


Fair 






1,821,452 


362,675 




170.1 


15M 


Satif 


factory 


s-415 


Single Shot determination— rsee «sd of 


table 














S-416 


* » « n « » 


R 














S-147 

S-UlR 


n 11 * n m n 

n 11 it nun 


II 
II 















S-419 Matsena Springe Quarry Site A- XXI 

S-420 LoulsTllle Dike A-IX 



S-421 
S-422 
S-423 
S-424 
S-425 



Location approximate 
1 .799.274 325.999 



—no 
327° 
343 08' 



surrey Depth 85.0 
10 • 235 A 1^7.1 
219.7 <149.9 



Satisfactory 

a 



S-42fc 
S-427 
S-428 
S-429 



Plum Brook Quarry Site 
Xnapps Sta. Quarry Site 



H 
I 

A-XXI 
A-XXI 



1,799.216 325,201" 
1.799.643 324,138 
Location approx.— no 

■ ■ 



2370 07* 



surrey 

■ 



238.4 
Depth 



1^3-5 
48.5' 
7-0' 



s-431 
s-432 
S-433 
S-434 
S-435 



23.8 
25.8 

8.8 
15.5 

5.6 



1W 
27.7 
36.2 

23-7 
24.4 



S^36 
S-437 
S-438 

S-439 
S-440 



S-441 
S-442 
S-4U3 
S-444 
S-445 



S-446 
S-447 
S-448 
S-449 
S-450 



Hogan 



burg Quarry Site 



A-XXI 



"To". 9 
7.7 
>'30.0 



lair 

No dat» 
Nt» data 



Depth 



7.0' 
_£2£.0« 



>35-0' 
^35.0' 

26.O 
>26.0' 

15.0' 



N8 data 

'Tnsat iefactory 

N 

lair 
Satisfactory 



Fair 
Satisfactory 




Single Shot Determinations 
Long Sault Dam 



A-XI 

I 
n 

1 

R 



~~~r~ 

H 

A-XI 

H 



1,821,250 
1,821,134 
1,821,060 

1,821,006 
1.820.511 



1,820,708 
1.820,574 
1,820,496 
1,820,871 
1,820,428 
1,820,983 



362,865 
362.921 
362.990 
363,069 
362.564 



362,860 
362,811 
362,889 
362,870 
363.014 
362,5^6 



158.1 

157.1 
157.1 
156.1 
162.1 



155.1 
158.1 
160.1 

153-1 
158.0 
I69.O 



150.1 
154.0 
138.1 
138.1 

148.7 



Satisfactory 

n 



149.2 
153-2 

138.8 
l4g.o 
14U.0 



No data 
Satisfactory 



• Not located by survey, not plotted because unsatisfactory data or line not laid out at correct location (Not an site) 

T.arStheses' lr7llTlt^f ***?* T"" " lB thlS *"*• the ^»^retation of the data is uncertain. Figure, in 
«e the lll^l, , P T * ? ele « ation <* -Hgntly fracfured and weathered bedrock. Figures not in parentheses 

are the probable eleTation of sound bedrock. , _,- 

jfiJ-S ***»• ■ft"***" ^/ ., 

Sheet 7 of 7 



TABLE II 
SSI SHI C DATA 4 RJSTLTS 
SI. LAWBZ&CI RI7IR PROJECT 



location Depth of 

and overburden 

Line Ho. in Test 

Chimney I eland C ha n n el 

9.0 1 of 

0-4.6 

It. 6-51. 3 

Rock 

r 5.0' of 
O.5T.0 

Hock 



S-335 

5-336 
3-337 

S-338 
s-339 
S-3I10 
S-3U1 
8-31*2 
S-3U3 
s-31* 
s-3l*5 
S-3U6 

S-3U7 
5-31*8 



6.0 

0-7.5 

7.5-62.0 

Rock 

44' 

0-17.5 

Sock 

10.0" 

0-59.0 

Rock 

22.0' 

O-36.2 

Rock 

7.0' 
0-58.7 

Rock 



of 



of 



1*0.0' 
0-34.7 
Rock below 

5.0' of 

0-54.0 

Rock 

25.0' of 
0-50.8 
Rock below 

32. 0' of 
0-30. 8 
Rock 

17.0' of 
0-12.7 
12.7-61*.0 
Rock 

20.0' of 

0-39-5 

Rock 

0-13.0 

13.0-44.0 

Rock 



Galop Inland Channel 
S-200 



S-201 



S-203 



S-204 



S-205 



S-206 



S-215 



S-216 



8-217 



S-219 



0-4.9 

U.9-27.3 

Rock 

0-7.2 

7.2-1*3.2 
Rock 

0-1*. 6 

4.6-42.0 

Rock 

0-6.5 

6,5-41.3 

Rock 

0-5.8 
5.8-33- ■* 
Rock 

0-10.1 

IO.I-U7.3 

Rock 

0-7.8 

7.8-36.1 

Rock 

0-8.8 

6.8-55.9 
Rock 

0-7.2 
7.2-2>*.0 
24.0-83.1 
Rock 

0-6.6 

6.6-1*2.2 

Rock 

0-7.9 

7.9-51.2 

Rock 

O-IU.9 
Rock 



Overburden 
and Rock 
Velo-clilti 


Hevations 


Water 

U, 000 

8,100 

18,000 


WS 244.0 
235.0 

R.183.7 


Water 

8.100 

18,000 


WS 2U1*.0 
239.0 
R 182.0 


Water 

5,500 

8,100 

17.500 


WS 2l*U.l 
G 238.1 

R 176.1 


Water 
5,000 

17,500 


WS 2l*U.l 
G 200.1 
R 162.6 


Water 

8.330 

17,500 


WS '1*1*. 

R.175.0 


Water 

8,500 

18,000 


WS 2l*l*.0 
G 222.0 
R 185.8 


Water 

5,000 

18,000 


■s 2U3.9 
o ?v;.9 

B 178.2 


Water 
7,100 


ws 21*3.9 

G 203.9 
200.0 


Water 

8,200 

18,000 


WS 21*1*. 
G 239.O 
R 185.0 


Water 
8,000 


WS 2l*lt.o 

G 219.0 

200.0 


Water 

5,700 

18,000 


WS 2U1*.0 
G 212.0 
R 181.2 


Water 

5,700 

7,700 

16,250 


WS 2l*U.O 
G 227.0 

R 163.O 


Water 
6,000 

? 


WS 2l*l*.0 
G 22l*.0 
B 181*. 5 


It, 700 

8,000 

16,000 


G 244.0 
R 200.0 


2,250 

5.700 

16.750 


G 21*5.7 
B 218.1* 


1,250 

6,000 

15,000 


257.2 
R 211*. 


2,000 

7,150 

15,650 


G 2l*l*.7 
R 202.7 


1,760 

7.150 

16,800 


G 247.7 
R 206.1* 


1,670 

6,160 

16,000 


G 2U6.5 
B 213.1 


1,1*30 

7,150 

16,200 


» 257.1* 
R 210.1 


1,250 

5,560 

17,200 


G 255.O 
R 218.9 


1,500 

7,150 

16,850 


258.5 
R 202.6 


l.SfO 

5,000 

9,1*00 

16,1*00 


G 265.1* 
R 182.3 


1,250 

5,000 

16,850 


265.5 

R 223.3 


1,500 

6,300 

15.250 


279.0 

R 227.8 


>*.76o 
lb.UOO 


21*3.9 

B 229.0 



Interpretations 



Bata for lines considered 
either satisfactory or fair. 
Shot distances were atroarently 
inaccurate on some lines where 
water was deep. Overburden 
generally compact or dense 
(probably glacial till). Low 
velocities Indicative of soft 
raaterial were found on lines 
S33S and S3IU. Bedrock Is well 
below grade. 



Location Depth of 

aad overburden 

Line Ho. in Feet 



Overburden 

and Bock 
Velocities 



Galop Island Channel (Con't.) 
S-220 0-8.1 1,^30 

8.1-50.8 5.65O 

Rock 17.000 



All data obtained throughout 
the Galop Island Channel area 
are satisfactory or fair except 
line S-2&2 on Tick Island for 
which the data were unsatisfact- 
ory. This area has been divided 
Into 6 sections for discussion. 

1. Galop Shoals upstream 
from Galop Island. The over- 
burden consist*, of soft, or loose 
and coapact material. Rock in 
the vicinity of the Drouosed 
channel is at or below grade. 

2. Butternut Island. Rock 
below ?rade. Overtnrden con- 
sists of 20 feet of soft or 
loose «w.t4rial overlying compact 
dense material. 

3. Tick Island — Overburden 
very compact and dense (appar- 
ently a glacial till|. Rock 
Is well below grade. 

H. Galop Island—Overburden 
is variable but generally varies 
from fairly compact to compact 
denae material. Line S-375 
indicated that soft or loose 
material extended to rock. The 
bedrock varied considerably fro» 
30 feet above grade to 30 fe»t 
below grade. 

5. Galop Island Bays — Bed- 
rock is generally above grade in 
this area. The overburden( appar- 
ently 1* ■ -«lther soft or not 
very compact. 

6. Dixon Ieland«-Overburden 
is compact and dense (apparently 
glacial till). Bedrock appears 
to be slightly below grade in. 
the area explored. 



WS-Water surface 
G = Ground Surface 
H ■ Rock Surface 
FR a Fractured Rock 



File So. S-A-2/37 

Sheet 1 of S 



S-221 


0-6.9 

6.9-32.0 

Bock 


2,000 

7.900 

17,200 


S-222 


0-7.0 
7.0-71.0 
Rock Below 


1,250 
8,150 


S-223 


9-1 1*. 1 
Rock 


3.700 
17, "tOO 


S-221* 


0-8.1 
8.1-57.0 

Rock Below 


1,1*30 
6,800 


S-225ah*ad 0-8.5 

6.5-22.1 
22.1-80.1 
back 0-8.5 

6.5-69.8 
Avg. Depth 
75.0 


1,500 

5,000 
7,1*30 
1,500 
5,000 
to Bock 
17,500 


S-226 


0-7.3 

7.3-16.7 
Rock 


1,250 

5,000 

18,000 


5-227 


0-11.8 
Bock 


3,330 
16,000 


S-228 


0-8.1 

8.1-56.9 

Bock 


1,1*30 

5,700 
16,000 


S-229 


0-7.5 

7.5-7>».5 

Bock 


1,670 

8,600 

17,000 


S-230 


o-u.o 

ll.Ct-78.7 
Bock 


1,670 

7,800 
17.500 


S-23X 


0-11.8 
Bock 


1,300 
17,300 


S-232 


0-12.0 
Rock 


1,670 
18,000 


S-233 


0-5.9 
5.9-1^.5 
lU. 5-1*8.0 
Rock 


1,670 

5,000 
10,000 

17,000 


S-23U 


0-8.8 
Bock 


3,000 
16,000 


S-235 


0-8.0 
Rock 


3,000 
16,600 


S-236 


0-6.8 

6.8-1*6.0 

Rock 


1,670 

5,000 

17,000 


s-237 


0-1*. 3 
1*. 3-lbJ. 
Rock 


2,000 

5,000 
17.300 


S-23S 


0-5.0 

5.0-19.5 

Rock 


2.500 

7,000 

16,600 


S-239 


0-5.2 
Rock 


I*, 000 

17,500 


s-240 


0-6.it 
Rock 


2,500 

18,800 


S-241 


0-6.7 

6.7-29-4 

Rock 


2,000 

8,000 

17,200 


S-2U2 


0-8. 3 
Rock 


3.300 
17,609 


S-2l*3 


0-6.0 
Rock 


2,000 

19,000 


S-244 


O-6.3 

6.3-37.3 

Bock 


1,870 

8,000 

18,600 


S-2U5 


O-5.6 

5.6-22.7 

Rock 


2,500 

8.330 

16,000 


S-2l*6 


0-9.1 

9.1-52.5 

Rock 


1,670 

7,600 

17.500 


S-2U7 


0-1115 -i 

11.5*44.0 
Rock 


"*,76o 
11,100 
17,100 


S-2>»8 


0-8.1 . 

8.1-1*0.7 
Bock 


1,250 

5,ooo 
is;uoo 


S-2U9 


0-5.2 
5.2-37.5 

Seek 


2,000 

6,600 

17,000 



Her&tlont 

G 282.1* 

E 231.6 

246.0 

R 211*. 

G 255.1* 

18lt.lt 

241.0 
B 226.9 

G 259-3 

202.3 

272.5 



B 197.5 

G 268.8 

B 222.1 

G 21*0.5 
B 22«.7 

G 274.2 

B 217.3 

G 254.4 

B 179.9 
G 266.7 
B 188,0 

» 292.3 
B 240.5 

G 257.4 
R 245.4 

G 251.6 
R 203.8 



Interpretations 



G 
B 


239. 
230, 


,2 


s 

H 


240.1 
232.1 


G 280, 


.5 


B 


234.5 


G 


239.3 


I 223, 


,2 


G 239. 


,2 


B 


219. 


.7 


o 

B 


239 
234. 


.4 

.2 


G 
B 


239.1 
232-7 


G 


239, 


.9 


B 


210, 


.5 




a 


239, 
131. 


,1 


G 
B 


239, 
233 


.6 
,6 


G 


239. 


,2 


B 


201, 


•9 





238.5 


R 


215. 


,8 


G 


250, 


,2 


R 


197. 


.7 




--. 
B 


236.3 

226.6 
194.3 


s 


272. 


,4 


B 


231.7 


G 


236.9 


E 


199. 


,4 



DaJBLE II 
SEISMIC BATA 4 RESULTS 
Sf . LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 



location 
and 
Lino No. 


Depth of 
overburden 
In Feet 


Overburden 

and Rock 
Velocities 


Elevations 


Galop Island Channel 








S-250 


0-5.6 

5.6-34.4 

Rode 


3,300 

7, TOO 

17,000 




R 


236.6 
202.2 


S-251 


0-6.2 
6.2-34.2 

Rock 


1.330 
5,800 

16,000 


a 
s 


237.3 
203.1 


S-252 


O-5.6 

5.6-36.9 

Rock 


2,000 

7,900 

17,100 


G 
R 


245.6 
208.7 


S-253 


O-6.3 
6. J-22.0 
Rock 


2,500 

8,500 

16,000 


G 
R 


244,4 
222.4 


S-25U 


0-8.0 

8.0-38.5 

Rock 


1,5U0 

6,250 

16, 400 


G 
R 


257.3 
218.8 


S-262 


0-10.8 

10.8-51.5 

Rock 


4,550 

7.700 
17,000 


G 
R 


243.6 
19-?. 1 


S-263 


0-5.3 

5.3-40.0 

Rock 


2.500 

8.350 

17,000 


G 
R 


2*2.9 

202.5 


S-264 


0-5.5 

5-5-38.8 

Rock 


3,000 
7,309 
17,000 


G 242.9 
* 2«*.l 


s-265 


0-6.2 
6.2-55.7 

Rock 


1,250 

8,100 
17,000 


G 

R 


246.9 
191.2 


s-270 


0-26.0 
Rock 


5,000 

17,800 


a 

R 


237.7 
209.7 


s-271 


0-15.0 
Rock 


5,000 

17,800 


G 
R 


236.8 
221.8 


S-272 


0-10. 

10r37.0 

Rock 


5,000 

',500 
16,500 


G 
R 


236.4 

199.4 


s-273 


-27.5 
Rock 


5,000 
17,000 


G 
R 


238.9 
211.4 


S-27U 


0-29.0 
Rock 


6,670 
17,000 


G 
R 


240.4 
211.4 


s-275 


O-36. U 
Rock 


«,000 

17,000 


G 
R 


?37.4 
201.0 


s-276 


0-32.0 
Rock 


5.260 
16,000 


G 238.4 
R 206.4 


S-277 


0-27.7 
Rock 


5,260 

17,500 




R 


239. >» 

211.7 


S-278 


0-20.1 
Rock 


5,250 
16,00.0 


G 232.3 
H' 212.2 


s-279 


0-U.9 
Rock 


5,000 
16. 000 


R 


233.? 

221.4 


S-280 


0-17.6 
Rock 


5,700 

lu.OCO 


G 
R 


230.3 

212.7 


S-281 


0-1U.5 
Rock 


5,000 

16,000 



R 


233-3 
216.8 


5-282 


O-36.6 
Rock 


6,67c 
16,00c 


G 
S 


23L9 
195.3 


S-283 


0-15.4 
Rock 


5,500 
16,000 


G 
R 


266.7 
211.3 


S-2SU 


0-13.2 
Sock 


5,000 
16,000 



R 


230.7 
217.5 


S-285 


0-10.7 
Rock 


8,350 

17,4oo 


S 
R 


230.0 
219.3 


S-286 


O-8.3 
Rock 


1 
17,300 


G 
R 


229. e 

2J1.5 


S-287 


O-3.0 
Rock 


10,000 
16.200 


G 
R 


230.0 

227-0 


S-286 


0-16.0 
Rock 


5,100 
16,000 


G 
R 


230.5 
214.5 


S-289 


0-27.0 
Rock 


5,000 
15,000 


G 
R 


230.5 
203.5 , 


S-290 


0-5.3 
Rock 


5,000 

17,500 


R 


233.5 
228.2 


S-291 


0-2.6 
Rock 


5,000 
16,000 


G 
R 


229.6 
227.0 


S-292 


0-11.2 
Rock 


• 5,000 
17,500 


G 
R 


23^.7 
223.5 . 


&-3>*9 


0-5.8 

5.8-41.6 

Rock 


1,430 

7,000 

16,600 



R 


243.5 
203.9 


S-350 


O-6.3 

6.3-38.2 

Rock 


1,670 

7,000 

16,600 


G 
R 


248.7 
210.5 



Interpretations 



and overburden and Rock 
Line No. In Feet Velocities 
Galop Island Channel (Cont'd) 
S-351 0-8."* 2,000 
8.3-55.7 6,670 
Rock l6,6O0 


Elevations 

G 256.7 
R 201.0 


I 


S-352 


0-7.0 

7.0-68.0 

Rock 


1.250 

7.500 
16,600 


G 258.3 
R 190.3 




s-353 


0-6.2 

6.2-74.7 

Rock 


1,430 
5,000 

16,600 


G 274.3 
R 199.6 




S-35U 


0-7.5 
7.5-20.0 

20.0-53.2 
Rock 


1,670 

5,000 

7,300 

16,600 


G 259.1 
R 205.9 




S-355 


0-11.3 

11.3-70.3 

Rock 


2,000 

8,500 

16,900 


G 256.8 
R 186.5 




S-356 


0-7.9 

7.9-37.8 

Rock 


1,670 

6,150 

16,900 


255.1 

R 217.3 




S-357 


0-6.8 

6.R-33.0 

Rock 


1,250 

5,000 


G 260.3 
R 227.3 




S-358 


O-S.S 

5.8-52.5 

Rock 


1,250 

7,150 

16,600 


G 254.5 
R 202.0 




S-J59 


0-5.7 
5.7-19.1 
19.1-74.0 
Rock 


1,430 
1,700 

7,500 
16,900 


G 265.9 
R 191.9 


1 


s-360 


0-8.6 
8.6-29.9 
29.9-70.7 
Rock 


1,820 
6,500 

9,000 
16,700 


G 266.6 
R 195.9 




s-361 


0-7-9 
7. 9-7 '.4 
Rock 


1.670' 
7,150 
16,600 


U 261.6 
R 168.2 




s-362 


O-8.3 

8.V70.3 

Rock 


1,430 

6.350 

16,600 


G 261.0 
R 190.7 




s-363 


0-6.1 

6.1-31.5 

Rock 


1,670 

7,800 
17,100 


G 246.7 
R 215.2 




S-J64 


0-5.7 

5-7-27.8 

Rock 


1,670 

7.900 

17,500 


247.1 
R 219.3 




s-365 


0-6. r 

6.3-36.3 

Rock 


1,670 
5,400 
16,600 


a 253.7 

R 222.4 




s-366 


0-5.6 
5.6-20.2 
20.2-67.0 
Rock 


1,670 

5,000 

8,000 
16,300 


G 256.7 
R 189.7 




s-367 


0-6.5 
6.5-21.6 
21.6-78.9 
Rock 


1,670 

u.ooo 

8,000 
16,900 


G 258.7 
R 179. 8 




s-366 


0-5.6 
5.6-25.7 
25.7-79.2 
Rock 


1,430 

4,000 

K.000 

17,000 


G 265.3 
R 186.1 




s-363 


0-7.2 

7.2-3S.C 

Rock 


1,670 
5,000 

17,000 


G 269.3 
R 233.3 




S-370 


0-5.4 
5. 4-33.0 
Rock 


1,670 
5,000 

18,400 


G 260.7 
R 222.7 




s-371 


0-6.4 

6.4-33.8 

Rock 


1,250 

5,100 
17,500 


250.3 

R 216.5 




s-372 


0-7.1 

7.1-40.1 
Rock 


1,670 

6,100 
16,300 


o 257.3 

R J17.2 




s-373 


0-6.2 
6.2- -". 
Rock 


1,670 

6,670 
16,300 


253.7 
R 215.4 




S-37W 


0-7.1 

7-3-30.4 

Rock 


7,500 
16,600 


G 272.5 
R 242.1 




s-375 


0-7.1 

7.1-37.1 

Rock 


1,430 

4,150 

16,200 


G 280.1 
R 243.0 




s-376 


0-10.2 
Rock 


4,000 

17,600 


244.0 
R 233.6 




Hotel 


WS-= Water surface 
G - Ground surface 
R n Rock surface 

FR = Fractured rock 


File NO. S-A-2/38 

Sheet 2 of 


8 



Interpretations 



TABLE II 

SEISl'IC DA~A 4 RESn.TS 

ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 



Location 
and 
Line No. 


Depth of 
overburden 
In Feet 


Overburden 
and Rock 
Velocities 


Elevations 


Galop Island Channel 
S-377 0-b.2 

6.2-16.1* 

16.U-53.6 

Rock 


1.250 

5,000 

8,300 

17,000 


257.8 
R 20U.2 


s-378 


0-6.8 

6.8-33.6 

Rock 


1,250 

5,350 

17, TOO 


277.6 
R 2UU.0 


S-379 


0-16.5 

16.5-26.2 

Rock 


1,250 

5,000 

17,500 


a 209.9 

R 21*3.7 


s-380 


0-7.6 

7.0-1*0.1* 

Rock 


1,000 

6,100 
16,600 


271.0 

R 23O.6 


Lalone Island 
S-187 0-6.0 

6.O-33.I* 
Rock 


1,050 

3,270 
15,100 


s 253.0 

R 219.6 


S-188 


0-8.0 

8.O-32.7 

Rock 


1,360 

t,320 
16,000 


G 256.U 
B 223.7 


S-189 


0-7.3 

7-3-59.1 

Rock 


1,290 
b,150 

17,700 


G 2oO.S 
R 201.7 


S-190 


0-6.8 

6.8-3U.6 

Rock 


2,11*0 

7,700 

17.800 


G 237.3 
R 203.7 


S-191 


0-7.8 

7.S-39.5 

Ro* 


1.330 

6,660 

16,000 


G 251*. 5 
R 215.0 


S-192 


0-S.6 

5.6-1*3.2 

Rock 


1,1U0 

U.880 

16,000 


G 256.3 
R 213.1 


S-193 


0-5.5 

5.5-ft.l 

Rock 


1.330 

1*,080 

16,000 


G 2&0.2 
R 216.1 


S-207 


0-15.0 
Rock 


U,l6o 
17.500 


G 236.5 
R 221.5 


S-208 


0-9.2 

9.2-33.6 

Rock 


1,500 

b,170 
16,800 


G 257.2 
R 223.6 


Lotus Is 

S-182 

S-183 


Land 

0-9.5 

9.5-63.9 

Rock 


1,820 

8,520 

13,600 


G 21*5.6 
a 2l*l».l 

R 180.2 


S-185 


0-8.1* 

S.U-55.7 

Rock 


1,250 

7,610 

17,100 


G 2U6.6 
R 190.0 


S-186 


0-11.6 

11.6-59.7 

Rock 


1,800 

8,780 

18,100 


G 21*6.7 
R 187.0 


Sparrovhawk Pt. Out 
S-lol 0-7.9 

7.9-73.7 
Rock 


1,0:0 

6,960 

lb, 1*00 


G 250.1 
R 176.U 


S-162 


0-6.5 

6-5-60.2 

Rock 


1.330 

6,1*50 

17,000 


G 238.1* 
R 178.2 


S-I63 


0-9.5 

9.5-75.5 

Rock 


1,200 

6,1*00 

15,1*00 


G 253.U 
R 177.9 


Toueeainte Island Channel 





Interpretations 



S-I9U O-b.6 1,250 

6.6-17.6 5,000 

17. 6-?).. 9 8,11*0 

Rock below 168.2 



S-195 



s-W6 



s-197 



s-198 



0-6.1 

6.1-17.6 

17.6-79.0 

Rock below 

O-5.3 
5.3-16.3 

16.3-7U.6 



0-5.0 

5.0-16.H 

16.U-66.6 



0-5.2 
5.2-li*.5 
lU. 5-85.1 



1,670 
U.OOO 
8,030 



1,5U0 
1*,000 
8,030 
Rock below 

1.330 
1*,000 

7,1*50 

Rock below 

1,670 
U.OOO 
7,900 
Rock below 



G 2U0.1 



235.7 

156.7 
G 2U9.U 

17U.8 

250.3 

183.7 
G ?U1*.U 

159.3 



Data on ell lines are satis- 
factory. Lines S-189, S-190, 
S-191, 4 S-208 Indicated a 
compact dense overburden 
(apparently glacial till), 
while lines S-191, S-207 in- 
dicated either a soft or loose 
material. Bedrock varies from 
considerably below to well 
above grade. 



Data for lines S-181, S-185, 
and S-186 are satisfactory. No 
data for line S-182. Compact, 
dense overburden (probably 
glacial till) exists through- 
out area. Bedrock is well 
below grade of cut. 



Data in this area are satis- 
factory or fair. Overburden 
is compact and dense In area 
explorer and is probably 
glacial till. Bedrock Is 
well belov grade of cut. 



All data are satisfactory, 
overburden consists of 15 to 
20 feet of soft or looee 
material, underlain by compact 
dense overburden (probably 
galclal till}. Bedrock is 
well below grade and was nftt 
reached by any line. 



Note: WS - Water surface 
= Ground surface 
R - Rock surface 
FR = Fractured rock 



File No. S-A-2/39 

Sheet 3 of g 



Location 

and 
Line No. 


Depth of 
overburden 
.n Feet 


Overburden 
and Rock 
Velocities 


Elevation 


Toussalnt 


s Island Channel (Cont'd) 


G 




S-199 


0-U.3 

U.8-lg.U 

18.U-SU.U 


l,5UO 
U.OOO 
8.550 
Rock below 


239.0 
15U.6 


Iroouoie 
S-UU' 


Dam Site 
0-17.2 
Rock 


5,000 

15,300 


229.2 
R 212.0 


S-U5 


0-28.2 
Rock 


5,000 

17,000 


G 
H 


229.0 

200.8 


S-U6 


0-5.0 

5-0-59.2 

Rock 


2,500 
9,200 
12,900 


G 

H 


230.2 
171.0 


S-U7 


0-8.0 

6\0-59.9 

5ock 


3.750 

8,390 

17,800 


G 

R 


229.9 

170.0 


S-l*8 


0-6.5 
6.5-25-5 
25.5-70.7 
Rock 


1,210 

U.200 

7,510 

16,500 


R 


2U5.7 
175.0 


S-U9 


0-3.3 

3.3-76.0 

Rock 


1.335 

U.680 

17,600 


& 

R 


26g.7 
192-7 


S-51 


O-8.9 

8.9-55.5 

Rock 


1,050 

6,200 

1U.700 


a 

R 


2U1.1 
lg5.6 


S-52 


0-12.0 

12.0-90.1 

Rock 


1,500 

8,000 

16,000 


G 
R 


257. U 
167.3 


s-55 


0-7.1 

7.1—62.6 

Rock 


800 

U.950 
1U.600 


G 
R 


266.3 
203.7 


s-91 


0-6.0 

6.0-38.3 

Rock 


1.870 

8,890 

17.U00 


G 
R 


233-5 
195.2 


s-29 7 


0-8.2 

8.2-6U.5 

Rock 


2,000 

7, TOO 

18,000 


G 

B 


232.6 
168.1 


S-298 


0-5.7 

5.7-36.2 

Rock 


2,250 

7,000 

18,000 


G 
R 


230.5 
19U.3 


s-299 


0-5.5 

5.5-31.6 

Rock 


1,1*30 

7,000 

18.000 


G 
R 


233-5 
201.9 


s-300 


0-8.0 

8.0-50.0 

Rock 


1.U30 
6,700 
18,000 


G 
R 


239.1 
189.1 


S-TO1 


0-7.3 

7.3-35.3 

Rock 


1,250 

7,500 

17,500 


G 
R 


238.6 

203.3 


S-302 


0-8.9 

8.9-8S.U 

Rock 


1,250 
7.000 

17,500 


G 259.0 
R 170.6 


S-303 


0-9.7 

9.7-66.5 

Rock 


1,000 

5,270 
17,500 


G 
R 


266.0 
199.5 


S-33U 


0-6.7 

6.7-60.8 

Rock 


2,500 

7,900 

17,500 


a 

R 


229.8 

169.0 


Point Rockwsy Canal 
S-50 0-6.8 

6.8-25.0 
Rock 


2.S&0 

8,000 

17,500 


G 
B 


231.5 
206.5 


s-53 


O-6.3 

6.3-26.6 

Rock 


1,000 

6,150 

17,000 


G 
R 


2U1.6 
215.0 


S-5U 


0-6.0 
6. 0-25. U 
Rock 


3,330 

7,300 

17,000 


a 

R 


232.1* 
207.0 


S-88 


0-3-9 

3.9-26.8 

Rock 


1,820 

5,500 

16,000 


G 228.5 
R 201.7 


S-89 


0-30.1 
Rock 


U.OOO 
17,800 


G 
R 


229.5 
199. "* 


S-90 


0-16.2 

16.2-3U.8 

Rock 


3.570 

8,380 

16,700 


R 


230.3 

195.5 


S-97 


0-3.2 

3.2-33.6 

Rock 


3,330 

5,065 

16,200 


a 

R 


233.2 

199.6 


S-11V 


0-39-0 
Rock 


5,000 
17,100 


G 
R 


2U0.1. 
201.1 


s-115 


0-15.5 
Rock 


U.OOO 
15,1*00 


a 

R 


2U1.5 
226.0 


8-116 


O-6.3 

6.3-56.7 

Rock 


3,330 

5,290 
16,1*00 


a 

E 


235,g 

179.1 



Interpretations 



Data for lines considered 
either satisfactory or fair. 
Overburden in the explored 
area is generally corapact and 
dense, however, line S-^g, 
and S-53 Indicated that either 
a soft or loose material was 
present. The elevation of 
bedrock varies considerably 
throughout the site. 



Data in the Eoclcway Canal are 
considered satisfactory or fair* 
Due to the overburden and bedrock 
conditions in some sections 
explored, the interpretation of 
the results in these areas is 
uncertain. (See report for 
discussion.) The results in- 
dicate that the overburden gen- 
erally is either soft or loose 
material. Occasional areas of 
compact, dense material is in- 
dicated. The elevation of bed- 
rock varies froa well above 
grade to well below grade along 
the canal. 



T4BLE II 
SSISHIC DATA & RESULTS 
ST. LAWBESCE RIVEH PROJECT 



Location 
- and 
Line No. 


Depth of 
overburden 
In Feet 


Overburden 
and Rock 

Velocities 


Slevatlons 




Point Rockway Canal (Cont'd) 



R 


22S.0 

206.9 




S-lbt 


0-5.2 
5.2-21.1 

Rock 


1.330 

5.91*0 

17.100 




S-1&5 


0-U.8 

>*.8-39.7 

Rock 


1,250 

U.380 

18.000 




R 


2U6.7 
207.0 




S-166 


0-6.7 
b. 7-23-5 
Rock 


1,1*30 

5.330 

15,100 


G 
R 


2JM 

211.2 




S-167 


0-6.1 

6.1-36.7 

Rock 


1.330 
U.000 

17,300 


H 


2UU.5 

207.8 




S-168 


0-11.3 

11.3-76.0 

Rock 


1.500 
5.1*60 

17,200 


G 
R 


268.? 
192.3 




S-169 


0-U.3 

"■3-37.9 

Rock 


1,500 

5,000 

17,100 


G 
R 


233.1* 
195.5 




S-170 


0-6.1 

0.1-32.5 

Rock 


2,220 

5.720 

18,800 


G 
R 


233.1 
200.6 




S-171 


0-5.7 
5.7-21. 1* 
Rock 


1,250 

!*.6U0 

16,800 


G 2U1.7 
R 223.3 




S-172 


0-5.8 

5.8-25.? 

Rock 


2,500 

-..520 

17,530 


G 
H 


217.1 
211.8 




S-173 


0-5. H 
5.1-13.3 

Rock 


1,500 

5,000 
16,300 


8 216.0 
E 222.7 




S-17 1 * 


0-5. U 
5.U-36.9 

Rook 


1.870 

5,250 

18,500 


G 
R 


21*3.8 
206.9 




s-175 


0-9.0 
Rock 


2,070 
16,100 


G 

R 


2U1.1 
232.1 




S-176 


0-5-3 

5.3-20.3 

Rock 


2,000 

5,000 

17,1*00 


G 
IB 
R 


239.8 
231.5" 
219.5 




S-177 


0-3.1 
3. 1-18. 6 
Rock 


2,000 

5,1*00 

18,300 


G 
R 


231.5 
212.9 




S-178 


0-5.3 

5.3-30.3 
Rock 


2,000 

5,000 

17,300 


G 23>*. U 
H 20U.1 




S-179 


0-U.5 - 

U.5-12.U 

Rock 


2,220 

5,000 

17,600 


G 23U.8 
H 222.1* 




S-209 


O-3.9 

3-9-37.3 

Hock 


1,875 

6,670 

18,000 


231.9 
R 201*. 6 




S-210 


0-14.6 

lt.6-28.2 

Hock 


1,670 

5,900 

16,250 


G 
H 


232.6 
20>*.lt 




S-211 


0-5.7 

5.7-3>*.0 

Rock 


1,000 

U.820 

17.300 


G 2U7.O 
R 1213.0 




S-212 


0-U.7 

■t.7-22.8 

Bock 


2,720 

5,000 

16,700 


G 

R 


233.0 
210.2 




S-213 


0-6.0 
6.0-3U. 2 
Rock 


1,1*30 

5,000 

16,850 


G 
R 


238.0 
2D3.8 




S-211* 


0-5.0 

5.0-18.8 

Hock 


1,670 

5,000 
17,300 


G 
R 


2U5.O 
22.6.2 




S-315 


0-6. 1* 

6.U-28.6 

Rock 


2,000 

5,000 

16,250 


G 
R 


237.0 
208.2 




S-316 


0-6.1* 

6.I4-29.I* 
Rock 


2,000 

5,000 

16,200 


G 
H 


239.9 
210.5 




S-317 


0-5.9 

5.9-21.0 

Rock 


2,000 

5,000 

16,250 


G 
R 


239. ■* 
216.1* 




S-3I8 


0-8.0 

8.O-3O.I* 

Rock 


1,670 

5,000 

16,250 


G 2U0.1 
H 209.7 




S-319 


0-7.0 

7.0-13.6 

Rock 


1,670 

5,000 

16,250 



PR 
R 


237.9 
230.9 
22>*. 3 




S-320 
Bote: ¥S 

a 

R 
IB 


0-5.1* 1,670 
5.11-1U.6 5,000 
Rock 16,250 
; Hater surface 
z Ground surface 
= Rock surface 
- Fractured rock 


G 

PR 

R 

Flit 


237.1 
231-7 
222.5 

1 No. S-.\-r/'40 

Sheet' 1* of 


8 



Interpretations 



Location 

and 
Line Ho. 

S-321 



S-322 
S-323 

S-321* 

s-325 

s-326 

s-327 

S-328 
S-329 

s-330 

S-331 

s-332 

s-333 

S-38I 

s-392 



Depth of 
overburden 
In Feet 

0-6.5 

6.5-36.8 

Rock 

0-5. f 
Rock 

0-1*. 3 
H. 3-20. 7 
Rock 

O-5.8 

5.8-16.3 

Rock 

0-6.7 
Rock 

0-6.0 
Rock 



0-8.6 
Rock 

0-10.5 

Rock 

0-U.5 
1*. 5-16. 3 
Rock 

0-7.8 

7.8-23-2 

Rock 

0-6.6 

6.6-22.8 
Hock 

0-5.1 
5.1-22.2 

Rock 

0-5.U 

5.1*-23.2 

Rock 

0-9.8 

9.8-1*6.1* 

Rock 

0-6.5 
8.5-t5.1 

Hock 



Overburden 
and Rock 
Telocltlee 

1,250 

5,000 

16,250 

2,500 
16,250 

2,000 

5,000 

16,250 

1,1*30 

5,000 
16,250 

2,500 
16,250 

2,500 
16,250 



2,500 
16,250 

2,500 
16,250 

1,670 
5,000 

16,250 

1.670 

8,350 

17,500 

1,000 

5,000 

17.500 

1.1*30 
5,000 

17,500 
1,670 

5,000 

17.500 

1,250 
9,000 
17,500 

5,000 

9,000 

17,500 



Point Three Point g 



S-12U 0-35.7 

Rock 



S-125 
S-126 

S-309 
S-310 

S-311 

S-312 
-lo 7 



0-30.6 

Rock 

0-9.9 
9. 9-U3.6 
Rock 

0-7.6 
Rock 

0-6.2 

6.2-19.2 

Hock 

0-6.0 

6.0-UO.O 

P.ock 

0-1* .7 
l*.7-26.5 
Rock 
O-UU. 5 
Rock 



16.600 



15,800 

1,51*0 

6,130 

16,600 

2,9UC 
17,650 

2,9U0 

8,100 

18,100 

1,670 

I*, 500 

17,000 

2,000 

6,660 

17,000 

17 .500 



Elevations 

G 235.3 

R 196.5 

G 238.2 
R 232.1* 

G 2l*U.6 
FR 21*0.3 
R 223.9 

G 23U.3 

R 218.0 

G 233.2 
R 226.5 



Interpretations 



G 230.1 
H 229 
R 22** 



FR 229.5 
22**. 1 



G 2JS. 8 
R 230.2 

G 213.6 
B 223.1 

233.3 

R 217.0 
G 238.2 
B 215.0 
G 236.7 
R 213.9 
235.1 
H 212.9 

231.8 

R 208.6 
G 237.6 
H 191.2 
G 225.1 
R 180.0 



s-92 


0-5.2 

5.2-56.7 

Rock 


1,665 

5,060 

16,900 


G 236.5 
R 179.8 


S-93 


0-6.5 
6. 5-1*5.1 
Rock 


1,1*30 

5,000 

15,750 


G 235.7 
H 190.6 


S-9U 


0-9.2 

9.2-56.2 

Rock 


1,500 

6,000 

16,300 


G 21*7.7 
3 191.5 


S-95 


0-7.3 

7.3-61.8 
Rock 


2,000 

5,950 

15,800 


G 235.6 
B 173.8 


S-96 


0-10.0 

10.0-71.5 

Hock 


2,220 

6,650 

17,200 


G 2U6.1 
R 17U.6 


S-77 


0-22.1* 
Rock 


3.330 
16,000 


2314.1* 

R 212.0 


S-78 


0-7.2 

7.2-1*3.6 

Hock 


1,500 

6,270 

16,000 


G 237.2 

B 193 .1* 


S-79 


0-6.8 

6.8-38.1 

Rock 


1,050 

5,600 

17,900 


G 21*3.7 
H 205.6 


Lelahm^nE 


; Point 







238.8 

R 203.1 

23U.5 
R 203.9 

G 2U4.7 

R 201.1 

G 22^.6 
R ?18.0 

G 226.1 

R 206.9 

G 232.2 

R 192.2 

G 225. S 

R 199-3 
G 2UU.7 

R 200.2 



Data are satisfactory or fair. 
Overburden le Indicated to be a 
fairly compact to compact Liater- 
lal (probably glacial till). 
Bedrock is below the grade of 
cut. 



Data for all lines ara •ittier 
satisfactory or fair. This area 
has been divided into two 
sections for discussion. 

1. South Out — The overburden 
is variable In this area and the 
results indicate that both soft 
or loose material and compact 
dense material will be encountered. 
Bedrock is generally well t elow 
grade but may be slightly above 
grade at the extreme eastern end 

01 the cut. 

2. Middle Cut—Overburden is 
compact and dense (probably gla- 
cial till). Bedrock is below 
grade. Owing to frost conditions 
lines S-12U, S-125, a-no. S-127 
did not contribute to the know- 
ledge of the character of the 
overburden, however, the rock 
elevations given are believed 

to be fairly reliable. 



H3 ia ii 

SXISMIC Mil 1 IZSULT3 
8?. LAVBEtCI BITIB FBOJSCT 






Location 

and 
Line Ho. 


Drptn of 
overburden 
In Tart 


Overburden 
and Eoek 

"•l5Citl5! 


Elevations 


S-313 


Point (Cont'd) 
0^7.3 
7.3-32-6 
Eoek 


2.500 

8,100 

17,000 


225.6 

B I93.O 


S-31U 


0-5.6 
5.6-28.6 

Eoek 


1,670 

8,100 

17.000 


s 225.9 

H 197.3 


Ogden Island 






S-70 


0-5.5 

5.5-51.5 

Rock 


1,110 

3.630 

16,900 


2*15.7 

E I9U.2 


S-71 


0-7.8 
7.8-25.6 

Eoek 


1,110 

6,650 
15,000 


G 2U7.3 
B 221.7 


S-72 


0-12.5 

12.5-6C.3 

Bock 


2.000 

5,000 

1*1,703 


s 262.5 
E 202.2 


S-73 


0-3.0 

3.0-45.11 

Eoek 


1,670 

l*,100 

15,300 


s 2U2.7 

E 197.3 


5-7* 


0-12.0 

12.0-53.0 

Eoek 


2,850 

8, 600 

16,900 


232.1 
H 179-1 


s-75 


O-U.9 
I4-.9--I46.6 

Eoek 


1,5*10 

7,000 

16,000 


5 229.0 
B K2.lt 


s-76 


0-6.9 

6.9-37.8 

Back 


1.500 

ll,380 

l6,00C 


5 236.7 
E 19 8.9 


s-80 • 


0-7.0 
7.O-60.O 

Rock 


1,250 

7.150 

16,000 


G 228.9 
E 16S.9 


S-gl 


^-8.0 
8.0-69.3 

Eoek 


1,5**0 

6.350 

1*1,300 


8 239.1 
E I69.8 


S-82 


0-9-7 

3.7-60.8 

Eoek 


2,000 

5,900 

1U,600 


2U5.6 

E IgU.S 


S-S3 


0-6.1 

0.1-1*1.0 
Eoek 


1,500 

5.UO0 
16,200 


e 232.6 

E 191.6 


s_si* 


0-*1.2 

lt.2-36.1l 

Eoek 


1.500 

7,000 

18,000 


G 230.1 

s 193.7 


S-85 


0-7-7 
7.7-55.3 

Eoek 


1,500 

5.90c 

16,600 


a 230.5 

E 175.2 


S-S6 


0-6.5 
6.5-22.7 

Eoek 


1,250 

5,150 

15,900 


232.2 

B 209.5 


S-87 


0-7.7 

7.7-52-7 
Eoek 


1,500 

6,150 

16, ICO 


G 231.6 
B 178.9 


S-117 


0-22.2 
Eoek 


2.860 

1**,900 


5 23*1.9 
B a2.7 


S-118 


0-28.5 
Eoek 


16.900 


s 2?5.5 
B 207.0 


S-119 


0-28.1 
Eoek 


u t ooo 
16,500 


235.1 

E 207.0 


S-122 


0-18.0 
Eoek 


2,860 

l6,itoo 


a 235.5 

H 217.5 


S-123 


0-7. U 

7.1*- 1 *5.5 

Bock 


1.670 

5.000 

15,700 


238. u 

H 192.9 


s-iitg 


o-s. 3 

Rock 


1.670 

16,800 


23*1.0 
B 225.7 


s-150 


0-6.6 

6.6-U1.2 

Eoek 


1,110 

5.630 
111, 750 


s 255.** 
B 21*1.2 



Interpretation! 



Location Depth of 
and oTerburden 

Line Ho. In ?eet 



Orartaurdau 
and Eoek 

Telocit ieo 



Interpretations 



S-15 1 ^ Teat line on Ice. 
LoMisTllle Landing and. Bradford Folat 



S-3S2 



5-36*3 



S-3SU 



0-6.7 

6.7-35.2 

35.2-101.7 

0-6.0 

6.0-26.5 

2o.-S-106.2 

0-U.8 

15.S-105.6 

VS - Water BUrface 
G s Ground surface 
S = Bock surface 

TB. = Tractored rock 



1,250 
~*,350 
7.900 

1.250 

5,o:-o 
7,350 

i.~*30 
-,soo 
7,6oo 



Lous-rills Landing A Bradford Pikes (Cont'd) 
S-3S5 0-6. U 2^000^ (T!Xii.& 

6.M0.U ^,000 

Sock 17.500 B 171.2 



Data Is all satisfactory or fair. 
This group of lines has "bete 
dirided into 5 sections for 
discussion. 

1. M-iddle Oat — orertnirden 
i~jak rary fro*i Boft or loose mat- 
erial to corpact, dsnEe aat- 
•tial (probably glacial till). 
Bedrock is generally below grade 
but Is apnar^ntly aboTe grade 

at the western end of the cut. 

2. Vest Cat— Orerburden 
nay Tary froo soft or loose 
•saterlal to compact, dense 
-aterial (probably glacial till) 
3edrock is below grade. 

3. East Cut — Overburden Is 
compact and dense (probably 
glacial till). Bedrock is below 
grade . 

!*. Waddlnton Cut — Orer- 
burden is probably quite Var- 
iable throughout. Bedrock is 
apparently aboTe grade in the 
north weEt section of the cut 
, but is below grade in the other 
sections explored. 

5- Little Hirer Cut — Orer- 
burden varies froa loose to cosst 
pact Material. Bedrock le app* 
arently above grade along Kew 
York aainland area which was the 
•nly section explored 



s-386 


0-1.9 

9.9-92.9 

Eoek 


2,000 

5, OX 

17.500 


& 2*13.1* 

B 150.5 


S-387 


0-7.5 

7.5-20.0 

Eoek 


2,000 

5,000 

17,500 


s 267.6 

B 161.3 


S-420 


0-5.1 
5.1-20.5 
20>5-S8.3 
Bock 


7U0 

U.500 

7,500 

16,000 


G 235. It 
B 1*17.1 


S-1121 


O-61.6 
6.6-69.8 


2,500 

6,580 
Bock below 


219.7 

1X9.9 


S-1122 


0-9.2 
9.2-9*1.9 

Eoek 


1,820 

6,150 

16,000 


s 23g.i1 

B IU3.5 


Maisena 


Canal Intake Vorks 




5-28 


Data erratic 




0-2*12.0 


S-29 


0-9-3 

9.3-69.1* 

Bock 


1,820 

7,500 

17,900 


s 231.9 

B 162.5 


S-3O 


So data 




220.8 


S-3J 


Data erratic 




-S 227-5 


s-32 


Eata erratic 




G 225.9 


S-121 


Data erratic — frost 


a 2*12.9 


S-155 


Data erratic — fill 


G 222.0 


S-I56 


Data erratic- 


-fill 


G 23U.O 


S-157 


Data erratic- 


-fill 


G 23*1.7 


S-158 


0-6.9 

6.9-U1.6 

Eoek 


1.670 

6,6*0 

I6,*t00 


G 218.1* 
E 176.8 


s-159 


Data erratic- 


-fill 


228.1* 


S-16O 


0-9. U 

9.^55.3 
Eoek 


1.330 

6,270 

19,700 


G 227.8 
B 171.9 


s-266 


0-7.1 
7.1-55-1 

Eoek 


1,670 

7,000 

17,200 


G 225.9 
B 170.8 


S-267 


0-8.5 

8.5-57-3 

Bock 


1,250 

7,000 

20,000 


G 227. ll 
E 170.1 


s-268 


0-9.0 
9.0-53.0 

Eoek 


1,670 

5,500 

17,500 


G 222. It 
B I69. ll 



S-269 



Data erratic 



-fill 



Cut *?* long Sault I eland 

S~~l? o-tTS 1,250 

7.6-1*9.0 6,1*00 

Eoek 17,800 



S-A-2/1*** 
Sheet 5 of 8 



All data are satisfactory. 
Linei S-3?2, S-383, 4 S-3SU 
were fired off location and 
were never located. 

1. Bradford Dike — Bock le 
deeply burled and the OTerburden 
is apparently soft or loose to 
rock except near line S-387 
where fin aaterlal is approx- 
imately 20 feet deep. 

2. Louisville Dikes— Eoek 
is deeply burl»d ar-' the over- 
burden le apparently fire except 
near line S-U20 where there is 
approximately 20 feet of soft 

or loese aaterlal overlying 
fir. aaterlal. 



S-17 



S-19 

S-20 
S-21 



s-57 



s-58 



5-59 



s-393 



0-5. 8 

5.8-1A.2 

Bock 

0-13.3 

i3.y«7.2 

Bock 

0-10.1 

10.1-81.8 

Eoek 

5o data 

0-13.6 

13.6-53.8 

Eoek 

0-8.8 

8.8-62.7 

Bock 

0-13.3 

Eoek 

0-8.7 

S.7-H7.3 

Eoek 

0-7.6 

7.6-5l*.9 
Eoek 

0-6.6 

6.6-2J.6 

Sock 



1,180 

5,800 

15,600 

1,580 

7,560 

16,000 

1,820 

7.3&0 

16,900 



1,200 
6,360 

:-,-::■ 

910 

7.500 

20,000 

770 

!*,100 

16,800 

1t5K 

5,1*00 

lU.000 

1,000 

7,000 

17,900 
3.330 

7,200 

16,600 



G 23I1.I 

G 227.6 
?. 178.6 
G 233.3 
E 189.1 
G 271. I* 
B 1SU.2 
6 2ll9.1l 
E 167.6 
G 262.0 
G 222.7 
E 168.9 
G 225.7 
B I63.O 
217.7 
E 170.0 
G 22*1.0 
B 176.7 
G 217.7 
B 152.8 
G 183.** 
E 159.8 



S-lbO 



Only lines S-39, S-158, S-266, 
S-267 4 S»268 are considered 
satisfactory or fair. The 
other lines were unsatisfactory 
because the data was erratic due 
to artlfleal fill and froat. 
The OTerburden is apparently 
fairly cos-pact to coepaet, dense 
aaterlal (probatly glacial till). 
Bedrock is fairly close to the 
lower grade but a rock cut is not 
expected. 



All data are satisfactory or 
fair except line S-2C where data 
was not obtained. Lines 5-395 
to S-**O0 inclusive were shot off 
location and are not discussed, 
overburden is generally coapact 
and dense (probably glacial till), 
except for superficial deposits 
of soft or loose aaterial in 
soae areas. Bedrock is generally 
below grade in the area of the 
cut but in one ssall area it was 
indicated that bedrock would :s 
above grade. 



TABLE II 
SEISMIC DATA & RESETS 
ST. LAWHBTCJ RIVER PROJECT 



Location 
and 
Line lo. 



Depth of 
orerburden 
In Teat 



Overburden 

and Rock 
Velocities 



Interpretations 



Cut"T* Lone Sault Isla nd (Cont'd ) 

?=Wi 0-5.0 5,5W 

5-0-22.7 7,150 

Rock 17,500 



a 1S2.0 
R 159.3 



s-395 


0-11. u 

11.4-57.7 

Bock 


1,000 

6,200 

16,600 


s-396 


0-4.6 

4.6-41.6 

Bock 


2,500 

5,000 
16,000 


S-397 


0-4.5 

U.5-53.1 

Bock 


1,100 

4.550 

16,600 


s-398 


0-7.8 

1.8-55.2 

Bock 


1,000 
4,600 

16,600 


S-399 


0-6.1 
6.1-57-1 

Bock 


1,000 

5,000 
16,700 


s-4oo 


0-5.5 

5.5-62.2 

Bock 


1,250 

It, 850 

17,000 


S-401 


0-6.1 

6.1-1*9.6 

Rock 


1.250 

6,670 

17,000 


s-402 


0-11.1 

U.1-53.5 

Rock 


1,250 

6,1156 
17.500 


s-403 


0*3.2 

3.2-28.0 

Bock 


2.500 

5,000 

17,500 


s-404 


0-7.6 
7.6-25.8 
25.8-76.9 
Rock 


1,670 

5,000 

6,670 

17,000 


s-405 


0-5.1 
5.1-17.6 
17.6-89.3 
Bock 


1,670 

3.950 

7.150 

17,000 


S-U06 


0-6.lt 
6.4-16.4 
16.U-91.7 
Rock 


1,670 

It, 300 

7.150 

17.000 


S-407 


0-11.2 

11.2-85.7 

Bock 


2,200' 

6,900 

17,000 


s-4os 


0-U.8 
4.8-16.4 
16.4-72.4 
Rock 


1,670 
3.450 
6,900 

17.000 


S-U09 


0-U.g 
U.g-17.2 
17.2-92.1 
Rock 


1,670 

3,330 

7.150 

17.000 


S-U10 


0-11.7 
Rock 


It, 150 
17.500 


s-Un 


0-11.6 
Rock 


U.550 
17.500 


s-412 


0-6. U 
6.4-17.7 
17.7-77.5 
Rock 


1,670 

it, 550 

6,900 

17,500 


Lonx Sault Canal 




S-23 


Ho data 




S-24 


0-9.7 

9.7-57.5 

Rock 


1,670 

it, 520 
17,00c 


S-25 


0-8.5 

8.5-46.3 

Rock 


1,670 

5,820 
17.800 


S-U3 


No data 




S-56 


0-U.2 

4.2-51.2 
Rock 


1,000 

4,220 

l6,600 


?-60 


0-4.6 

4.6-95.1 

Bock 


1,250 

7,100 

12,800 


S-61 


0-5.5 

5.5-89.0 

Rock 


1.250 

6,1*70 

16,100 


s-62 


0-6J. 

&-87.0 

Rock 


910 

7,200 
17,800 


Note: 


VS ■ Water surface 
- Ground surface 
R = Rock surface 

7R m fractured rock 



221.1 


K 


171.5 


a 


a9.lt 


R 


165.9 


a 


197. » 


R 


I69.I 


S 


2>t5.8 


B 


I68.9 


a 


24q.4 


B 


160.1 


G 


257.9 


R 


166.2 


a 


260.8 


R 


175.1 





249.0 


R 


176.6 





260.1 



R 168.0 

182.7 
R 171.0 

180.9 
R I69.3 

257.5 



R 180.0 

G 228.0 
G 22U.7 
B 167.2 
G 202.lt 
B 156.1 
G 229.2 
G 221.5 
R 170.3 
G 25U.3 
B 159.2 

238.9 

B 1M9.9 
G 245.0 
B 158.0 

Hie la. 



Of the 5U lines fired In the 
aanal 15 were satisfactory 
and 9 were fair while the other 
30 were either unsatisfactory 
or no data at ell was obtained. 
The satisfactory or fair lines 
are S-24, S-25, S-56, S-60r 
S-69 lncluslTe, S-98, S-99 , 
S-101-10lt lncluslTe, S-107, 
S-lll, S-lltl. S-lUg, and S-151. 
The seismic resulte showed that 
overhurden materials In the 
canal area varied from soft or 
loose material to compact, 
dense material. As most of 
the lines in this area were 
fired during cold weather, the 
interpretation of overhurden 
conditions on most of the llnse 
Is not warranted. Bedrock 
elevations obtained from sat- 
isfactory or fair lines are 
believed to be fairly reliable 
in most Instances. Some errors 
may have been made because of 
the effect of the frost con- 
ditions on the recorde 



S-*»2/»>3 
Sheet 6 of 8 



Location 

and 
Line Ho. 


Depth of 
overhurden 
In Test 


Overburden 

and Bock 
Velocities 


Elevations 


Long Sault 


Canal (Cont'd 


910 
6,700 
16,900 




S-63 


0-6.0 

6.0-98.0 

Rock 


250.2 
B 152.2 


S-64 


0-7.5 
7.5-90 


1.330 
7.350 


G 245.0 
NR 155.0 


S-65 


0-8.0 

S.O-5!t.5 

Rock 


2,220 

4,300 

16,000 


G 181.5 
R 127.0 


S-66 


0-8.7 
8.7-25.9 
25-9-74.3 
Rock 


940 

U, 000 

6,000 

14,500 


G 184.0 
B IO9.7 


S-67 


0-12.0 

12.0-82.lt 

Bock 


2,220 

7,200 

17,300 


G 221.4 
B 139.0 


S-68 


0-7.0 

7.0-65.2 

Rock 


1,250 

4,41to 

16,000 


G 199.7 
B 134.5 


S-69 


0-4.6 

lt.6-6l.it 

Rock 


*2,000 

4,500 

16,400 


G 188. 9 
R 127.5 


S-98 


0-10. U 

10.4-88.6 

Rock 


2,000 

6,830 

18,400 


G 233-7 
R 145.1 


S-99 


0-8.2 

8.2-86.11 

Rock 


1,870 

6,560 

17,300 


237.9 
R 151.5 


s-100 


Data erratic— frost 


G 202.' 


s-101 


0-U.5 
It. 5-100 


2,670 
6,500 
Bock below 


G 231.7 
131.7 


S-102 


0-4.7 

4.7-37.9 
37.9-110 


2,860 
5.770 
7.450 
Rock below 


G 230.8 . 
120.8 


8-103 


0-5.2 

5.2-50.8 

Bock 


2.350 

4,930 

16,900 


G 226.3 
R 175-5 


S-10U 


0-6.2 

6.2-65.0 

Bott 


1,500 

5,000 

15,400 


216.0 

B 151.0 


s-105 


No data 




G 184.1 


s-106 


Dat£ jrratlc- 


-frost 


a 205.3 


s-107 


0-17 5 
17.5-102 


3,080 
7.450 
Rock below 


235.7 

133.7 


S-108 


Data erratic- 


-froet 


G 254.3 


S-109 


No data 




G 247.6 


S-110 


No data 




G 208.0 


S-lll 


0-2.7 

2.7-1*6.0 

Rock 


1,250 

4,640 

15,000 


200.7 

B 154.7 


S-120 


Data erratic- 


-frost 


198.8 


S-128 


Data erratic- 


-frost 


G 184.0 


S-129 


t 
Data erratic- 


-frost 


G 187.8 


S-I30 


No data 




G 188.8 


S-131 


Data erratic- 


-frost 


G 193.6 


Sil32 


No data 




G 185.9 


S-133 


No data 




189.5 


S-I3U 


Data erratic — froet 


195.6 


S-135 


Data erratic— frost 


G 196.4 


S-I36 


Data erratic- 


-frost 


176.0 


S-137 


Data erratic- 


-froet 


G 180.0 


S-138 


Data erratic- 


-frost 


G 196.7 


S-139 


No data 




a 196.8 


s-iuo 


No data 




G 203.3 


S-lUl 


0-7.2 

7.2-83.4 

Ro* 


2,860 

6,000 

17.300 


G 188.7 
R 105.3 


S-142 


Ho -af.s 




G 197.4 


S-IU3 


Data erratlo — froet 


G 204.1 


s-i44 


Data erratic- 


-frost 


G 200.7 


S-1U5 


Data erratic- 


-froet 


G 201.6 


s-146 


Data erratic— froet 


G 220.8 



Interpretation* 



TABL* II 
silsalc a»TA * HHUITS 
ST. UWRSSeS RITO PROJIOt 



Location 

and 
Lin* Ho. 
Loo* Sault 


Depth of 
overburden 

In Feet 
Canal (Cont 1 


Overburden 
and Rock 
Velocities 
d) 


El 

g 


evatlone 


S-1U7 


Data erratii 


: — froet 


186.1* 


S-1U8 


o-o.U 
9.U-105.2 

Rock 


2,500 

6,1*1*0 

16,1*00 


202.9 
R 97 ;7 


S-151 


0-7.9 

7.9-73-1* 
Rock 


1,250 

7.000 

16,000 


s 

R 


226.9 
153-5 


S-152 


No data 




G 


205.5 


S-153 


No data 




3 


198.7 


Long Sault 
S-l 


Dam 

O-^lt.3 

Rock 


>*.330 
20,000 


G 
R 


17>*.5 
lUO.2 


S-2 


0-29.7 
Rock 


5.000 . 
17,800 


G 
R 


17l». 6 
IU5.I 


s-3 


0-2U.1 
Rock 


5,000 

16,800 


G 
R 


176.0 
151.9 


s-i* 


0-6.3 

6.3-70.0 

Rock 


1,300 

6,250 

16, "00 


G 
R 


227.9 
157.9 


s-5 


0-6.7 

6,7-89.1* 

Rock 


1,1*30 

6,200 

16,1*00 


G 
R 


238.1 

11*8.7 


S-6 


No data 




G 


179.2 


s-7 


0-11.6 

U.6-39.7 

Rock 


1,000 

5,000 

15,000 


G 202.8 
R 163.I 


s-s 


0-15.1* 
Rock 


1*. 1*1*0 
17,300 


G 
R 


173.5 
158.1 


s-9 


0-5.2 

5.2-23.2 

Rock 


1,200 

U.100 

15,900 ' 


G 
R 


177.3 
15l*.l 


s-10 


0-6.0 
6.0-21.9 
2l.9-»2.5 
Rock 


1,1*00 

3,500 

6,200 

16,000 


G 21U.Q 
R 152.1* 


s-11 


0-7. U 

7.M-56.6 

Rock 


1,150 
7,050 

17,500 




R 


212.7 
156.1 


S-12 


0-8.0 

S.0-52.5 

Rock 


1.250 

7,000 

16,700 


G 
R 


212.5 
160.0 


S-13 


0-5.8 

5.8-5U.9 

Rock 


1,250 

6,250 

17,000 


G 

R 


212.2 

157.3 


S-lU 


0-8.9 
Rock 


3.860 
15.650 


G 
R 


172.2 
I63.3 


S-l 5 


0-7.9 
Rock 


2,500 
15,950 


G 
R 


172.9 
165.0 


S-U2 


0-7.8 

7.8-97.0 

Rock 


1,1*30 

7,100 

16,000 


G 
R 


21*5.2 
1>*8.2 


S-112 


0-8.6 
8.6-119.1* 


1,500 

7,800 
Rock below 


G 


271.3 
15L9 


s-11 3 


0-7.1* 

7.1»-105.0 

Rock 


1,180 

7,210 

16.950 


G 252.5 
R 1H7.5 


S-U13 


0-9. * 

9.3-43.3 
Rock 


1.1* 3* 

5,000 

16,600 


G 
R 


20H. 5 
l6l. 2 


s-i*ii* 


0-15.2 
Rock 




G 
R 


170.1 
15>*.9 


S-l*15 


0-8.1 
Rock 




G 
R 


158.1 
150.1 


S-l*l6 


0-3.1 

Rock 






R 


157.1 

l5"».o 


S-l*17 


0-19.0 
Pock 




G 
R 


157.1 
13s. 1 


S-l*18 


0-18.0 
Rock 




G 
R 


156.1 
138.1 


SS-3671* 


11' of 

0-I3.U 
Rock 


later 


WS 
G 
R 


17^.1 
16a. 1 
1U8.7 


S3- 3675 


18' of 

0-5.9 

Rock 


Water 


WS 

R 


173-1 

155.1 

l!*9.2 


SS-3676 


15' of 

0-U.9 

Bock 


Water 


WS 
G 
R 


173.1 
158. 1 
153-2 


SS->677 


Ho data 




WS 

a 


173.1 
160.1 



Interpretations 



Data are satisfactory or fair 
except for line S-6 and singl 
shot determination SS-3677- 
The results of all satisfactory 
or fair lines are believed to 
be reasonably reliable. See 
the report fo" reliability of 
single shot determinations. 
The overburden is apparently 
somewhat variable but generally 
is a fairly c6mpaet to compact 
material (probably glacial till). 
In various areas there are in- 
dicated small deposits of loose 
or soft material. 



Location 
and 


Depth of 
overburden 


Overburden 
and Bock 


Elevations 


Line No. 
Long Saull 
SS-3&78 


In Feet 
; Dan (Cont'd) 
T-1U.3' 
20' of 
Rock 


Velocities 
Water 


G 153.I 
ws 173.1 

R 138.6 


SS-3679 


15' of 

0-10.0 

Bock 


Water 


ws 173.1 

G 158.0 

R 1U6.O 


SS-368O 


1*J' of 

0-25.0 

Rock 


Water 


ws 173.1 

G I69.O 
R 1UU.0 


Power Houee 

S-26 0-7.5 

7.5-65/5 
Rock 


1,250 
U.360 

1U.300 


G 215. U 
B IU9.0 


S-27 


O-lU.3 

iu. 3-63.7 

Rock 


1.360 

6,000 

1U.700 


a 202.5 

E 138.8 


s-33 


0-9.1 
9.1-^l*.9 

Rock 


1.250 

7.1*75 

15.^00 


G I85.9 
B 151.0 


S-3U 


0-6.8 

6.8-U3.6 

Bock 


2,000 

7,750 

15,700 


G 185. 6 
B 1U2.0 


s-255 


0-59.5 
Rock 


7,250 
18,000 


G 160.0 
B 100.5 


s-256 


0-11.6 

11.6-78.6 

Rock 


1,1*30 

6,700 

18,000 


G 190.6 
R 112.0 


s-257 


0-1*9.2 . 
Bock 


7,500 
17,000 


G 159-5 
B lip. 3 


S-258 


0-9.3 

9.3-Ug.? 

Bock 


".550 

6,100 

17,600 


G 159.1 
B 110.8 


s-259 


O-5.8 

5.8-59.6 

Rock 


3,000 

8,000 

17,000 


G 160.5 
B 100.9 


S-260 


0-5.9 

5-9-52.2 

Rock 


',000 
7.700 
17,000 


G 159.8 
R 107.6 


S-261 


o-U. 3 
u. 3-51.0 

Rock 


3,000 

6,800 

17,500 


160.0 

B 109.0 


New Cornwall Canal 
s-35 0-9.9 

9.9-58.7 
Rock 


2,000 

6,1*88 

16,000 


191.9 

R 133.2 


S-36 


0-13.5 

13.5-1*8.8 
Rock 


2,150 

7,650 

11,000 


G 20U.5 

R 155.7 


S-37 


0-7.2 
7.2-69.O 

Rock 


1,51*0 

7,150 
1U, 625 


G 211*. 3 
B 11*5.3 


S-38 


0-7.2 

7.2-1*7.1* 

Rock 


1,1*30 

5,110 
ll*,800 


G 211.8 
R 16U.U 


S-39 


0-9.7 

9.7-51.7 
Rock 


1,250 

7,000 

17,200 


G 210.6 
B 158.9 


s-i*o 


0-7.7 

7.7-1*7.8 

Rock 


7.U2 

6,536 
17,680 


G 209.8 
B 162.0 


S-Ul 


0-6.5 

6.5-70.1* 

Rock 


1,1*62 

7,1*00 

17,650 


G 231.8 
B 161. U 


Cornwall 
S-l 80 


[eland Cut 
0-9.3 
9.3-1*0.6 
Rock 


1,1*30 

6,260 

13,900 




S-l 81 


0-6.0 

6.O-U6.0 

Rock 


1,250 

\910 
XlJJJOO 




Eacouette 
S-293 


Pt. Channel 
O-U. 8 
1*. 8-52. 6 
Bock 


3.330 

7, OOP 

17.500 


153.8 

R 101.2 


S-29>* 


0-8. ' 

8.3-97.8 

Rock 


1.667 

7,000 

18,000 


G I9U.7 
R 96.9 


S-295 


0-5.0 

5.0-1*2.0 

Bock 


3.300 

6,850 

17,500 


G 152.9 
B 110.9 


S-296 


0-8.5 

8.5-91.0 

Rock 


1,820 

6,900 

18,000 


G 192.3 
R 101.3 



Interpretations 



Data are all satisfactory or 
fair. Overburden is generally 
a compact dense material. 
The bedrock elevations deter- 
mined are believed to be 
reasonably accurate. 



Data are all satisfactory or 
fair. Bedrock elevations are 
believed to be reasonably 
accurate. Overburden in the 
areas explored is generally 
compact, dense material (pro- 
bably glacial till). The 
results of line S-39 are the 
most questionable regarding 
both overburden and bedrock. 



Both lines are satisfactory. 
Overburden 1b apparently com- 
pact and dense. Depths to 
rock are believed to be reli- 
able. Elevations are not 
given as lines were not eur- 
veyed. 



Data are satisfactory. Over- 
burden is apparently compact 
and dense (probably glacial 
till). Bedrock 1b generally 
below grade in the area explored. 



WS m Water surface 
= "round surface 
R s Bock Surface 

Ffi m Fractured rook 



Tile Ho. S-A-?/U2 

Sh«et 7 of 8 



TABLE II 
SEISVIC DATA * RESULTS 
Sf. LAWBEKCE RIVET: PROJECT 



Location 

and 
Line No. 


Depth of 
overburden 
In Feet 


Overburden 
and Bock 
Velocities 


Elevations 


Racouet t 
S-3O8 


e Pt. Channel (Cont'd) 
0-8.0 1.520 
8.O-9U.5 7,600 
Rock 17,500 


183.8 
B 89.3 


R. R. Bridge. Power Canal 




S-30U 


0-5.3 
5.3-17.1 
17.3-66.3 
Rock 


1,250 
^,55° 

7.150 

17.S00 


^ 212.1 
B 1U6.0 


S-305 


0-6.5 
6.5-25.8 
25.8-71.5 
Rock 


1,250 

U,700 
8,800 

17,500 


S 211.J 
B 139.? 


S-3O6 


O-I3.3 

l3.3-5>».7 

Bock 


h,550 
S.160 

17.500 


G 199.9 

B IU5.2 


S-307 


0-13.7 

13.7-52.7 

Rock 


U.350 

8.350 

18,000 


200.2 
R IU7.5 


Cjiarry Sites 
Opposite Maesena Pt. 






S-1BU 


0-5.6 

5.6-9>*.S 

Rock 


1.U20 

7,020 

15,600 




Maesena 


Springs 






S-U19 


0-5.0 

5.0-85.0 

Rock 


1,250 

lt,320 

17,500 




Plum Br< 


10k 






S-U23 


0-5. b 
5.6-1(8.5 

Rock 


1,600 

5,000 

18,800 




Knapp 1 s 


Station 






S-U2U 


O-7.0 
Rock 


2,500 
5.500 




S-U25 


O-U.3 

U.3-73.U 

Rock 


1, 5"»0 

6,000 

30,000 




S-K26 


0-U.8 
1*. 8-23. 8 
Bock 


1,829 

7,300 

20,000 




S-U27 


0-5.8 

5.8-25.8 
Rock 


2,000 

5.700 

20,000 




S-U28 


0-8.8 
Rock 


1.250 
15,600 




S-l»29 


0-5.0 
5.0-15.5 

Rock 


2,000 

5,700 

20,000 




S-U30 


0-5.6 
Rock 


1.050 
16,500 




S-lt31 


0-14.U 

Rock 


2,720 
20,000 




S-U32 


0-5.1 

5-1-27.7 

Rock 


950 

8,500 

17 , 500 


• 


S-U33 


0-8.2 

8.2-36.2 

Rock 


2,900 

b,900 

16,300 




S-U3H 


0-k.k 

t.U-21.7 
Rock 


1,180 

I»,l406 

17,500 




S-U35 


0-5.2 

5.2-2>l.H 

Rock 


1,110 

6,000 

20,000 




S-U36 


0-5.2 

5.2-10.9 

Rock 


1,110 

".350 

lh,000 




s->*37. 


0-7.7 
Rock 


1.670 
12,500 




Hoganeburg- 






S-M-3B 

S-U39 
S-UUO 
S-Ultl 
S-1*U2 

s-WA 

S-UU5 
s-W»6 
S-H^7 
S-1»U8 


Rock J>30' deep 

No data 

So data 

No data 

Data erratic 

Data erratic 

Rock 7 1 deep 

Bock ">35' deep 

Bock >-35' deep 

Rock >^5' deep 

Bock 26' deep 





Interpretations 



Location Depth of 

and overburden 

Line No. in Feet 
foarry Sites (Cont'd) 
Rogansbhrg (Cont'd) 



S-UU9 
S-U50 



Rock 
Pock 



Overburden 
and Rock 
Velocities 



>■ 26' deep 
15' deep 



Interpretations 



The data for all lines are 
satisfactory. Elevations of 
bedrock are believed to be 
reasonably accurate. Overburden 
on the northeast side of the 
canal nrtTmrently consists of 
approximately 20 feet of soft 
or loose material overlying 
compact, dense material. On 
the southwest side of the canal 
the overburden Is compact and 
dense. 



Surveys were not made at ouarry 
elteF. 



The data are satisfactory. 
Bedrock Is deeply burled. 



The data are satisfactory. 
Bedrock 1b deeply buried. 



The data is satisfactory. 
Bedrock Is deeply buried. 



All data are satisfactory. 
Depth of bedrock is aTrrareotly 
quite variable and is some 
areas very shellow. 



Bornans Ojjarry 

S-3S8 
S-3S9 
S-390 
S-3Q1 



Experimental lines fired to 
determine velocity in shallow 
rock. 



All data are satisfactory or 
fair except lineB S-bV) to 
S-UU3 inclusive, which were 
unsatisfactory or no data 
were obtaln»d. The dfDth to 
bedrock is vprlable and may be 
mii* shallow in two areas. 



VS -- Wat er surface 
G - Ground surface 
R - Rock surface 

W : Tractured rock 



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Fll« Ho. S-A-2/U5 



ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 

PROJECT MAP 

INTERNATIONAL RAPIDS SECTION 
ST LAWRENCE RIVER 



US. ENGINEER OFFICE - ST LAWRENCE RIVER DISTRICT 
MASSENA.NEW YORK 




FILE NO. S-A-2/22 
PLATE I 



w£W 




ocyi 



tOCjS 



^ \y.Si£^w 



DEPTH OF CLAY A _ v 
= INTERCEPT- Ab 2 xV2 

DEPTH OF UPPERSOIL 



INTERCEPT 



SLOPE OF LiJjE INDICATES VELOCITY 
IN UNDERLYING MATERIAL 



SHOOTING DISTANCE 



SHOT 



DETECTORS I 

f — *- 



UPPER SOIL (H ( ) 




CLAY (H 2 ) 



TIME -DISTANCE GRAPH FROM WHICH SOIL PROFILE 

DETERMINATIONS ARE MADE 



FfLL NO S-A-E/23 
PLATE OX 




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File No. 0-36 
Plate III 



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4-4 




FILE NO. S-A-2/24 



ATE VI 




•t> as 002/^-, VA!a av 3AVM dO 3WI1 



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FILE NO. S-A-2/26" TH. ATE "VTlT 




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FILE NO. S- A- 2/28 PLAtE"~)T 




FILE NO S-A-2/29 



PLATE XI 



WA R DEPARTMENT 



/- 



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"7 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS. U. S. ARMY 




^- — , \ • // / -' a j y N~u — 




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ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 

CHANNELS AND CUTS 
LOCATION OF SEISMIC EXPLORATION 

CHIMNEY ISLAND 



U. S ENGINEER OFFICE. MASSENA^NEW YORK FCfl ^4; 



fiMM» 



CWtCKMOT: rfA."/ 



1.1 ig, Tiw>* or enoiw 



S-A-2AJ 

FILE NO. 



PLATE A-I 



DEPARTMENT- 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS. U. S. ARMY 




PLATE A-H 



DEPARTMENT 



' 



J / 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY 



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ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 

CHANNELS AND CUTS 

LOCATION UF SEISMIC EXPLORATION 
VICINITY OF GALOP ISLAND 



U. I. EN«NEBI« OFFlCt MASSINA,.N«W YO«K FEB 19(2 



/'!> ; ^ 



0»U«t>«T. /^ A -.V 



^-A-2/3 

FILE NO 



PLATE A-m 



dEP a rtmemt 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS. U. S. ARMY 




PLATE A-IZ 



WA 



dEP artment 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS. U. S. ARMY 




LEGEND 

• Drill Holts since October 1940 
■ 7»j/ fitfj and Auger Holes 
A Center of Seismic Line 

• Holes drilled during period 1925-/935 
by Joint Board of Engineers. 

R Denotes rock elevotior 



NOTES 

Elevations conform with U S G S datum 
Location of holes drilled since Oct 1940 
obtained by survey. 

Accuracy of locations of holes drilled 
during 1925- 1935 is not known 



ST LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 

IROQUOIS DAM SITE 

LOCATION OF SEISMIC EXPLORATION 

SOILS a FOUNDATION EXPLORATION 



U. S LNGINEER OFFICE. MflSSENA NEW ■OH'. f£g - j^j 



/y~^JuOij«^i 



d e y FM P NO 

S-A-2/5 



PLATE A-TT 



LrPEP ARTMENT 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY 




® DRILL HOLE 

* CENTER OF SEISMIC LME 

R DENOTES ROCK ELEVATION 



NOTES' 
ELEVATIONS CONFORM WITH U. S.G.S. DATUM 
Due to the overburdenond bedrock conditions in this oreo, the fnterpretotion of tha doto Is 
oocartoin. Figures in parentheses ore the probable surface elevation of sllqhtly fractured 
and weothered bedrock. Figures not in poretheses ore the probable elevations of sound bedrock. 



ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 

POINT ROCK WAY CANAL 

LOCATION OF SEISMIC EXPLORATION 

SOILS S FOUNDATIONS EXPLORATION 



r.wq 



U. S. ENGINEER OFFICE, MASSEN.S- NEW YORK FEB 1942 



N*"™** Ts-A-2/6 

[■enit««,«v. v/,A.M PILE NO. ' 



umio. tutaontkUam 



PLATE A-m 



L/AR DEPARTMENT 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY 




PLATE A-3ZH 



Lrdepartment 







CORPS OF ENGINEERS. U. S. A 



RMY 



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z'y •mao •meet/m^ *"'(* 

' CLARK / •Ki,r$j 



%M73 



*- ?r^* "IT 1 

.J •*W > / 

1HI75^ 0, 



~y ~-%Rlh 0/1170 
,0"' •/?/«* 



• H104 l -»J?/9 





'-, 



MURPHY ISLAND 



isX 




f X. 



V, 



? *-.., 



B^> 






LESEND 
A Center of Saismic Lint 



@ /7/-/V/ //0/« 



ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 

CHANNELS AND CUTS 

LOCATION OF SEISMIC EXPLORATION 

VICINITY OF PT. THREE PT. TO OORAN ISLAND 
NO. 2 

IN SHEETS SHEET NO SCALC 



U S ENGINEER OFFICE. MASSENA. NEW YO R K fie I3W 



i:::i^J^-a-2/b | „„, 



plate A-inn 



V 



DEPARTMENT 




PLAN 



Denotes Drill Hole 
Center of Seismic Line 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY 



D2029 



11.5 
17.0 _ 



39A. 

465,1 
475 i 
4__j- 
495 - 
___ 



ftjQi 117 92 



RECORD OF FOUNDATION EXPLORATION 



,__2030 



Loose.greyish- brown, slightly 
Silty, SAND. 

So ft, grey, slightly sandy, SILTond 
CLAY 



Soft, grey, variable, silty, CLA Y 



19.0 
2?_ 



Soft , grey, slightly sandy, slightly 
Qravetly, silty, CLAY 



Loose, grey, slightly cloyey, slightly 

[_Q___| gravelly, silty, SAND Occasional 
boulders 



Soft,grey, slightly gravelly, slightly 
sandy, silty, CLAY Occasional 
boulders 



Loose, grey, slightly ctoyey,slightly 
gravelly, silty SAND Occasional 

. boulders. 

Soft.grey, slightly gravelly, slightly 
sandy, silty, CLAY Occasional 660 
b ould ers. 



Loose, greyish- brown, slightly 
silty, SAND 



Loose,grey, slightly clayey, SILT 
and SAND 



Soft, grey, silty CLAY 



Fairly compact, grey,sliohtly clayey, 
silty, SAND and GRAVEL 
Occasional boulders. 



D203I 
i— P* 8 



02032 



oo 



Loose, brown, slightly silty, SAND 
Few roots 



Apparently, loose, grey, uniform, 
SAND. 



Very soft to soft, grey, slightly 
silty to silty CLAY 



255 



Soft, grey, slightly gravelly, slightly 

SB&S ^ sandy, silty. CLAY 

~Loose to fairly loose, grey, slightly 
gravelly, slightly cloyey, silty SAND 

Occasional boulders^ 

Loose, grey, silty, SAND. Few 400 

pebbles. 

Fairly compact, grey, slightly 
gravelly, silty, SAND. Occasional 

boulders, 

Compact, grey, silty, SAND. Few 
pebbles. Occasional boulders. 




Loose, brown, slightly clayey, 
silty, SAND 



Soft, grey, slightly silty, CLAY 



Loose, grey, slightly clayey, silty, 
SAND Few pebbles 



Variable loose to compact, slightly 
cloyey, slightly gravelly, silty.SAND. 
Occasional boulders. 



Compact,grey, slightly cloyey, silty 
SAND. Few pebbles. 



Elevations ore based on Mean 



DESCRIPTIVE TERMS 

Slightly silty etc denotes approximate- 
ly I % to 20% by dry weight of silt etc 

Silty etc. denotes approximately 20% to 
40% by dry weight of silt etc 

Silt and sand etc denotes approximate- 
ly 40% to 60% by weight of silt 
etc. except 'and clay" denotes more 
than 30% by weight of clay. 



SE -, MER CAT0R COOROIN& TeS 

J . N0RT H I EAST 

- '.'94,570 f 514 760 

• |.'93*5_0 J 315,300" 

. _79?.3.80 j 324800 

'-'99,300 sYs^.O 



ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 

BRADFORD PI & LOUISVILLE DIKES 
LOCATION OFSEISMIC EXPLORATION 



IN SHEETS 



SHEET NO. 



SCALE l'"20O* 



toptf 



U. S. ENGINEER OFFICE. MASSENA-, NEW YORK FEB 1942 



/?40fV~ 



J22. 



EN/y 

m 



■?fc. 



' "" I S-A-2/9 | "*""'*"° " 

ch__k__ ■* W.AW- FILE NO 



PLATE A- IX 



DEPARTMENT 



CORPS OP ENGINEERS. U. S. ARMY 



PLATE A-X 



IAF 






i 



. 



■V 



Lrdepartment 




CORPS OF ENGINEERS. U. S. ARMY 




,f \ -O/Odi^jfiii^ > m OI066 It 







J&W//T 



?to ~200ji 



/y 



\ (t'\l K€7A K 



CJ 



* A/ N; E l~ 

I- 

PIKE 

Y- Vr 






«° $ 



O 



: ,i 



i ! ' A^ 



. -•- 



NEW 



'/ 




b r *^ff « ^ T i A iT 



•/ / 



IZT5- 




// 



r* 




r> i 








s> 






tf 




iS i 




+ 


" 


- 








-1*> 



*> 



POLLY' S BAY 



ss 



■>.% 



,4* I 



' ^ S 



^ 



/Qk ® Drill Holts singe Oct. 1940 , N 1 ei».uoo 
\V • Helta drilled prior lo Oct. 1340 

A Center of Seismic Lino 
' ■ ■ Test Pits a Auger Holes 

R Denotes Rock Elevation 
NR Denotes bottom elevation of Hole 
\ . not drilled lo Rock 

I NOTE: 
Elevations conform lo U.S.G.S. datum 
Location of holes drilled since Oct 1940 
obtained by survey 
Accuracy of location of boles drilled 
prior lo Oct 1900 not known. 

SS denotes seismic determination by 
single shot insteod of tine. 



,'t. 36,5, 0'lO 



~i& 



RB'5,000 -I 







, ' 




/ 


''''i 


1 

1 ft- 

1 


Si 


'/ 

'-JT 


' i , 






C 33*00 




. 



t 355,000 




V 



\ 




/ -N.l.fti5.000 | 



ff.-jfy i 



ST LAWF!F.NCK RIVER PROJECT 

LONG SAULT DAM 

LOCATION OF SEISMIC EXPLORATION 
SOILS i. FOUNDATIONS' EXPLORATION 



IN angt.fi. 



TtCA'.r mn. «Mfr. 



400 100 



U S ENGINEER OFFICE. M 



ASSENA, NEW YOBK FEE 1942 



/?mM^tssf H J\ .M ^f^frSLu^.> i ,_, 



— -r^HPe/n 



PLATE A-XL 



\ 







4 

TiK, 



\ 

1^ 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS, US ARMY 




plate A-znr 



Hf 



i. 



i 



I 






••-. 



* 



I 



'■! 



DEPARTMENT 



CORPS OF ENGINEE RS, U S ARMY 




- A/4,*c.'i Z7n* -Jj.tr/- A/O. eo// 



PLATE A-2E7 



ti o DtPARIMENl- 







CORPS OF ENGINEERS U.S. ARMY 



LEGEND 

Loco/ion of subsurface exploration 
9 Probing 

<g> Drill Hale 
A Seismic Line 



GENERAL NOTES 

Topography frttcjed from {?0S3 *Sor»«y Maps 
fvr J mot to Jar*/ t /9£J. Contour /n terva/ - 2 -S' 
Property L/nes Jtioyrn- thus, — 

Coordinate Syjterr, ,3 USCd IS 5. TrarlSver&n 
M&rcator ^ro/ertron for A/e »v VorA - £Tasf. 



ST LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 

LONG SAULT CANAL 

LOCATION OF SEISMIC EXPLORATION 

ST A. 48 5 185 TO STA 534+70 

SHEET NO M '_ . . . SCALE IIW«iOOFT 

U S CNGINCER DFFICE. MAi^ENA.NE^ YORK 




>l frmpnar chpihc 

" checks i-nii S~ A " 2/J5 



PLATE A-X2 



w> 






'f 



V 



*tc 



\ 



V 



i 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS. U. S. ARMY 




PLATE A-TZI 



(A 



* 












pE PARTMENT 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS. U. S. ARMY 

~ t^ — r~ 




ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 

BARN HART ISLAND POWER HOUSE 

LOCATION OF SEISMIC EXPLORATION 

SOILS AND FOUNDATION EXPLORATION 



100 400 100 



U S. ENGINEER OFFICE.' MA:- .£NA NEW Y ORK ' FE B 19 42 

S-A-2/17 



PLATE A-ZSZTI 



Up DEP ARTMENT 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS. U. S. ARMY 




PLATE A-33nir 



WAR DEPARTMENT 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY 




N. 1,802,000 




LEGEND 
iC enter of Seismic Line 



MASS EN A 

VILLAGE 




ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 

MASSENA POWER CANAL 
R.R.BRIDGE SITE 

LOCATION, SEISMIC EXPLORATION 



U. S. ENGINEER OFFICE, MASSENA, N. Y. 
100' 100' 200' 







100 

I 



300 

—- 1 



— r i nn i umftn ii i i H i M iHi ii ii lili i iMi iiii mii iii u i M i m iiiii i i ii nii iH 



SCALE 
FILE NO. S- A- 2/ 19 



PLATE A-3IZ 



,v- 



WAR 



oepartment 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS. U.S. ARMY 




PLATE A- EC 



w ,o DE PARTMENT 




fro/ 



ICINITY OF HOGENSBURG 



norp of St. Laurence River 7mu 
■ fool uf Barnncirt Island 



Scale l -800- 




'or "' Overburden 



752 




D13Q7 

0.0 



sta*r-600 1 

VICINITY OF KN^PPS STATION 2MILES EAST OF E.NORFOLk N Y 
•121 



DI308 







00 



13.7 



mr 



DOLOMITE dark grey hard 
Numerous thin sinngers OF 
shale. Utile calclle Rock 
moderately broken, 
um/eaflierecl 



924 



Top of Que: burden 



I O.J 



LIMESTONE medium-grey 
medium-hard, numerous 
sinngers una occassional 
thm beds of shale. Consid- 
erable calcitu crystals! 
stringers Uroughout Rode 
moderately broken at tat 
slightly weathered along 
very occassional joints 



/70|* 



922 



Apparently a silty 
and sandy CLAY 



14.6 



as 



Apparently a slightly 
gra.veny silty SAND 
Top of Rock at no 



LIMESTONE blacK 
abundant fbssin 
numerous shale partings qqj. 
RocH fairly sound f" 1 




VICINITY OF MILLE ROCHES QUARRY 



scam i moo 



Top of Overburden 



LIMESTONE darKg'ev 

hard Numerous stringers 

of shale i numerous fossils 

Rock moderately brgtcen l umveatherecl 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS U. 5 ARMY 




VICINITY OF MASSENA SPRINGS 8 
PLUM BROOK 






NOTES 



Maps obtained fni, i U. S.G.S. 
■i. i (.■< K.idiun*R'poyiaphKQ.I Maps 
Location of Seismic and Drill - 
Holei are approximate 

Analyses of bed-rock based on 27s' 
rock cores obtained by dnliina 



Lea end -. 



® blill Hole 

A Center of Seismic One 



8T. LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 

QUARRY SITE SURVEY 
LOCATION OF SEISMIC EXPLORATION 



U. • DMIHUM Q"iC» MMVU "*«W *OWt 



F£6 1942 




PLATE A-X31 



f 



ST. LAWRENCE RIVER 

PROJECT 



FINAL REPORT 



■». .** 



1942 



CUMENTS Roc 



^e 



CONCRETE* EMBANKMENT 



MATERIALS 



qm™ M£W 



ITU 




t\\JE=JM Vj 




« 



C3 



I 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS. U.S. ARMY 

U.S.ENGINEER OFFICE • MASSENA.NEW YORK. 

APPENDIX C 






1 






SLLIVBIICI RIVER 
PROJECT 



41 * * * * * 



FINAL REPORT 

1 9 k 2 



COSCR1T1 & E M B A N E K E N T 
MATERIALS 



CORPS 01 ENGINEERS, U.S. ARMY 
U.S. Engineer Office - Massena, New York 
July , ISte 



APPENDIX C 



PART ONE _ Concrete Aggregate Supply Specifications. 

PART TWO - Concrete Aggregate Investigation. 

PART THREE - Investigations of Sand and Gravel Sources 
for Roads, Filter and Backing Materials. 



Appendix C 



PART ONE 



CONCRETE AGGREGATE SUPPLY SPECIFICATIONS 



Appendix C 



Invitation No, 
No. Bidder 



(Do not write above this line) 

STANDARD GOVERNMENT FORM IMITATION FOR BIDS 
(SUPPLY CONTRACT) 

WAR DEPARTMENT 
UNITED STATES ENGINEER OFFICE 
MASSENA, NEW YORIT 

1. SEALED BIDS , in duplicate, subject to the conditions contained here- 
in, will be received until 2:00 p.m. E.S.T. and then publicly op- 
ened in the United States Engineers Office, Massena, ^ew York, for furnishing 
and delivering concrete aggregate as required for construction of the St. 
Laurence River Seaway and Power Project. 

2. SPECIFICATIONS 

(a) All concrete aggregate furnished and the handling thereof shall 
be in strict accordance withj. the specifications. 

3. INVESTIGATION OF CONDITIONS, - Bidders are expected to visit the 
localities and sites of the delivery points, and to make their own estimates 
of the difficulties attending the execution of the proposed contract, includ- 
ing local conditions, transportation facilities, availability of labor, un- 
certainty of weather, and other contingencies. In no case will the Government 
assume any responsibility whatever for any interpertation, deduction, or con- 
clusion drawn in from such examinations. At the bidder's request, a represen- 
tative of the Government will point out the approximate locality of the del- 
ivery points. Failure to acquaint himself with all available information 
concerning these conditions will not relieve the successful bidder of assuming 
all responsibilities for completing delivery to the required locations as 
explained in Section I of these specifications. 

4. ARTICLES ON PATENTS will be made a part of the contract. (See para- 
graph 1-1? of the specifications.) 

5- COMMENCEMENT AND COMPLETION .- Deliveries will be commenced within 
90 calendar days after date of receipt of notice to proceed and shall be com- 
pleted in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 1-02; of the specifications. 

6. LIQUIDATED DAMAGES for delay will be pre scribed. (See paragraph 1-04 
of the specifications.) 

7. PAYMENTS .- (See paragraph l-0f> of the specifications and Article 8 of 
the contract.) 

8. ADJUSTMENT OF PRICES FOR LABOR AND MATERIAL. - Adjustment of prices in 
accordance with basic increase or decrease of costs of labor and material will 
be- made as provided in paragraph 1-06 of the specifications. 



-A- 



9. TAX.SS.- 

(a) Federal Taxes. - Title IV of the Revenue Act of 1952 (47 Stat. 
169, 259), as amended by Section Z| of the Act of June 16, I933 (^8 Stat. 255), 
and Section 401 of the Act of August 30, 1$j5 (Z>9 Stat. 101^, 1025), imposed 
Federal Taxes upon certain specified articles sold in the United States, to 

be paid by the manufacturer or producer, or imported into the United States, 
to be paid by the manufacturer, producer, or importer, but provided that no 
tax under this title shall be imposed with respect to the sale of any article 
for the exclusive use of the United States, and that a credit against the tax 
or a refund may be allowed or made with respect to the sale of any article if 
such article was resold for the exclusive use of the United States and the 
manufacturer, producer, or importer has such evidence as the regulations of 
the Commissioner of Internal Revenue may prescribe. 

Bids will be evaluated on a Federal-Tax-Exclusive basis, except 
that when this is not practical le they will be evaluated on a Federal-Tax- 
Inclusive basis. Therefore, bids are requested exclusive of Federal taxes 
from tfhich exemption is granted or as to which a credit or refund is provided 
for by title IV of the Revenue Act of 1932 as amended. If the bid prices 
are exclusive of such taxes, or are inclusive of such taxes and the bidder 
agrees to the deduction of the amount thereof from the contract price and 
acceptance of tax-exemption certificates in lieu thereof, the bidder must 
show upon the face of his bid the amount of each such tax so included or 
excluded as to each item, so that a tax exemption certificate can be fur- 
nished him if his bid is accepted. If the bid as submitted does not show 
that such taxes are excluded and the bidder does not agree to their deduc- 
tion if included, it will be presumed that the amount of all such taxes is 
included in the bid price, the bid will be evaluated accordingly, and if the 
bid is accepted no exemption certificate will be issued. (See Article 21 
of the contract) . 

(b) State Taxes . - to facilitate evaluation of bids no Staxe or 
local taxes charged directly on the sale of goods should be included in bid 
prices, but whether or not included, the amount of such state taxes should 
be shown in detail so the appropriate computation may be made to determine 
the low bid and whether exemption certificates should be issued, etc. The 
evaluation of bids will be on a Tax-Rxclusive basis since such State or local 
sales tax is not chargeable to the Federal Government and if the bid. as sub- 
mitted does not clearly show that any such tax is excluded or that the bidder 
consents to the deduction thereof in a stated amount or amounts, it will be 
presumed that the amount of the tax is included in the bid price, the bid will 

,be evaluated accordingly, and if the bid is accepted no exemption certificate 
will be issued. 

10. BID AND CONTRACT . 

(a) Bios must be submitted upon the standard Government form of 
bid, (U.S. Standard Form No. 31) , and the successful bidder will be required 
to execute War Department Supply Contract Form No. 1. 

(b) The bid form has an entry for each item on which estimates 
will be given and payments made, and no other allowance of any kind will be 
made unless specifically provided for in the specifications or the contract, 
(See Article 3 of the contract.) 

(c) Any bidder may bid on one or more of the schedules included 
in the attached Standard Government Form of Bid. To facilitate the possible 
combining of the concrete aggregate requirements for different construction 
jobs under this contract, appropriate schedules are provided for combination 
b i d d i ng . 



-r;_ 



11. DATA TO BE SUBMITTED "WITH BIDS . 

(a) All bids submitted must be accompanied by a statement estab- 
lishing that the bidder maintains a permanent place of business and has a 
suitable financial status to meet obligations incident to the work. (See 
a,plicable paragraphs of the bidding schedule.) In addition, each bidder 
shall submit with his bid a statement of plant, drawings, charts, routing 
of shipments, specific gravity of materials , and other information required 
below. These data shall be carefully prepared and presented in neat and 
legible form on tracing paper or tracing cloth so that reproduction may 

be made therefrom. These data are considered essential in enabling the con- 
tracting officer to determine whether the bidder is responsible and experi- 
enced in similar enterprise and whether the bid is based or. a careful study 
of methods applicable to the work and full realization of the various factors 
which may affect the progress of the work. 

(b) After the bids are opened, any bidder may be required by the 
contracting officer to state whether he is now or ever has been engaged in 
furnishing aggregate similar to that proposed, the year in which it was done, 
and the manner of its execution, and to give such other information as will 
tend to show his ability to furnish the material required by these specifica- 
tions . 

(c) Sketches shall be submitted indicating each and every plant 
layout the bidder proposes to utilize in the production and process ing of 
concrete aggregates, r i'he sketches shall clearly show th location and manner 
of employment of the various ma jor items of the plant and shall include the 
arrangement of the plant or plants for the handling of material, the location 
of all material yards, and the transportation facilities. The plant layout 
shall be accompanied by a complete list and description inserted in the space 
provided therefor in the bid form, of all plant that the bidder now has or 
will have available for commencing and prosecuting this work, and its location 
at the time of opening bids, in order that it may be inspected by the contact- 
ing officer should he so desire. The above information will be considered 
confidential. When a bidder does not own or possess plant and proposes to 
procure it, firm options on all major items of proposed plant must be sub- 
mitted "When the bids are opened. 

12. AWARD OF CONTRACT . 

(a) subject to the rights hereinafter reserved, the furnishing 
of concrete aggregate 'will be awarded to the lowest responsible bidders 
whose proposals fully conform to the requirements of the specifications as 
may be deemed most advantageous to the United States. 

(b) Award to one or -more bidders will be made on the following 
basis : 

(1) washed natural sand ; 

(2) crushed stone sand; 

„ £3) Washed grevel, sizes 3/l6" to 3/k* * 3/k* to 1-1/2". 

1-1/2 to 3 M , and 3 to 6". 

(4) crushed stone, sizes 3/l6" to 3/4", 3/h* to 1-1/2", 
1-1/2" to 3", and 3" to 6". 

(c) In awarding the contract, aggregates of greatly different 
specific gravities will not be compared directlyon the basis of bid price per 
ton. The higher the specific gravity the greater will be the total tonnage 
of aggregate required to complete the contract. The relative influences of 
the different specific gravities on the cost of the total aggregate require- 
ment have been estimated and will be added, in amounts shown below, to the 



-c- 



respective bid prices per ton of aggregate before awaid is made. 

Cost to be added to bid price per ton for comparing bids. 
Apparent Specific Gravity of Aggregate 
(Standard Definition. ASTI.I Designation, E-12) Amount 

Less than 2.75 ■ - $0.00 

Eetween 2.75 and 2.35 O.OZj. 

Greater than 2.85 0*08 

Spaces provided in the bidding schedule shall be filled in to show which 
of these limits of specific gravity will apply to the material which the 
bidder proposes to furnish. 

It has benn determined that the use of crushed stone sand requires 
an additional amount of cement in the concrete to produce workability com- 
parable to that of mixtures made with natural sand. It is estimated that 
$0. per ton of sand represents this difference in the cost of concrete, 
and the bid price per ton of crushed stone sand will, therefore, be increased 
by this amount for the purpose of comparing bids. 

If the successful bidder, after being awarded a contract, furnishes 
a different type of sand, or a material which has a specific gravity greater 
or less than the limits on which the award was based, the Government reserves 
the right to adjust the contract unit price in accordance with the values 
stipulated above. 

( d) A bid may be rejected if the bidder fails to furnish bid bond 
or tc submit the data required with his bid or cannot show that he has the 
necessary capital & experience and owns, controls, or can procure the necessary 
plant to furnish the material at the time prescribed, in the specifications, 
and that he is not already obligated for the performance of other work which 
would delay the commencement, prosecution, or completion of the contract con- 
templated in this advertisement. 

(e) Any unbalanced bid which, in the opinion of the contracting of- 
ficer, jeopardizes the interest of the United States will be subject to re- 
jection for that reason. 

(f) The right is reserved, as the interest of the Government may 
require, to reject any and all bids and to waive any informality in bids 
received. 

13. GUARA.VTY . Guaranty will be required with each bid as follows: Eid 
Bond, Standard Form No. 24, will be executed in a penal sum not less than 
10 percent of the total amount of the bid, but not exceeding $2,500,000. 
Individual sureties will justify in sums aggregating not less than double 
the penalty of the bid bond. 

14. PEBFOBMANCE BONDS will be required as follows: 

(a) A performance bond with good and sufficient surety or sureties, 
for the protection of the United States, Standard Form IIo. 25, will be ex- 
ecuted in a penal sum not less than ten percent (10;£) of the full amount of 
the consideration of the contract, but not exceeding $2,500,000. 

15 # WALSH-HKALY ACT. This procurement is subject to the provisions of 
the act of June 30, 193 6, Public No. 846 - Seventy-fourth Congress, and the 
regulations adopted by the Secretary of Labor Pursuant thereto, (See Article 
15 of the contract). Bidders are informed that no determination of minimum 
wage rates applicable to this contract have been nade by the Secretary of 
Labor. 

16. MAHJFACTURKTt OP, REGULAR DEALER. A bidder or contractor shall be deemed 
to be a "manufacturer" or "regular dealer' with the meaning of Section 1 (a) 

-D- 



of the Walsh-Healy Act if he falls within one of the following categories: 

(a) A manufacturer is a person who owns, operates or maintains a 
factory or establishment that produces on the premises the materials, sup- 
plies, articles or equipment required under the contract and of the general 
character described by the specifications. 

(b) A regular dealer ia a person who owns, operates or maintains a 
store, warehouse or other establishment in which the materials, supplies, 
articles or equipment of the general character described by the specifications 
and required under the contract are bought, kept in stock, and sold to the 
public in the usuol course of business. 

(c) Except as exempted by the Secretary of Labor, every bid re- 
ceived from any bidder who does not fall within one of the foregoing cate- 
gories shall be rejected. The attention of bidders is directed to the pub- 
lication of the United States department of Labor entitled "Rulings and 
Interpretations, September 29. 1939. Walsh-Healy Public Contracts Act." This 
publication may be purchased from the superintendent of documents, Washington, 
D. C, for 10 cents. Knowledge of the contents of this publication is essen- 
tial for all bidders since in addition to" rulings and interpretations, it 
contains the rules and regulations of the Secretary of Labor published pur- 
suant to section 4 of the law which are applicable to this invitation for 
bids and definitions of the terms "manufacturer" and "regular dealer." In 
all cases where the representations and stipulations pursuant to this law 

are applicable, bids submitted by others than manufacturers or fegular deal- 
ers as defined in that publication will be rejected. The bidder shall here 
indicate the category or categories in which he qualifies: 

Manufacturer 



Regular dealer 



17. LABOR POLICY. - Attention of bidders is invited to War Department 
labor policy for defense construction projects set out in memorandum of agree- 
ment approved July 22, 1941* Successful bidders will be expected to adhere 
to provision of the agreement, copies of which are on file at the office of 
the District Engineers, U. S. Engineer Office, Massena, N. Y. 

18. ASSIGNME NT OF GLAIJVE . The work under these specifications will 
be subject to the provisions of the Assignment of Claims Act of 1940 (Pub. 
No. 811, 7£th Congress). See Article 19 of the contract. 

19. PRIORITIES, a rating of will be applicable to the items 

covered under this invitation. 

20 * DISCPIMINATI ON . Article on discrimination due to race, creed, color 
or national origin will be made a part of the contract, See Article 18 of the 
contract . 

21 • A DDKESS K)R BIDS. Envelopes containing bids must be sealed, marked, 
and addressed as follows : 



-E- 



Mark in upper Address: 

left-hand corner; 

To: The District Engineer 
Bid for furnishing concrete U. S. Engineer Office 

aggregate Massena, New York 

Invitation No. 



To be opened at 2 p.m., E.S.T. 



N(*IE: See Standard Government Instructions to Bidders and copy 
of War Department Supply Contract Form No. 1, Bid Bond, and Performance 
Bond, which may be obtained upon application. 



-F- 



Par. Mo. Paragraph Title Page No. 

SECTION I - GENERAL PROVISIONS 

1-01 Supplies to be furnished 1-1 

1-02 Deliveries 1-1 

1-03 Quantities 1-1 

1-04 Commencement, Prosecution and Completion. 1-3 

1-05 Measurement and Payment 1-5 

1-06 Escalator Clause 1-6 

1-07 Concrete Aggregate Sources .1-7 

1-08 Organization, Plant, and Progress 1-8 

1-09 Liability and Safety Requirements 1-8 

1-10 Lights 1-9 

1-11 Use of Explosives 1-9 

1-12 Property Damage 1-9 

1-13 Inspection 1-9 

1-14 Changes and Changed Conditions 1-10 

1-1.5 Minor Ivbdifications 1-10 

l-l6 Claims, Protests, and Appeals 1-10 

1-17 Patents 1-10 

1-18 Interference with Other Contractors 1-10 

1-19 Subcontractors 1-10 

1-20 Domestic Articles 1-10 

SECTION II- TECHNICAL PROVISIONS 

2-01 General 2-1 

2-02 Fine Aggregate 2-1 

2-03 Coarse Aggregate 2-2 

2-02| Sampling and Testing Aggregates 2-3 



WAR DEPARTMENT 
St. Lawrence River District 
U. S. Engineer Office 
Massena, N. Y. 

Specifications: Concrete Aggregate Supply- 
Appropriation; 

SECTION I - GENERAL PROVISIONS 

1-01. SUPPLIES TO BE FURNISHED. - These specifications contemplate 
the furnishing and delivery of aggregate for concrete, in accordance with 
the provisions contained herein. 

1-02. DELIVERIES. - Deliveries of the aggregates are to be made f.o.b. 
at the site of construction in accordance with the schedules stipulated in 
the contract. (See paragraph 1-04) 

1-03. QUANTITIES. - An estimate of the quantities of the several sizes 
of concrete aggregates which will be required at the different sites is given 
only to serve as a basis for canvassing bids and for determining the approxi- 
mate amount of the consideration of the contract. The contractor will be 
required to furnish sufficient quantities of the bid items for completion 
of the structure or structures named in the schedule, be the required quanti- 
ties more or less than the amounts estimated and shown in the following table: 



1- 1 - 






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1-04. COMMENCEMENT, PROSECUTION AND COMPLETION. 

(a) After notice to proceed, the contractor will be allowed a minimum 
of ninety calendar days to start delivery. Thereafter, the contracting officer 
will notify the contractor of the amount or amounts to be delivered at each pro- 
ject. The contractor shall accept cancellation of any shipment provided such 
notice of cancellation has been received by him by telephone, telegraph, or in 
writing at his processing plant at least 24 hours prior to the normal time of 
dispatch of shipments. 

(b) (1) The schedule of work on this contract will correlate with the 
schedule of work by construction contracts. The aggregate quantities required 
at each, destination at any particular time will be contingent on the progress of 
construction. The anticipated maximum rate of the delivery of aggregates to each 
construction un^t and the approximate dates for the start and completion of de- 
livery are shown in Table II. Deliveries, in general, shall be made in accordance 
with this schedule. If it is anticipated that weather conditions may cause a sus- 
pension in delivery of materials, a sufficient quantity of aggregates will be re- 
quired to be stock piled at the site, or sites, of work during favorable weather 
conditions to insure the required construction progress. 



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(2) In case of failure on the part of the contractor to meet the 
delivery schedule established under the provisions of paragraph 1-04 (b) (1), 
the contractor shall pay to the Government as liquidated damages the sum of five 
cents (5^) P er to n °f aggregate for each calendar day the contractor is behind in 
his deliveries, except when delay is excused under the provisions of the contract. 

(c ) Method of Shipment . 

Only hopper type, bottom-dump railroad cars with gates, will be ac- 
ceptable for rail shipment of concrete aggregates. 

(d) Protection - All cars used for shipment of aggregates shall be clean 
and have no openings through which materials may be lost. When loading from chutes, 
the center ridge of material shall not extend more than 9 inches above the top of 
the car, and a freeboard of 6 inches shall be provided by the sidewalls of the car, 
when so loaded. 

(e) Sundays, Holidays and Nights . - Production and shipping of aggre- 
gate on Sundays, holidays, and nights will be at the option of the contractor. How- 
ever, when the contractor elects to load material at such times, notice of his in- 
tention to do so shall be given the contracting officer within a reasonable time in 
advance thereof. 

1-05 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT 

of Quantities . 

(a) Measurement/ The quantities of concrete aggregates to be paid for 
under the several items shall be the number of tons of 2000 pounds, dry weight, 
delivered in accordance with these specifications and the orders of the contracting 
officer. The aggregates shall be weighed on certified scales. The tare weight of 
each car used in this service shall be obtained monthly or as the contracting of- 
ficer may determine. The contractor shall provide the contracting officer, upon 
request, with a certificate of accuracy o^ the scale as determined by a public 
weigher. All expense of weighing shall be borne by the contractor and shall be in- 
cluded in the bid prices. All cars shall be weighed in the presence of a repre- 
sentative of the Government, who will make tests for corrections for moisture in 
the aggregate. No payment shall be made for any aggregate shipped in the absence 
of such a representative. 

( b ) Method of Payment . 

(1) Payments will be made at the contract unit price per short ton 
(2,000 lbs.) for the various types of aggregates indicated in the Schedule of Bid 
Items. 

(2) Payments will be made, with discounts deducted, within the num- 
ber of days prescribed by the contractor in his bid after receipt of material at 

at destination or receipt of invoice, whichever date is later. Date of mailing 
check will be considered as date of payment. If for any reason it is necessary to 
return vouchers or invoices to the contractor for signature or correction before 
payment, the discount period with respect to - such vouchers or invoices shall be de- 
termined from the dete the vouchers or invoices, properly executed, are again receive: 
by the contracting officer. 

(3) An invoice shall be made out for each individual shipment, 
showing the name and location of the plant, date shipment left plant, railroad 
routin. , number of cars included in the shipment, tons of aggregate loaded in each 
car, and the total tons in the shipment. Two copies of these invoices shall be 
mailed to the contracting officer on the date of shipment. The pay quantities, in 
tons, shall be based on net weight of the aggregate adjusted for moisture content, 
based on average determinations made by the Government inspector. Copies of such 
routine moisture determinations will be furnished the contractor daily or oftener 
as the need may arise. 

1-5 - 



(4) Invoice Certification . - The following certificate must be 
typed or stamped verbatim on the face of each copy of the invoice. This invoice 
must be signed by a member of the firm on the original copy of the invoice only: 
I certify that the above bill is correct and just; that payment there- 
for has not been received; that all statutory requirements as to American production 
and labor standards, and all conditions of purchase applicable to the transactions 
have been complied with; and that State or local sales taxes are not included in 
the amounts billed. 



(Firm Name) 
Si 



Title 



1-06 ESCALATOR CLAUSE. 






(a) The following terms used hereafter are defined as follows: 

(1) " Basic hourly earnings index " shall be determined by adding 

monthly average hourly earnings in the " " industry as indicated under 

heading " " in the monthly pamphlet "Hourly Wages and labor 

Employment" issued by the Department of Labor for: the month in which contract time 
commences, the five (_5) months preceding such month, and the six (6) months suc- 
ceeding such month; and then dividing this total by twelve (12). 

(2) " Basic materials index " shall be determined by method in (1) 

above, using monthly indices for item n " in the monthly pamphlet 

"Wholesale Prices" issued by the Department of Labor. 

(3) " Monthly labor adjustment index " shall be determined from 
monthly average hourly earnings identified as to source in (1) above as follows: 
Add the average hourly earnings for the month for which adjustment is being made, 
the two preceding months and the two succeeding months; and then divide this total 
by five (3). 

(4) " Monthly materials adjustment index " shall be determined by 
method in (j) above, using monthly indices identified as to source in (2) above. 

(5) Above contract indices in (1), (2), (3), and (4) shall be com- 
puted to nearest second decimal place, taking the decimal point as located in indi- 
ces issued by the Department of Labor. When third decimal place computes to 3 

or over, the figure in second decimal place shall be raised to next higher figure. 

(b) (1) The proportion of the contract price represented by labor, 

subject to adjustment in price, is accepted as per cent of the 

contract price. 

(2) The proportion of the contract price represented by materials, 

subject to adjustment in price, is accepted as per cent of the 

contract price. 

(c) (1) The labor cost for entire contract as determined in (b) (1) 
above shall within thirty (30) days after receipt of notice to proceed, be divided 
into monthly labor cost quotas, prepared by the contractor and subject to the ap- 
proval of the contracting officer, for each partial or whole calendar month of the 
contract time beginning with the notice to proceed. 

(2) The materials cost for entire contract as determined in (b) (2) 
above shall be similarly divided into monthly materials cost quotas within thirty 
(30) days after receipt of notice to proceed. 

(d) Adjustments in payments shall be obtained for each monthly cost 
quota fcs follows: - Multiply monthly cost quota by the appropriate monthly adjust- 
ment index, divide by corresponding basic index, and subtract monthly cost quota. 
The result shall be added to or deducted from payments to the contractor. 

1-6- 



(e) (1) If the time for performance of this contract is legally ex- 
tended by the contracting officer, there shall be immediately set up by the contrac- 
tor, subject to the approval by the contracting officer, new monthly cost quotas 

as necessary. These new monthly cost quotas may extend back as far as any month 
for which adjustments in payments have not been completed, but the total of the new 
quotas shall not exceed the total of the old quotas for which adjustments in pay- 
ments have not been completed. 

(2) If there is an increase or decrease in the work originally con- 
templated under this contract, there shall be immediately set up by the contractor, 
subject to the approval of the contracting officer, new monthly costs quotas for 
months concerned. 

(3) If liquidated damages are assessed against the contractor under 
the contract, such liquidated damages shall not be considered in making adjustments. 

(f ) The adjustment payment or deduction for any one month shall normally 
be included with next partial contract payment after receipt of Department of Labor 
indices for such month. 

(g) The acceptance and final payment for work and/or materials under 
this contract shall be carried out as elsewhere provided in this contract, and a- 
mounts retained for the piotectior of the government during construction shall be 
promptly paid upon final acceptance: Provided, however, that an amount, as deter- 
mined by the contracting officer, for protection of the government in adjustments 
not yet completed, shall be retained; and, provided further, that the release re- 
quired by will contain provision excepting such adjustment payments 

as may become due the contractor. 

(h) After final payment for basic contractural price as indicated in 
paragraph 7 above has been made, adjustments becoming due will be delayed until 
all indices necessary for completion of all adjustments under the contract are 
available, when one lump payment or deduction shall be made for such adjustments. 

(i) In case the final adjustment in the contract price results in a 
net deduction from the contract price, the contractor and his sureties shall be 
liable for the amount thereof until it is refunded to the Government. 

(j) When payment obligations under the contract exceed the contract price 
as a result of increases in labor and/or materials costs to the extent that avail- 
able appropriations are exhausted, the Government reserves the right, without fur- 
ther liability to suspend further work under the contract for the account of the 
Government or to terminate the contract on payment of contractual obligations in- 
curred up to the point of termination. 

1-07 CONCRETE AGGREGATE SOURCES. 

(a) Investigations are being conducted by the contracting officer to 
locate suitable aggregate sources, and laboratory tests on fine and coarse aggregate 
are being made. It shall be the responsibility of the contractor to locate sources 
of aggregate meeting the specifications, but the results of all explorations, in- 
vestigations, and laboratory tests directed bv the contracting officer, will be 
made available to bidders at the U. S. Engineer Office, Massena, N. Y. 

(b) Should deposits of satisfactory aggregate be located within the Go- 
vernment-controlled area in the reservoir or adjacent to the site they may be con- 
sidered in submitting bids after receipt of approval of the contracting officer, 
who will make this information known to all bidders. No charge will be made to 
the contractor for materials authorized to be taken from Government-controlled 
lands and used in the work covered by these specifications, but all pits shall be 
left in a neat and sightly condition, and all pits above the normal ground water 
table shall be adequately drained. Side slopes shall be not steeper than 1 on 3* 

No separate payment will be made for such work. 

1- 7 - 



(c) Approval of aggregate sources by the contracting officer shall not 
constitute approval of all materials taken from deposits and the contractor will 
be responsible for the quality of all materials furnished. 

(d) Should the contractor obtain aggregate material from deposits on 
private lands he shall pay any royalties or other charges required, and the con- 
tracting officer assumes no responsibility for such use and the Government will not 
be obligated in any way. 

1-08. ORGANIZATION, PLANT, AMD PROGRESS. 

(a) The contractor shall employ an ample force of properly experienced 
men and provide an aggregate plant or plants properly adapted to the work and of 
sufficient capacity and efficiency to accomplish the work in a safe and workmanlike 
manner at the rate of progress specified. All production equipment shall be main- 
tained in good working order and provision shall be made for immediate emergency 
repairs. It is understood that a.ard of this contract shall not be construed as a 
guaranty by the United States that plant listed in statement of contractor for use 
on this contract is adequate for the performance of the work. 

(b) In the event any of the provisions of the contract are violated by 
the contractor or any subcontractor, the contracting officer may terminate the con- 
tract and purchase similar materials in the open market or otherwise, and the con- 
tractor and his sureties shall be liable to the Government for any excess cost oc- 
casioned the Government, thereby. 

1-09. LIABILITY AND SAFETY REQUIREMENTS. 

(a) The contractor will not be allowed to block or obstruct any public 
highway without having secured prior permission from the contracting officer, and 
having provided safe temporary detours. During the time the public highways may 
be so blocked, the contractor shall place danger lights, barricades, and 'warning 
signs in accordance with the laws of the State of New York. 

(b) The contractor shall be responsible that his employees strictly ob- 
serve the laws of the United States affecting all operations under this contract. 
He shall comply with all applicable Federal, State, and local laws, including 
those concerning the inspection of boilers and other equipment and the licensing 
of engineers and other employees. 

(c) The contractor shall conduct the work with due regard to adequate 
safety and sanitary requirements and shall maintain his plant and equipment in safe 
condition. He shall be responsible for injury to his employees and to those of 
the Government that occur as a result of his fault or negligence. He shall conform 
to current safety engineering practices as set forth in the manual of Accident 
Prevention in Construction, published by the Associated General Contractors of 
America; the publications of the National Safety Council; and with all applicable 
State or local safety and sanitary laws, regulations, and ordinances. 

(d) The contracting officer will require such safety and sanitary meas- 
ures to be taken as the nature of the work, and the conditions under which it is 
to be performed, demand. Such measures shall, where applicable, include: 

(1) Adequate fire prevention measures and fire-fighting equipment. 

(2) Adequate life protection and life-saving equipment. 

(3) Adequate illumination during night operations. 

(4) Instruction in accident prevention to reach all employees. 
(3) Watchman service at hazardous railroad crossings. 

(6) Such machinery guards, safe walkways, scaffolds, ladders, 
bridges, gang planks, and other safety devices, equipment, and apparel as may be re- 
quired by the contracting officer as requisite to the prevention of accidents. 

1 - 6 - 



(7) The contractor shall furnish, to his employees and the employees 
of the Government located at his plant, a sufficient supply of potable drinking 
water. The drinking water shall be tested periodically in the State or other ap- 
proved laboratories and shall at all times meet the State Board of Health's requie- 
ments for potable drinking water. 

(e) The contractor shall promptly report to the contracting officer, 
in form prescribed by him, all accidents occuring at the site of the work. 

(f ) The contracting officer will notify the contractor in writing of 
any noncompliance with the foregoing provisions and the corrective action to be 
taken. If the contractor fails or refuses promptly to comply, the contracting of- 
ficer may issue a stop order suspending all or any part of the work. Such stop 
order shall be sent by registered mail to the contractor and shall be accepted by 
him as sufficient notice thereof. Work will thereupon be suspended as directed. 
When satisfactory corrective action is taken, a resumption order will be issued. 
No part of the time lost due to any such stop order shall be made the subject of a 
claim for extension of time or for excess costs or damages by the contractor. 

(g) The contractor shall provide first aid station facilities, with 
suitable personnel conveniently located with respect to his operations. 

1-10. LIGHTS. - The contractor shall, at his own expense, display proper 
lights continuously each night, between the hours of sunset and sunrise and during 
fogs, upon all moving plant equipment connected -with the work, and shall be respon- 
sible for all damages resulting from any neglect or failure in this respect. If 
work is done at night the contractor shall maintain, from sunset to sunrise, such 
lights on or about his plant as the contracting officer may deem necessary for the 
proper observation of the operations. 

1-11. USE OF EXPLOSIVES. - The contractor shall use the utmost care in the 
use of explosives necessary for the prosecution of the work, not to endanger life 
or property. All blasting operations shall be conducted by experienced men only. 
The handling and use of explosives shall be done strictly in accordance with the 
latest methods and ruling to insure safety; in accordance with the specifications 
issued by the U. 3. Bureau of Alines; and in compliance with the local and State 
laws. Failure to observe necessary precautions will be sufficient grounds for 
temporary suspension of the work. All explosives shall be transported and stored 
in a secure manner, and in accordance with local and State laws; all vehicles and 
such storage places shall be marked clearly "DANGER - EXPLOSIVES," and shall be 
in the care of competent watchmen at all times. In no case shall caps or other de- 
tonators be stored or transported with dynamite or other explosives. The location 
of magazines for the storage of explosives and for the separate storage of detona- 
tors shall be subject to the approval of the contracting officer. 

1-12. PROPERTY DAMAGE. - Damage to Government property or to the works due 
to failure of the contractor to carry out the terms of the contract and specifica- 
tions, to take reasonable precautions, or to maintain progress to approved schedules, 
or to -carry out the instructions of the contracting officer shall be made good by 
the contractor without expense to the United States. He will also be held respon- 
sible for any damage done to adjoining property through his neglect or failure to 
take proper precautions. 

1-13. INSPECTION 

(a) All aggregate furnished under these specifications will be inspected 
as provided in paragraph 2-01. 

(b) Should the contractor refuse, neglect or delay compliance with 

1- 9 - 



the requirements concerning facilities for inspection, the specific facilities may 
be furnished and maintained by the contracting officer, and the cost thereof dediKte 
from any amounts due or to become due the contractor. 

(c) Except as specified in this paragraph and in Article 4 of the contrac 
all expenses of inspection will be borne by the United States. 

(d) The contractor shall furnish a suitable room containing at least 200 
square feet of floor space for a Government laboratory to be used for temporary 
storage and testing of the aggregates. This room shall be protected from the wea- 
ther, properly lighted, provided with necessary work tables and benches, and shall 
be heated in cold weather. The location for this room shall be subject to the ap- 
proval of the contracting officer. The contractor shall provide electricity for 
light and jsiscellaneous uses, and an adequate supply of water for drinking and sani- 
tary purposes. 

1-14. CHANGES AND CHANGED CONDITIONS. - When changes are made in the specifi- 
cations or changed conditions are encountered during the progress of the work which 
cause an increase or decrease in the amount due under the contract, or in the time 
required for its performance, an equitable adjustment shall be made in accordance 
with Article 2 of the contract*.-. 

1-15 • MINOR MODIFICATIONS. - The right is reserved to make such minor changes . 
in the execution of the work to be done under these specifications as, in the judg- 
ment of the contracting officer, may be necessary or expedient to carry out the in- 
tent of the contract; provided, that the unit cost to the contractor of doing the 
work shall not be increased thereby, and no increase in unit price over the contract 
rate will be paid to the contractor on account of such changes. (See Articles 2 
and 3 °f 'the contract). 

1-16. CLAIMS, PROTESTS, AND APPEALS. - If the contractor considers any work 
demanded of him to be outside the requirements of the contract or if he considers 
any action or ruling of the contracting officer or of the inspectors to be unfair, 
the provisions of Article 12 of the contract shall apply. 

1-17. PATENTS. - The contractor shall hold and save the Government, its of- 
ficers, agents, servants, and employees, harmless from liability of any nature or 
kind, including costs and expenses for or on account of any patented or unpatented 
invention, article or appliance manufactured or used in the performance of this con- 
tract, including their use by the Government. 

1-18. INTERFERENCE WITH OTHER CONTRACTORS. - The contractor shall not inter- 
fere with material, appliances or workmen of the United States or of any other con- 
tractor. As far as practicable, all contractors shall have equal rights to the use 
of all roads, grounds and adjacent river and make equitable agreements among them- 
selves for the use of temporary railroads and highways. In cases of disagreement 
regarding such use, the decision of the contracting officer shall govern. 

1-19. SUBCONTRACTORS. - Subcontractors and their employees shall be considere 
to be employees of the contractor as the term "employee" is used in these specifi- 
cations. 

. 

1-20. DOMESTIC ARTICLES. - Because the materials listed below, or the materi- 
als from which they are manufactured are not mined, produced, or manufactured, as 
the case may be, in the United States in sufficient and reasonably available com- 
mercial quantities and of a satisfactory quality, their use in the manufacture of 
the supplies herein specified (subject to the requirements of the specifications) 

1 - 10 - 



is authorized without regard to the country of origin (Se« 
tract). 



Article 13 of the con- 



Abrasives 
Acetic Acid 
Acetic Anhydride 
Acetene 
Aconite Root 
Alcohol, Ethyl 
Alpha Cellulose 
Aluminum 
Aniline 

Antimony (and ores) 
Argo'ls and Wine Lees 
Arsenic 
Asbestos 
Ealsa 

Earium Chemicals 
Bauxite 

Belladonna Leaves 
Eeryl Ores 
Bismuth (and ores) 
Bristles, Hog 
Eelladonna Boots 
Cadmium (and ores) 
Calcium 
Camphor- 
Castor Beans 
Castor Oil 
Chlorine 

Chromium (and ores) 
Cobalt (and ores) 
Cocoa (or cocao) Beams 
Coconut Oil 
Coconut Shell Char 
Coffee 

Columbium and Ores 
Copper (and ores) 
Copra 
Coi k 

Cotton, Long Staple 
Cotton Linters 
Cresols and Cresylic Acid 
Cryolite 

Cube or Timbo Root 
Derris Boot 
Diamond Dies 
Diamonds, Industrial 
Ergot of Bye 
Tin (and Ores) 
Methanol 
Mica 
Mohair 
Molasses 
Molybdenum (and Ores) 

Naphthalene 



Ferrosilicon 

Fish Liver Oils 

Fish Oils 

Flax 

Flaxseed 

Fluorspar 

Formaldehyde 

Gasoline, Aviation, 

100 Octane 
Glass, Optical 
Glass, Scientific 
Glycerine 
Graphite 

Gume and Resins, Natural 
Gypsum 
Helium 
Hemp 

Henbane Leaves 
Henequen 

Hides (and Skins) 
Ilmenite 
Iodine 

Iridium (and Ores) 
Iron Ore 
Iron and Steel 
Jute Eur laps 
Jute, Unmanufactured 
Kapok 

Lac and Shellac 
Lead (and Ores) 
Leather 
Lignum Vitae 
Linseed Oil 
Magnesite 
Magnesium 
Mahogany 
Manganese, Ferrograde 

(and Ores) 
Manganese and Ores 
Manila Fiber- 
Mercury (and Ores) 
Sulfuric Acid 
Tanning Materials 
Tantalum and Ores 
Teak 

Tea Waste 
Quartz Crystal 
Quinine (and Cinchona Bark) 
Radium and Ores 
Rayon 
Red Squill 

Refractory Materials 
Rotenone Root 



1- 11 - 



Neatsfoot Oil 
Nickel (and Ores) 
Nitrogen Compounds 

(Including Ammonia, Nitric Silk 
Acid and Chilean Nitrates Sisal 
Nux Vomica 
Oiticica Oil 
Opium 
Palm Oil 
Paper and Pulp 
Petroleum and petroleum 

Products 
phenol 

Phosphate Materials 
phosphorus 
Phthalic Anhydride 
Platinum (and Platinum 

Group) (and Ores) 
Polyvinyl Chloride 
Potash 

pyrethrum Florrers 
Pyrites 



Rubber' 
Rutile 

Senna Leaves 

Silk 

Sisal 

Stramonium Leaves 

Strontium -and Ores 

Strontium Chemicals 

Sugar 

Sulphur 

Tungsten (and Ores) 

Uranium and Ores 

Vanadium (and Ores) 

Wool 

Zinc (and Ores) and Zinc 

Concentrates 
Titanium and Ores 
Toluol 
Tung Nuts 
rung Oil • 
Zinc Oxide 
Zirconium (and Ores) 



1- 12 - 



SECTION II - TECHNICAL PROVISIONS 

2-01. GENERAL. - The concrete aggregate as received at destinations 
shall conform in all respects to the requirements of these specifications. 
However, for the convenience of the contractor and in order to facilitate 
the wasting of any unsatisfactory material prior to shipping, inspection vail 
be made at the site of production and any aggregate which fails to meet all 
of the requirements will thereupon be rejected. Routine control tests and 
analyse-s of the aggregates in their various states from raw to finished pro- 
ducts will be made b> the Government, and the contractor shall provide such 
facilities as the contracting officer may consider necessary for the ready 
procurement of representative samples. 

2-02. FINE AGGREGATE. 

(a) Composition. - Fine aggregate shall be natural sand or crushed 
stone sand. If crushed stone sand is furnished it shall be manufactured from 
material which has been crushed to pass the 3" square mesh screen and be re- 
tained on a g" square mesh screen. Tailings from this preliminary crushing 
and screening will not be accepted. Only clean dense, tough, durable dolo- 
mite stone, or other material of equal or greater stability will be accep- 
table for artificial sand manufacture. 

(b) Grading . 

(1) The fine agregate shall be well graded from coarse to fine 
and when tested by means of U. S. Standard square mesh sieves shall fall with- 
in the following limits of gradation: 

Percent Passing, by Weight 

Sieve Size Natural Sand Crushed Stone Sand 

3/8" 100 100 

95-100 95-100 

75-90 80-95 

50-75 55-80 

30-55 30-60 

12i-25 15-30 

3-5-8 5 -12 

(2) If natural sand is furnished the fineness modulus shall 
be not less than 2. 50 nor more than 3*00 > if crushed stone sand is furnished 
the fineness modulus shall be not less than 2 .i|0 nor more than 2.90; and in 
either case the fineness modulus of the sand shipped to any one delivery 
point shall not vary more than 0.20 from lowest to highest. 

(3) Any classifying, blending, screening; washing or other 
treatment of the fin aggregate required to meet these specifications shall 
be done by the contractor and the cost thereof shall be included in the unit 
prices bid for aggregate delivered f.o.b. destination. 

(4) Deficiencies in the quanitities passing the #5 C a ^d #100 
sieves may be cempesated for by furnishing, through separate shipment and at 
the contractors expense, a sufficient quantity ot fine dune sand of approved 
quality and grading. This quantity shall not exceed 15 percent by weight of 
the total fine agregate. 

(c) Deleterious Substances . - The substance designated shall not 
be present in excess of the following amounts: 

Percent by Weight 
Clay lumps ----------- -l 

Material removed by decantation- -3 
Shale __--! 



tfo. 


k 


fl 


8 


l» 


16 


n 


30 


n 


50 


n 


100 



2-1 



(d) Mortar Strength . - Mortar specimens made with the fine aggre- 
gate shall have a compressive strength at 28 days of at least 90 percent of 
the strength of similar specimens made with Ottawa sand having a fineness 
modulus of 2.40 4- 0.10 and with the same cement. 

(e) Tests . - Fine aggregates will be subjected to the following 
testa : 

(1) Freezing and thawing test performed in accordance with 
A.S.T.M. Specification C137 - 3°'T. "Soundness of Aggregates by Freezing and 
Thawing," shall not show a loss in 25 cycles cf more than 5 percent, or not 
more than that shown by sand of proven quality. 

(2) Magnesium sulphate accelerated soundness test performed in 
accordance with A.S.T.M- Specification C&Q - 39T, "Soundness of Aggregates 
by use of Sodium Sulphate or Magnesium Sulphate," shall not show a loss in 

10 cycles of more than 10 percent. 

(f) Organic Impur±ties . - The fine aggregate when tested in accor- 
dance with the A.S.T.M. Standard Method of Test for Organic Impurities in 
Sand for concrete (A.S.T.M. Designation (C 40-33). shall not show a color 
darker than the standard. 

2-03. COARSE AGGREGATE. 

(a) Composition . - Coarse aggregate shall be washed gravel or 
crushed stone. 

(b) duality . - Coarse aggregate shall consist of hard, tough and 
durable particles free from adherent coating. It shall contain no vegetable 
matter nor soft, friable, thin or elongated particles in quantities considered 
deleterious by the contracting office. Aggregate which has disintegrated or 
weathered badly under exposure conditions similar to those which will be 
encountered by the work under consideration, shall not be used. The sub- 
stances designated below shall not be present in excess of the following 
amounts : 

Soft particles (including shale) - - 5% 
Clay lumps ------------ -0.2552 

Removed by decantation ------- 1% 

Thin elongated particles ----- -10% 

"Vhen the material removed by decantaticn consists essentially of crusher dirt 
the maximum amount permitted may be raised to 1-1/2 percent. When crushed 
stone is used the crushed shall be equipped with a screening system which will 
separate the dust from the stone and convey it to a separate bin. 

(c) Size and Gradation . 

(1) Coarse aggregate shall be generally rounded or cubical in 
shape, and well graded from fine to coarse within each designated size range 
so that concrete of the required workability, density, and strength can be 
mode without the use of an excess amount of sand, water, or cement. 

Coarse aggregate shall be separated, and the specified sizes de- 
livered separately in accordance with the following: 

3/l6" to 3/4" (Square Mesh Screen) 

3/4" to 1-1/2" * « " 

1-1/2" to 3" 11 * ■ 

3« to 6" « " n 

Within any o± the above-indicated size limits, not less than 85 
percent shall be retained on a standard square mesh screen of the minimum 
size aggregate indicated, and 100 percent shall pass a mesh screen 1-1/2 
times the maximum size aggregate indicated. 

(d) Tests . - Coarse aggregates will be tested and shall be subjected 
to the following: 



2-2 



(1) Freezing and thawing test performed in accordance with 
A.3.T.M. Specification CI 37 - 3&T, "Soundness of Aggregates by Freezing and 
Thawing," shall not show a loss in 25 cycles of more than 5 percent. 

(2) Magnesium sulphate accelerated soundness test performed 

in accordance with A.S.T.M. Specification C83 - 39T, "Soundness of Aggregates 
by use of Sodium Sulphate or Magnesium Sulphate," shall not show a loss in 
10 cycles of more than 10 percent. 

2-04. SAMPLING AND TESTING AGGREGATES. - Except where provided other- 
wise by these specification, all sampling and testing of aggregates shall be 
made in accordance with the Federal Specifications. Unless specified other- 
wise, all tost samples shall be supplied by the contractor at his expense and 
all tests will be made by and under the supervision of the Government at its 
expense. The source form which concrete aggregates are to be obtained shall 
be selected by the contractor well in advance of the time when they will be 
required in work, and suitable samples, as they are to be used in the concrete, 
shall be furnished to the contracting officer at least 3° days in advance of 
the time when delivery of the aggregate is expected to begin. 



2-3 



Standard Form No. 31 Invitation No. 

STANDARD GOVERNMENT FORM OF BID 
(SUPPLY CONTRACT) 



ORIGINAL ) Indicate which 
DUPLICATE) by erasure 



Opening Date of this Bid 
►M., , 19 

(Date) 



To The District Engineer, 

U. S. Engineer Office, 
Massena, New York 

1, In compliance with your invitation for bids to furnish 
materials and supplies listed on the reverse hereof or on the 
accompanying schedules, numbered: "A* to "R" inclusive, the 
undersigned, 

a corporation organized and existing under the laws of the State 

of __________ ___ ___________________ a partnership consisting of 



an individual trading as 
of the city of 



hereby proposes to furnish, within the time specified, the ma- 
terials at the prices stated opposite the respective items listed 
on the schedules and agrees upon receipt of written notice of the 
acceptance of this bid within days (60 days if no short- 
er- period be specified) after the date of opening of the bids, to 
execute, if required, (War Department Supply Contract Form No. 1) 
in accordance with the bid as accepted, and to give bond, if re- 
quired, with good and sufficient surety or sureties, for the faith- 
ful performance of the contract, within 10 days after the prescribed 
forms are presented for signature. 



Discount will "be allowed for prompt payment as follows: 
10 calendar days p ercent ; 20 calendar days p ercent ; 

30 calendar days p ercent; or as stated in the schedules. 

(Time will be computed from date of the delivery of the supplies 
to carrier when final inspection and acceptance are at point of 
origin, or from date of delivery at destination or port of embarlc- 
tion when final inspection and acceptance are at those points, or 
from date correct bill or voucher properly certified by the contra- 
tor is received if the latter date is later than the date of delivery.) 



II 



SCHEDULE "A" - FINE AGGREGATE FOR LONG SAULT DAM 



Item i 

No, : 



la 



2 
2a 



Designation 



Quantity » Unit 



(Tons) 



: Natural Sand 

: Crushed Stone Sand 



430,000 
430,000 



Price 



Amount 



SCHEDULE "B" - FINE AGGREGATE FOR LONG SAULT CANAL GUARD STRUCTURE 

: Natural Sand 65,000 : 

: Crushed Stone Sand 65,000 : 

: : 

SCHEDULE »C" - FINE AGGREGATE FOR MASSENA CANAL WEIR 



3 : Natural Sand 

3a : Crushed Stone Sand 



40,000 
40,000 



SCHEDULE "D" - FINE AGGREGATE FOF ROBINSON BAY LOCK 



4 


: 


Natural Sand 


340,000 : : 


4a 




Crushed Stone 


• « 

Sand 340,000 ; : 

: : 




• 
• 


SCHEDULE "E" 


- FINE AGGREGATE FOR GRASS RIVER LOCK 


5 


Natural sand 


210,000 : : 


5a 


S 

: 

• 
• 


Crushed Stone 


Sand 210,000 : : 




• 
• 

i 

X 


SCHEDULE "F B 


- FINE AGGREGATE FOR POWERHOUSE STRUCTURES 


6 


Natural Sand 


1,150,000 : : 


6a 


Crushed Stone 


• • 

Sand 1,150,000 : : 

: : 



III 



SCHEDULE ■G" - FINE AGGREGATE, COMBINATION BID 

Natural Sand Only. Bid on Any Two or More Items Shown 



Item i 


« 

DesifTM" tion J 


Ojiantity 
fTons^ 


» Unit j 
* Price j 


Amount 


7 s 


i 
Natural Sand for Long Sault Dam : 


i 

t 430,000 


f 




8 i 


4 

■ ■ ■ L»S»C©nal Guard Str. j 


t 65,000 






9 i 


• ■..».■ Massena Weir 


t 40,000 






10 J 


t 

• . • ■ Robinson Bay Lock i 


> 

i 340,000 






11 1 


i ■ ■ ■ ■ Grass River Lock i 


! 210,000 


: 1 


1 


12 


i ■ • " Powerhouse Strs. i 


t 1,150,000 


8 

: a 


t 

1 



SCHEDULE "H" - FINE AGGREGATE, COMBINATION BID 

Crushed Stone Sand Only. Bid on Any Two or More Items Shown 



7a 


: Crushed Stone Sa 


8a 


« » * 


9a 


• ■ 


10a 


" • 


11a 


N « 


12a 


UN 



L.S. Canal Guard :3tr 65,000 



40,000 



" Massena Weir 

■ Robinson Bay Lock 340,000 

" Grass River Lock 210,000 

* 

■ Powerhouse Strs. 1,150,000 



:; 



IV 



SCHEDULE "I" - COARSE AGGREGATE FOR LONG SAULT DAM 



Item ■ 

No. ! 


: Designation 


Quant ity i 
(Ions) 


i Unit i 
Price 


1 Amount 


13 


1 Natural Gravel 


■ 

925,000 ! 


1 




13a 


i Crushed Stone 


925,000 i 







14 

14a 



15 
15a 



18 
18a 



16 : 

• 

16a : 

: 



17 
17a 



SCHEDULE "J" - COARSE AGGREGATE FOR LONG SAULT CANAL GUARD STRUCTURE 



Natural Gravel 
Crushed Stone 



140,000 
140,000 



SCHEDULE "K" - COARSE AGGREGATE FOR MASSENA WEIR 
Natural Gravel 84, 000 : 

Crushed Stone 84,000 



SCHEDULE 'L* - COARSE AGGREGATE FOR ROBINSON BAY LOCK 
Natural Gravel 746,000 

Crushed Stone 746,000 

: 

SCHEDULE »M" - COARSE AGGREGATE FOR GRASS RIVER LOCK 
Natural Gravel 45&»000 

Crushed Stone 456 t OOO 



SCHEDULE »N B - COARSE AGGREGATE FOR POVffiR HOUSE STRUCTURES 



Natural Gravel 



Crushed Stone 



2,400,000 
2,400,000 



SCHEDULE "0* - COARSE AGGREGATE, COMBINATION BID 

Natural Gravel Only, Bid on Any Two or More Items Shown 



Item 

No. 


Designation 


Quantity i 
(Tons) : 


Unit j 
Price j 


Amount 


19 


i Natural Gravel for Long Sault Dam 


i 

i 

i 

4 

925,000 i 


► 1 

■ 

• 




20 j 


■ ■ " L.S.Canal Guard Str. 


140,000 ! 






21 i 


i - ■ ■ " Massena Weir 


84,000 : 






22 j 


" ■ " Robinson Bay Lock 


746,000 ! 






23 


" " " Grass River Lock 


456,000 j 






24 ! 


■ . ■ ■ Powerhouse Strs. 


i 
2,400,000 j 

4 

4\ 


1 

« 





SCHEDULE *P" - COARSE AGGREGATE. COMBINATION BID 

Crushed Stone Only. Bid on Any Two or More Items Shown 



19a 


s Crushed Sto 


20a : 




21a i 


1 " " 


j 
22a : 


! 


i 
23a j 


" " 


24a j 





" L.S. Canal Guard Str. 

■ Massena Weir 

" Robinson Bay Lock 

■ Grass River Lock 

■ Powerhouse Strs* 



925,000 % 

140,000 : 

84,000 j 
t 

746,000 : 
: 

456,000 : 

x 

2,400,000 : 



VI 



SCHEDULE "Q" - FINE AND COARSE AGGREGATE, COMBINATION BID. 

Bid on Anv or All Items of Fine Aggregate and Anv or All Items of 

Coarse Aggregate. 



Item 
No. 



25 
26 

27 
28 

29 
30 

31 
32 

33 

34 

35 

36 

25a 

26a 

27a 

28a 

29a 

30a 

31a 

32a 
33a 
34a 
35a 
36a 



Designation 



Quantity 
(Tons) 



Unit 
Price 



Amount 



Natural Sand for Long Sault Dam 

■ ■ ■ Long S.C, Guard Str. 

■ ■ ' " Massena Weir 

■ * ■ Robinson Bay Lock 

■ ■ ■ Grass Fiver Lock 

• ■ " Powerhouse Strs. 
Natural Gravel for Long Sault Dam 

■ ■ ■ L.S. Canal Guard Str, 

■ ■ ■ Massena Weir 

■ ■ * Robinson Bay Lock 

■ ■ • Grass Piver Lock 

■ • ■ Powerhouse Strs* 
Crushed Stone Sand for Long Sault Dam 

" ■ ■ ■ L.S. Canal Guard Str.65 t OOO 

• ■ t ■ Massena Weir 40,000 

■ ■ ■ ■ Robinson Bay Lock 340,000 

■ ■ ■ " Grass River Lock 210,000 

■ ■ ■ ■ Powerhouse Strs. 1,150,000 

Crushed Stone Coarse Aggregate for 

Long Sault Dam 925,000 

■ " C.A,. for Long S.C.Guard Str. 140,000 

■ • C.A. for Massena Weir 84,000 

■ * C.A. for Robinson Bay Lock 746,000 

■ ■ C.A. for Grass River Lock 456,000 

• ■ C.A. for Powerhouse Strs. 2,400,000 



430,000 
65,000 
40,000 

340,000 

210,000 
1,150,000 

925,000 

140,000 
84,000 
746,000 
456,000 
2,400,000 
430,000 



VII 



(a) All amounts and totals given above will be subject to 
verification by the United States, In case of variation between unit 
bid price and totals shown by bidder, the unit price will be considered 
to be his bid. 

(b) The quantities of each item of the bid, as finally 
ascertained at the close of the contract, in the units given and the 
unit prices of the several items stated by the bidder in the accepted 
bid, will determine the total payments to accrue under the contract • 
The unit price bid for each item must allow for all collateral or in- 
direct cost connected with it, 

(c) The limits of the apparent specific gravity for each 
aggregate proposed to be furnished are indicated below, (The bidder 
will list all of the bid item numbers in appropriate columns) . 



Applicable limits of apparent Specific Gravity, 
Less than 2.75 2.75 to 2.85 Greater than 2.85 



Item No* Item No. Item No* 

Item No* Item No* Item No* 

Item No* Item No* Item No. 

Item No* Item No* Item No. 

Item No. Item No* Item No* 

Item No* Item No* Item No* 

Item No* Item No. Item No* 

Item No* Item No* Item No. 

Item No. Item No. Item No. 

Item No* Item No* Item No* 

Item No. Item No. Item No* 

Item No. Item No. Item No* 



mi 



2. (a) Federal Taxes. Bidder will indicate by check mark which one 
of the following statements is applicable to his bid: 

a* Prices herein do not include any federal taxes imposed by 
Title IV of the Eevenue Act of 1932, as amended.. 

b. Prices herein include the federal taxes imposed by Title 

IV of the Revenue Act of 1932, as amended, but consent is hereby given to the 
deduction of said faxes and the acceptance of a tax exemption certificate in 
lieu thereof. 

c. Prices herein include the federal taxes imposed by Title 
IV of the Revenue Act of 1932, as amended. 

(Whenever statement (a) or (b) above is applicable, bidder will 
state the amount of the taxes involved as to each item for which a tax ex- 
emption certificate will be required.) 

(b) State or Local Taxes. Bidder will indicate by check mark 
which one of the following statements is applicable to his bid: 

a. Prices herein do not include any state or local taxes im- 
posed directly on the sale of the supplies. 

b. Prices herein include all state and local taxes imposed 
directly on the sale of supplies, but consent is hereby given to the de- 
duction of said taxes and the acceptance of a tax exemption certificate in 
lieu thereof. 

c. Prices herein include all state and local taxes imposed 
directly on the sale of the supplies, but no deduction of said taxes will 

be permitted nor will a tax exemption certificate be accepted in lieu thereof. 

(Whether state or local taxes charge directly on the sale of goods 
are included or are not included, the amount of such taxes should be shown 
in detail.) 



H 



EXPERIENCE. 



4. STATEMENT ESTABLISHING PERMANENT PLACE OF BUSINESS AND 
FINANCIAL STATUS. (See Invitation for Bids.) 



5- FLANT TO BE USED ON TTTR WORK, (see Invitation for Bids 
and paragraph 1-08 of the specifications.) 

Equipment available for aggregate supply. 



t : : : t 

No« : Type : Manufacturer t Capacity : Age : Condition 
it : t : 




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(Witness to signature 



(Full name of bidder) 



(Address) 

Note.- See Standard Government Instructions to Bidders and copy of 
the Contract, Bid Bond, and Performance Bond, which may be obtained 
upon application. 



X I 



PART TWO 



CONCRETE AGGREGATE INVESTIGATION 



Appendix C 



CONCRETE AGGREGATE INVESTIGATION 
ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Subject Page 

INTRODUCTION # 1 

PR INC I PA L F IND INGS • . . . # . , • 3 

REGIONAL GEOLOGY 5 

DATA FROM FIELD INSPECTION REPORTS, £ 

EXPLORATION AND SAMPLING OF AGGREGATE SOURCES IN NORTHERN N. Y. 

Point Rockway Canal Dolomite 14 

Norwood Do lomi te 14 

Khapps Station Dolomite 15 

St. Regis Dolomite ••• 16 

Helena Dolomite 16 

Ogdensburg Dolomi te • 1? 

Iron Ore Tailings 17 

Owls Head Deposit... • 18 

Lowville Deposit • •• 19 

Santa Clara Deposit • 20 

Malone Deposit 21 

Parishville Deposit • 22 

EXPLORATION AND SAILING OF AGGREGATE: SOURCES IN CANADA 

Mi lie Roches Limestone. • 23 

Richmond Deposit • • 24 

Grenadier Island Deposit 24 

Joliette Deposit*. • 26 

Oka Deposit • 26 

Other Deposits 27 

AGGREGATE SOURCES REPORTED BY DEPT. OF PUBLIC VfQRKS, OTTAWA 28 

EXAMPLES OF FIELD INSPECTION REPORTS 30 

RESULTS OF LABORATORY TESTS ON FINE AND COARSE AGGREGATES 32 



Appendix C 



Subject Page 

SPECIAL TESTS ON AGGREGATES, CEMENT AND CONCRETE 

Series "A": Tests for strength, Staining and Crazing, 
Density, Thermal Properties, and Chemical 
Reactivity at West Point, N. Y. , and Con- 
crete Exposure at Treat Island, Maine 34 

Series "B" Accelerated Laboratory Freezing and Thawing 

Tests at West Point, N. 7 38 

Series "C"t Concrete Freezing and Thawing Tests at Massena, 

New York. Discussion of Special Tests 40 

SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER INVESTIGATION 43 

TABLE I - Agregate Data. 44 

TABLE II - Aggregate Mineral Composition 45 

TABLE Ilia - Cement Chemical Data 46 

TABLE Illb - Cement Physical Data 47 

TABLE IV - Mixture Data 48 

TABLE V - Mixture Data 49 

TABLE VI - Compressive Strength of Concrete 50 

TABLE VII - Flexural Strength of Concrete 51 

TABLE VIII - Density Data 52 

TABLE IX - Modulus of Elasticity 53 

TABLE Xa - Thermal Data 54 

TABLE Xb - Thermal Expansion Data 55 

TABLE XI - CR-STL Series 56 

TABLE XII - CR-STL Series 58 

TABLE XIII - St. Lawrence Specimens - 6" x 6" x 48" Concrete Columns.. 60 

TABLE XIV - Series "C" Test Data 62 

TABIE XV - Series H C" Gradation of Aggregates 63 



CONCRETE AGGREGATE INVESTIGATION 
ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 

INTRODUCTION 

The concrete materials required for the construction of the St. Law- 
rence River Project wore estimated to include 2,500,000 tons of fine aggregate 
and 5» 500,000 tons of coarse aggregate. Explorations for locating sources to 
supply these needs were started in January, 194^t and carried continuously for- 
ward until December of the same year. Factors which determined the scope of 
the aggregate investigation were the quantity of material required, the high 
standard of quality necessary to produce durable concrete, and the lack of ade- 
quate service records for most of the materials available. 

At the time the survey was begun, letters of inquiry regarding agg- 
regate deposits were sent to neighboring U. S. Engineer Districts; state and 
county highway engineers; Canadian Department of Public Works; and to many com- 
mercial agencies in New York and Canada. The data obtained were supplemented 
by personal interviews, and all of the aggregate deposits reported were inspec- 
ted by representatives of this office. The field reconnaissance and explora- 
tions covered Canadian sources from Kingston and Perth, Ontario, on the west 
to Montreal and Joliette, Quebec, on the east; and Northern New York sources 
from Oswego and Boonville on the southwest to Saranac Lake and Lyon Mountain 
on the southeast. The geology of natural sand and gravel deposits and stone 
formations in the region of Northern New York and Southern Canada, bordering 
the St. Lawrence River, is given under the heading "Regional Geology" in this 
appendix. 

The sand and gravel deposits and rock outcrops, located both in the 
United States and in Canada, are shown on quadrangle maps S-k-3/5 to S-A-3/3&, 
inclusive, in this appendix. Drilling and seismic explorations for quarry 
sites were made at Mille Roches, Ontario; at Knapps Station, N. Y. ; and on the 
St. Regis Indian Reservation. Details are shown on sheet 135 » File S-A-3/1, 
in the Folio of Subsurface Exploration, Appendix B-l . Map S-A-3/2, Sheet 136 , 
also included in the Folio of Subsurface Exploration, shows test pitting and 
auger boring in the sand and gravel deposit at Owls Read, N. Y. All of the 
deposits which showed possibilities of being suitable as sources for concrete 
aggregate were sampled and tested. Field inspection reports, giving pertinent 
data regarding each deposit investigated in the united States and in Canada, 
are in the district files. While only typical examples of the Field Inspec- 
tion Report forms are given in this appendix, a tabulation of data, S-A-3/37, 
giving the location, type of material, estimated quantity, and estimated po- 
ssibility for use as a source of concrete aggregate for each deposit is in- 
cluded. 

A copy of a memorandum to G. A. Lindsay, Chairman, Canadian Temp- 
orary Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Basin Comnittee, covering some of the possible 
sources of concrete aggregate in Canada, by Mr. E. Viens and Miss A. E. Wilson 
of the Department of Public Works and the Geological Survey, is given in this 
appendix. The maps originally submitted with this memorandum have been omit- 
ted, the information noted thereon has been transferred to the appropriate 
Canadian Quadrangles in this appendix, and all references have been changed 
to conform with the pit numbers assigned to these sources. 

During the aggregate survey several deposits were found which con- 
tnined sufficient quantities of favorable appearing material to warrant detail- 
ed investigations. Brief summaries of these more important field explorations 
are given in this appendix. 



-1- 



In the preliminary investigations of concrete aggregate the magne- 
sium sulphate accelerated soundness test was generally employed to give in- 
dications of the inherent quality of material. The test results, including 
magnesium sulphate loss, specific gravity, gradation, absorption, and other 
characteristics are shown in tabulations S-k-3/3 an ^ S-A-3/4 in this appendix. 
In addition to the tests for physical characteristics of the aggregates, ' 
special tests were made to determine the relative effects of different coarse 
and fine aggregate in concrete. These are described under the heading •Special 
Tests on Aggregates, Cement and Concrete" in this appendix. 



-2- 



PRINCIPAL FINDINGS 

■ 

1'he principal findings derived from the concrete aggregate investigation, 
including field explorations and laboratory studies, are listed below: 

(1) The Beekmaritown dolomite, Black River limestone, and Lyon Mountain 
syenite are considered satisfactory for use as coarse aggregate. 

(2) It appears unlikely that any natural gravel coarse aggregate can 

be found, within economic reach of this project, that will meet the standard 
of quality desired for the major permanent construction. 

(3) Crushed dolomite and crushed syenite fine aggregate are considered 
satisfactory for use in concrete. 

(4) The natural sands found in beaches and bars within a 5° mile radius 
of the project contain considerable deleterious material. It was not proved 
that these sands are not satisfactory and additional test will be required 
before final decision can be made regarding their suitability. 

(5) Glacial sands from sources such as ore located near Lowville , N. Y. , 
and at Joliette, Quebec, were found to be relatively free of deleterious 
materials. 

6. The most favorable sources for concrete aggregare -.vhich meet the 
requirements of current specifications are summarized in the table below: 



Type of 


Location 


Approximate 


Tra nsportat ion 


Material 




Quantity of 
Mat'l Available 


Available 



Dolomite* 2 miles N. of Norwood, 
N.Y., Pit #8 



Unlimited 



15 m. by N.Y.C. rr 
to Massena, N-.Y» 



Dolomite* Near Knapp Station, 
N.Y., Pit#30 

Dolomite* In village of Ogdensburg, 
N.Y., Pit #904 



Dolomite* l£m. N.W. of Helena, N.Y., 
Pit #108 



Unlimited 
Unlimited 

Unlimited 



10 m. by NYCRR to- 
Maesena 

57 m. by NYCRR to 
Massena Approx.45 
m. by barge 

10 m. by GEand Trunk 
R.R. to Massena, 6 m. 
by NYCRR to Cornwall 
Junction, Canada 



Dolomite* Point Rcckway Canal Site, Sufficient 

Pit #805 for Projects in 

vie. of Pt .Rockway.NY 



At Site 



Lime stone** 1 m. N. of Mille Roches, 
Prov. Ontario, Canada 



Unlimited 



5 m. by Canadian 
National RR to Corn- 
wall Junction 



Natural 10 m. N.E. Joliette Prov. 
Sand Quebec, Canada 



Unlimited 



125 m. by Canadian 
Nat'l RR to Cornwall, 
Ont., Canada 



Natural in village of Owls Head, 4,000,000 Cu.Yds. 

Sand and N. Y. , Fit #1501 of sand 

Gravel 2,000,000 Cu.Yds. 

of gravel 



6l in. by NYCRR and 
Rutland R.R. To Mas- 
sena 



-^- 



Natural ll m. S. of Croghan, N.Y., Unlimited 
Sand Pit #5201 



102 m. by N.Y.CR.R. to 
Massena 

125 m. by N.Y.CR.R. to 
Massena 



Natural U m. S. of Boonville, Unlimited 
Sand N.Y. , Pit #7700 
* Source for both fine and coarse crushed aggregate. 
♦♦Source for coarse aggregate only. 

7. Other concrete aggregate sources of possible merit are shown in the 
following table. Investigations of these deposits were not completed for 
various reasons such as the variable nature of the deposit, the geographic m 
location and accessibility, and the similarity of the material to other mat- 
erials which had been included in special studies. Future developments in- 
fluencing any of these factors might cause further consideration and sub- 
sequent detailed investigation. 



Type of 


Location 


Approximate 


Transportation 


Material 




Quantity of 
Mat'l Available 


Available 



Dolomite pailroad quarry in Pres- Unlimited 
cott, Ontario, Canada 



Dolomite Windmill Point, Ontario, Unlimited 
Co nad a 



Lime 
Stone 

Natural 
Sand 

Natural 
Sand 

Iron Ore 
Tailings 



3 m. N. of Cornwall, 
Ontario, Canada 

8 m. N.E. of Oka, P.Q,., 
Canada 

Near village of St .Felix 
de Valois, P.Q,., Canada 

In village of Lyon Mt . , 
N.Y., Pit ,//l600 



Unlimited 



1,000,000 
Tons 



44 ffi. by Canadian Nat'l 
R.R.to Cornwall Junction, 
Canada 

44 m. by Canadian Nat'l 
R.R. to Cornwall Junction, 
Canada 

No railroad facilities 



Approx. 70 m. by barge to 
Cornwall, Canada 



Natural 
Sand 



Natural 
Sand 



3/4 m. W. of village 
of Santa Clara, N.Y., 
Pit #1401 



1 m. S.'Y. village of 
Brier Hill, N.Y. , 
Pit #900 



Unknown but Approx. 135 m. 

probably large 

20,000,000 tons 85 m. by Delaware & 
of fine ag£re- Hudson, N.Y.C. and Rut- 
gate. \ million land F.R. to Massena 
tons of coarse 
aggregate 

Sufficient fine 36 m. by highway to 
aggregate for Massena. No railroad 
the St. Lawrence facilities. 
Riv. Project 

500,000 Cu.Yds. 74 m. by N.Y.CR.R. to 

Massena or ^S m « by barge 
to Point Rockway. 



8. The fact that only 18 aggregate sources were listed in the tables, 
paragraph (6) and (?) , does not imply that other sources should be excluded. 
Materials from sources not listed in these tables should be considered and 

tested when submitted for approval. 



-4- 



REGIONAL GEOLOGY 

The St. Lawrence valley between the Thousand Islands and Montreal is 
a plain of low relief lying between the Pre- Cambrian highlands of the Adiron- 
dacks in New York and the Laurent ians in Canada. The entire region has been 
considerably modified by glaciation. During the advance of the last glacier, 
the bedrock was blanketed by a very irregular deposit of glacial till com- 
posed of compact, variable, unstratified, clayey to silty, gravelly sand with 
boulders. When the glacier began to melt from the Adirondack and the Ontario 
basin, the St. Lawrence valley was blocked by ice so that a lake known as Lake 
Iroquois was impounded behind the ice dam. One of the main outlets for this 
lake was at Rome, N. Y. A later outlet at a lower elevation was at Covey Hill, 
Quebec. Rivers flowing off the Adirondack Highland built great deltas along 
the shore of the glacial lake. Remnants of these deltas are now found along 
the borders of the old lake in the vicinity of Malone, Parishville, Lowville 
and Boonville, N. Y. Most of the deltas are composed of detritus from the crystal- 
line rocks of the Adirondacks and in general consist of hard, sound, un- 
weathered sand and gravel. As the ice continued to melt northward, the St. 
Lawrence valley was uncovered, and Lake Iroquois drained away. Since the land 
was depressed below sea level by the weight of the ice, marine waters advanced 
into the valley to form the Champlain Sea. Because of ice-front conditions 
during the withdrawal of the glacier, aqueo-placial deposits are rare in the 
St. Lawrence valley. Some aqueo-glacial deposits composed, like the deltas, 
of hard, crystalline rock aggregates, were laid down in the Adirondack High- 
land. Aqueo-glacial sands and gravels were also deposited in Canada in regions 
and adjacent to or on the Pre-Cambrian crystalline rocks. 

In the St. Lawrence valley which was flooded hy the Champlain Sea, 
fine sand and clay were deposited. The higher hills and ridges of glacial 
till appeared as islands in this inland sea, and continued wave and current 
action on the exposed till hills resulted in the development of beaches and 
bars on the slopes. The land rose and the sea v:as forced out of the valley, 
leaving low, beached till hills in a region or wide clay and sand-filled 
valleys. The material in the till hills was derived largely from the under- 
lying and adjacent Paleozoic rocks. Many of these sedimentary rocks consist 
of shale, sandstone, and some dolomites which weather rapidly. 

The bedrock in the St. Lawrence valley is a series of flat-lying. 
Paleozoic, sedimentary rocks overlying the Pre-Cambrian crystalline rocks like 
those exposed in the Adirondacks and the Laurentians. The bedrock at the rock 
surface in the vicinity of the St. Lawrence river from Ogdensburg, N. Y. to 
Valleyfield, Quebec, consists of the Ordovician Beekmantown and Chazy formations. 
The Beekmantown formation on both sides of the river from Ogdensburg to Ogden 
Island consists chiefly of dolomite with thin strata of limestone, sandstone, 
and shale. The Chazy overlies the Beekmantown and is composed of limestone, 
dolomite, shale, and sandstone. The chazy extends from Ogden Island to the 
low°r end of Barnhart Island, where the Beekmantown again occurs on both side^ 
of the river to Valleyfield, Quebec. North of the river are the successively 
high Black River and Trenton formations. The Black River formation, exposed 
in the P/ille 'Roches quarry north of P'ille Roches, Ont . , is mainly lime-tone. 
The Trenton 1'orration exposed farther north consists of dolomite, limestone, 
and shale. South of the river are the lo v er formations, the Puck's Bridges 
mixed beds and the Cambrian Potsdam sandstone which outcrops in the vicinity 
of Potsdam, N. Y. 



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S-a-3/37 



EXPLORATION iiND SnUtLLVK* OF AGGRJJDATii; SOURCES IN NOx.THfiRN NE« YORK 

«f 
During the aggregate survey of the northern New York region, several de- 
posits were found which conteined sufficient material to warrent more detailed 
investigation than mas made of the many deposits listed in the tabulation of 
data from field inspection reports in this appendix. A brief resume of the 
fiejLd exploration of these deposits is given below: 

1. Point Rockway Canal Cut (Beekmantown dolomite) , 

(a) Location - This deposit is located on the site of the proposed 
Point Rockway Canal, Point Rockway, New York (Pit #801, may S-A-3/9 in this 
appendix*) 

(b) Geology - The bedrock in the vicinity of Point Rockway of the 
New York mainland is part of the Beekmantown formation which is lower Ordo- 
vician In age. The beds at the rock surface in the vicinity of Point Rockway 
probably are among the highest beds of the Beekmantown section. The rock is 
dark gray dolomite with thin beds and stringers of shale. The rock is almost 
horizontally bedded and is cut by severs 1 systems of joints, ^hile some wea- 
thering has occured along beading planes and joints in the upp^r 5 feet of 
rock, below this depth the rock is generally unweathered. 

(c) Quantity represented - There is a sufficient quantity of dolo- 
mite stone to be removed from the canal cut to supply aggregate for the Iro- 
quois Dam and the Point Rockway Canal. The canal excavation is divided between 
the Iroquis Dam and the Point Rockway Canal contractors so that each project 
will receive all of the stone necessary for concrete aggregate requirements. 

(d) Laboratory tests - Stone cores taken from foundation drilling 
were used in making quality tests for concrete aggregate. Samples of these 
cores were sent to the Central Concrete Laboratory, West Point, N. Y. for pet- 
rographic analysis and freezing and thawing soundness tests. The petro.craphic 
study indicated that this rock contained a slightly higher percentage of argil- 
laceous material than was found in the Knapps station dolomite, Pit No. 30. The 
results of 18 cycles of freezing and thawing tests at West Point indicated no appre- 
ciable deterioration. The results of 34 cycles of freezing and thawing on 9& 
core samples from the same vicinity, tested at Massena, further substantiated the 
soundness of this material. The description of these tests end photographs show- 
ing appearance of cores before and after freezing are in the district files, 

(e) Recommedations - This dolomite rock is entirely satisfactory 
for use in concrete. 

2. Northern Quarries Dolomite. Norwood. New York (Beekmantown Formation) , 

(a) Location - This deposit (Pit #8), owned by Northern Quarries, Incor- 
porated, Norwood, New York, is located on the east bank of the Baquette River on 
the Norwood and St. Lawrence Railroad, 2 miles north of Norwood, New York, and 11 
miles from Massena. At the tiiiieofthe inspection a complete crushing and screening 
plant was operating in this quarry, supplying crushed stone coarse aggregate for 
state, county, and private concrete construction. The location of this deposit 
is shown on map ^-A-3/5 i'n this appendix, 

(b) Transportation facilities - Railroad transportation from this deposit 
to Massena would be as follows: quarry to Norwood, N. Y. , Norwood and St, Lawrence 
Railro&d, 2 miles; Norwood to Massena, N. Y. Central R.R., 13 miles: total, 15 miles* 

(c) Geology - The bedrock exposed in the town of Norfolk, New York, 
and at the quarry of, Northern Quarries, Inc., is a part of the Beekmantown for- 
mation. The beds at the rock surface in this aree are in the lower portion of 
the Beekmantown formation. The rock is horizontally bedded dolomite ™ith oc- 
casional thin stringers of shale. Slight weathering has occured along bedding 

-14- 



planes and joints in the upper 5 feet of the rock, but below this zone the 
rock is generally unweathered# 

(d) Quantity represented - It is estimated that there is a suffi- 
cient quantity of dolomite stone in this deposit to furnish fine and coarse 
aggregate for the St. Lawrence River Project. 

(e) Method of sampling - Over 8 tons of crushed store above the f 
inch were taken from stock piles at the quarry and shipped to the Central Con- 
crete Labratory, West Point, N. Y. In addition, several tons of hammermill- 
crushed fine aggregate were prepared at the quarry and sent to the laboratory 
for testing in conjunction with other aggregates. In order to determine the 
particle shape and gradation that might be expected from crushing, samples of 
the coarse aggregate v/ p re shipped to the following companies for crushing: 

Gruendler Crusher and Pulverizer Co., St. Louis, Missouri, 
American Pulverizer Co., St. Louis, Missouri, 
Pennsylvania Crusher Co., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 
Nordberg Ma nuf a c tur ing Co . , Mi lwa ukee , Wi scon«4in . 

It was found that with proper equipment and crushing methods, satisfactory 
grading and per tide shape of fine aggregate could be obtained. 

(f) Labora-tory tests - The results of the routine tests made on 
crushed fine and coarse aggregate from this quarry are shown in Tables S-A-3/3 
and S-A-3/4. s nd the results of special tests on these materials are shown un- 
der the heading "Special Tests on Aggregates, Cement and Concrete" in this ap- 
pendix. 

(g) Recommendations - The dolomite rock from this deposit is con- 
sidered satisfactory for use as concrete aggregate. 

3. Knapps Station Dolomite, Knapps Station, New York. (Beekmantown 
formation. ) 

(a) Location - This deposit (Pit 30) » owned by Northern Quarries, 
Incorporated, Norwood, and other owners, is located 2 miles east of "East Nor- 
folk, on the New York Central Railroad, 7 to 10 miles south of Massena. The 
deposit extends north and south, roughly paralleling the N.Y.C. R.R. for a 
distance of approximately 3 miles. The depth of overburden ranges from 1 to 
3 feet in the southern section (owned by Northern Quarries) to a depth of 

36 feet in the northern end of the deposit. A small quarry (the Hale quarry) 
is located on the Steve Cseledi farm owned by Northern Quarries. Approximate- 
ly 1200 cubic yards of dolomite stone were removed from this quarry several 
years ago for use as flagstones and other masonry work in Massena. A detail 
map (3-A-3/I, Sheet 135, Folio ofSubsurfa.ee Exploration, Appendix ^-1) shows 
the depth of overburden, the spacing of seismic shots, and the log of the drill 
hole made in the lower end of the deposit. This deposit is also shown on map 
S-A-3/5 in this appendix. 

(b) Transportation facilities - Rail shipment from this deposit to 
Massena, a distance of approximately 8 miles, woulr 1 b^ via the New York Central 
Railroad. 

(c) Geology - The bedrock exposed in the town of Norfolk, N. Y. , et the 
quarry of Northern Quarries, Inc.,- and at outcrops and the small quarry in the 
vicinity of Knapps Station is part of the Beekmantown formation. Fossils from 
the Knapps station locality have been identified as characteristic Beekmantown 
forms. The rock is horizontally bedded dolomite with occasional thin stringers 

of shale. 

(d) Quantity represented - It is estimated that there is a suffi- 
cient quantity of dolomite stone in this area to furnish fine and coarse ag- 
gregate for the St. Lawrence River Project. 

(e) Method of Sampling - Small representative samples of dolomite 
stone were obtained by blasting segments of rock from the exposed face of the 

-15- 



Hale quarry. These samples were sutmitted to the Central Concrete Laboratory, 
West Point, No. Y«» for petrographic analysis and for comparison with dolo- 
mite stone from the Northern Quarries deposit. Cores from drill hole D-llll 
were also submitted to the laboratory for petrographic analysis* 

(f) Laboratory tests - The results of petrographic analyses on this 
material indicate it be very similar to the Northern Quarries dolomite, pit 
#8, which proved to be satisfactory for use in concrete. 

(g) Recommendations - The dolomite rock from this deposit is entire- 
ly satisfactory for use as concrete aggregate. 

4. St. Regis Dolomite, St. Regis, Hew York (Beekmantown Formation). 

(a) This deposit is located \ mile south of -the TJ. S. Canadian 
boundary line, 1 mile north of Hogansburg, and 7 miles east of the foot of 
Barnhart Island. The area lies within the boundary of the St. Regis Indian 
Reservation. There is a small quarry in this deposit, approximately 3/4 milas 
nor tlv-of Hogansburg; A detail map (S-A-3A» sheet 135 . Folio of Subsurface 
Exploration, Appendix B-l ) shows the depth of overburden and the spacing of 
seismic shots which were made in this area. The deposit is also shown on map 
S-A-3/6 in -this appendix. 

(b) Transportation facilities - This material could be shipped by 
barge on the St.. Lawrence River from the deposit to the Powerhouse site. Rail ^ 
haul would require construction of 6 miles of track to Helena. The distance 
from Helena to Masse na Springs via the Grand Truck Railroad is 8.6 miles. 

(o) Geology - The rock exposed in small quarries and outcrops -on 
the St. Regis Indian Reservation near the St. Lawrence River belong to the 
Beekmantown formation. The beds which are exposed probably are the higher 
beds of the formation. The rock is nearly horizontally bedded dolomite with 
thin stringers of shale. 

(d) Quantity represented - It was estimated that there is a suff- 
icient quantity of dolomite in this deposit to supply all of the fine and coarse 
aggregate for the St. Lawrence River Project. Two seismic lines were run on 
this deposit to determine the depth of overburden. From the results of the 
seismo graphic investigation, it was determined that the depth of overburden 
varies from 6 to 35 feet, with the majority of the area covered with over- 
burden to a depth in excess of 20 feet. 

(e ) Recommendation - Although stone in this deposit appeared si- 
milar in quality to the dolomite in the Northern Quarries deposit, this should 
be confirmed by laboratory tests* 

5. Helena Dolomite Deposit, Helena, New York (Beekmantown formation). 

(a) Location - This deposit is located approximately l£ miles north- 
west of Helena on the New York Central Railroad, on the Ross Segar, Henry Me- 
Intyre and Lantry farms. The deposit, pit #108, is shown on map S*-A-3/6 in this 
appendix. Two small quarries, on the Segar and Mclntyre farms, respectively, 
were noted. Quarry stone from this deposit was used in the construction of ma- 
sonry bridge piers in Helena. 

(b) Transportation facilities - Rail transportation to Massena would 
be as follows: New York Central Railroad to Helena, 1 mile; Grand Trunk Rail- 
road, Helena to Massena, 9 miles; total, 10 miles. The distance to Cornwall 
Junction via the New York Central Railroad is approximately six miles. 

(o) Geology - The rock exposed in small quarries in this vicinity 
also belongs to the Beekmantown formation. It appeared, in every respect, to 
be the same type and quality of stone as that found in the Northern Quarries 
deposit. There is a sufficient area with less than 20 feet of overburden in 

-16- 



this vicinity to furnish fine and coarse aggregate for the ^t. Lawrence River> 
Project. 

(d) Recommendations - ^tie location of this deposit and the railroad 
facilities are favorable and it is believed that this would be an excellent 
source for concrete aggregate. 

6. Ogdensburg Dolomite Deposit, Ogdensburg,, New ^ork (Beekmantown formation ) 

(a) Location - This exposure of bedrock (Pit 904) is located in the 
southwest part of Ogdensburg, 1 mile southwest of the mouth of the Oswegatchie 
River, and 1/8 mile southeast of the St. Lawrence River. The deposit is located 
on the McConville and Ellis' properties. At the time of the inspection, a 
small crushing and screening plant was in operation in the McConville quarry. 
Approximately 100,000 cubic yards of dolomite had been removed from this site, 
but no material had been removed from the adjacent Ellis property. 

(b) Transportation facilities - Rail haul from Ogdensburg to Massena 
would be as follows: Ogdensburg to DeKalb Junction, N, Y. C. R.R., 19 miles; DeKalb 
Junction to Massena Springs, N.Y.C. R.R., 38 miles: total, 57 miles. Water trans- 
portation would be by barge from Cedensburg to Barnhart Island, approximately 

45 miles. 

(c) Geology - The bedrock in the vicinity of Ogdensburg is in the 
Beekmantown formation. Geologically the rock is the seme as the dolomite et 
Point Rockway, described above. 

(d) Quantity represented - It is estimated that there is a sufficient 
quantity of dolomite rock in the McConville and Ellis deposits to fur- 
nish fine and coarse aggregate for the entire project. 

(e) Laboratory tests - Small samples of stone from stock piles in the 
McConville Q,uarry were sent to the Central Concrete Laboratory, West Point, New 

York. This material is a fine grained, gray dolomite with a uniform texture. 
The results of routine tests are shown in Table S-A-3/4 in this appendix. 

(f) Recommendations - Materiel from this deposit is satisfactory for 
use as fine and coarse aggregate. 

7. Iron Ore Tailings. Lyon. Mountain, New York . 

(a) The stock piles of iron ore tailings investigated are located 
in the village of Lyon Mountain, approximately 65 miles southeast of Massena. 
The Republic Steel Corporation operates a large iron ore pl*nt at Lyon Mountain; 
and the fine and coarse aggregate stock piled around the plant constitute the 
tailings or be-products of the extraction process. At the time of the inspection 
it was estimated that there were lover 20 million tons of fine aggregate and 
500,000 tons of coarse aggregate in these stock piles. 

(b) Transportation facilities - Rail haul from Lyon Mountain to Messena 
would be as follows: Lyon Mountain to Wolf Pond, Delaware and Hudson R.R. ; Wolf 
Pond to Malone, New York Central Railroad; Malone to Norwood, Rutland P.R.; Nor- 
wood to Massena, N.Y.C. R.R. : total distance, 85 miles. This rail distance is 
predicated on the construction of | mile of track connecting the Delaware and Hud- 
son and the N. Y. C R.R. at ^olf Pond. 

(c) neology - Samples of iron ore tailings from mining operations at 
Lyon Mountain, New York, show that the gangue rock is essentially a syenite con- 
sisting of feldspars with minor amounts of quartz. The feldspar is predominantly 
plagioclase with considerable orthoclase. The ore mineral is magnetite which 

is disseminated through the syenite. The Lyon Mountain deposit i? in the Pre- 
Cambrion crystalline rock massif of the Adirondack Highland. 

(d) Laboratory tests - About 6 tons of this aggregate, from the 3- 
incn size to sand, -were shipped to the Central Concrete Labor- tory, west Point, 
New York for tests. The material was found to be cl^an, hard, angular, and well 

-17- 



graded. Results of routine laboratory tests are shown in Tables S-A- 3/3 and 
S-A-3/4# and -the results of special tests are shown under the heading "Special 
Tests on Aggregates, Cement and Concrete" in this appendix. 

(e) Study of structures - Several structures in which Lyon Mountain 
tailings were used for both fine' andv^coarse aggregate were examined. These in- 
cluded concrete -block houses* stucco houses constructed with fine aggregate 
tailings* the Lyon Mountain school house, and the concrete highway through 
Lyon Mountain. These structures varied in age from 8 to 22 years* and in no 
case was there evidence of any structural failure or staining due to the use of 
this aggregate. 

(f) Recommendations - The laboratory tests indicated this material 
to be highly resistant to freezing and thawing. The quantity of alkali feld- 
spar identified caused some concern and is being investigated further. Addi- 
tional tests should be made using this syenite fine aggregate in combination 
with crushed limestone and crushed dolemite coarse aggregates. 

The fact that this aggregate is readily available may justify some special 
consideration during a period of shortage in labor and production equipment. 

8. Owls Head Sand and Gravel Deposit, Owls Head* New York. 

(a) Location - The Owls Head Deposit (Pit 1501) is located on -the 
New York Central Railroad in Owls Head, New York, approximately 40 miles south- 
east of Massena. At the time of this investigation there was a miall pit in 
the approximate center of the deposit. No material has been removed from this 
pit for several years. 

(b) Transportation facilities - Rail shipment from Owls Head to Ma«- 
sena would be as follows: N.Y.C. R.R., Owls Head to Malone, 10.5 miles; Rut- 
land Railroad, Malone to Norwood, J7*5 miles; N.Y.C. R.R., Norwood to Massena, 
13 miles; total: 61 miles. If approximately 12 miles of railroad were con- 
structed over ihe existing road bed from Moira to Helena, a shorter route could 
be followed: Owls Head to Malone, N.Y.C. R.S.; Malone to Moira, Rutland R.R.-; 
Moira to Helena, N.Y.C. R.R.; Helena to Massena, Grand Trunk; total distance: 
46 miles. 

(c) Geology - The sand and gravel deposite in this vacinity are the 
result of aqueo-glacial deposition from an immense mass of ice which occupied 
the valley of the Salmon River and dammed the valley near ^"itusville. The ma- 
terial was washed off the ice when the glacier melted and was laid down in 
roughly stratified and lensed deposits containing material of all sizes. One 
of the temporary outlets for the lake impounded behind "the ice barier was lo- 
cated near the N.Y.C. R Jl . tracks northwest of Owls Head, and the material 
appears to be roughly graded to this outlet, with the coarsest material near 
the spillway. 

(d) Quantity represented - It was estimated that there are approx- 
imately 4 million cubic yards of sand and 2 million cubic yards of gravel in 
this deposit. These figures should be confirmed by additional subsurface ex- 
ploration, including several deep-sheeted test pits and drill holes. 

(e) Method of sampling - A total of 20 test pits, 4 trenches, and 
44 auger borings were excavated in this area. A map (S-A-3/2, sheet 1^6 * 
Polio of Subsurface Exploration, Appendix B^l shows the location of all exca- 
vations and the area lines used for aggregate quantity estimation. On the same 
sheet are shown the gravel/sand ratio for each pit or trench, the total depth 
of each hole, the amount of overburden, and details of the "step* method of 
trench excavation. 

After each pit or trench was excavated, samples were taken of each stratum 
encountered. A sieve analysis, using 4"» 2*» 1% and i" screens, was made 

-18- 



on the material; and after quartering, representative samples were sent to the 
lab oratory, 

(f) Appearance of Material - In general, the sand and gravel in this 
deposit were found to be clean and fairly -well graded, with considerable mag- 
netite in some strata. Some disintegrated and rotten stone were evident. Cal- 
culated composite samples of the sand from this region showed the average grad- 
ing of the sand to be a little too fine to meet -the specifications. It is be- 
lieved that this problem could be overcome by crushing a small amount of the 
coarse aggregate to obtain more material above the No, 16 size, or by wasting 
some of the finer sizes. 

(g) Laboratory tests. - The results of the routine aggregate tests 
made on this material are shown in Tables S-A-3/3 and S-A-3/4t and the results 
of special tests are given under the heading "Special Tests on Aggregates, Ce- 
ment and Concrete" in ■this appendix. 

(h) Recommendations - It is believed that the sand and gravel from 
this deposit can be processed to meet the requirements of the current specifi- 
cations. 



9, The Lowville Sand and Gravel Deposits, Lowville, N. Y# 

(a) Location and transportation facilities - Several large sand de- 
posits were located in the vicinity of Lowville, N. Y. The looations and -the 
distances to I.Iassena are given below: 

Rail distance to 
Pit No. Location of deposit Massena 



5200 



5201) 
5203) 
5205) 



5201; 



£ m, E. of "Watson, 
N. Y. 



Large deposit, approx 
7 miles long and i m. 
wide, l£ m. S. of Cro- 
gan, N.Y. ; 1 m. E. of 
New Bremen, N.Y. ; and 
5 m. E. of Lowville, 
N. Y. 

ll miles N. of Crystal 
Dale, N. Y. 



3 miles to Lowville, 
f 100 miles N»Y.C. 
R.R. 

1 mile to New Bre- 
men, N. Y. f 102 
miles N.Y.C. R.R. 



5 miles to New Bre- 
men, N. Y. * 102 miles 
N.Y.C. R.R. 



The location of these deposits are shown on map S-A-3A5 in this appendix. 

(b) Present Operations - Mr, Robert Allen, Lov/ville, Nev/ York, oper- 
ates a small washing and screening plant in Pit #5200. There are no operations 
in any of the other pits in this vicinity. 

(c) Geologh - The sand and gravel on "the eastern side of the Black 
River Valley in the vicinity of Lowville are in delta deposits which were laid 
down in Lake Iroquois by rivers flowing off the Adirondack Highland. The com- 
position of the aggregates in the deposits show that the material was derived 
directly from the crystalline rocks of the Adirondscks, in some areas the de- 
posits consist of sand with a large percentage of gravel. In other areas, un- 
iform sand blankets the surface, with the coarser mat.; rial generally occuring 
under the uniform sand at depths of 3 to 12 feet. The deposits rest on the ex- 
tremely 'irregular surface of Pre-Cambrian rocks. 

(d) Quantity represented - An estimate of the quantity of sand in 



-19- 



this region based on field reconnaissance and a few auger holes and test ptt§ 
is given "below* 

Pit # Quantity of Sand represented, Cu» Yds* 

5200 500,000 

5202 500,000 

5201) 

5203) 3,000,000 ♦ 

5205) 

5204 5oo t ooo 

A limited drilling and test-pitting program would be necessary to confirm 
this estimate. 

(e) Method of sampling - Representative samples of the most promis- 
ing sand deposits were taken by excavating small test pits in the area. In 
general, sand from these deposits was found to be clean and well graded, with 
a very small percentage of soft or rotten stone, 

(f) Laboratory tests - The results of the routine aggregate tests 
made on sand from these deposits are shown in Table S-A-3/3 and the results 

of special tests are shown under the heading "Special Tests on Aggregates, Ce- 
ment and Concrete" in this appendix. 

(g) Recommendations - No performance studies of concrete containing 
sand from this region was made but further investigation should include such 
observations. Tests have indicated that the sand from these deposits is sat- 
if factory for use in concrete. 

10. Santa Clara Sand and Gravel Deposit, Santa Clara, N. Y. 

(a) Location - This deposit (pit 1^01), owned by the Santa Clara 
Sand Company, is located 3A miles west of Santa Clara, New York, on the south- 
west bank of the St. Regis River, approximately 30 miles southeast of Massena. 
The present pit has not been worked for over 11 years, so that considerable 
overburden now covers the pit face. The concrete foundations for the origi- 
nal sand processing plant still remain. 

(b) Transportation facilities - There is no railroad in the vicinity 
of this deposit. The distance from Santa Clara to Massene by highway is ap- 
proximately 36 miles. If 18 miles of track were installed on the existing road- 
bed of the New York Central Railrlad from Santa Clara to Me Ira, rail transpor- 
tation would be as follows: Santa c lara to Moira, 18 miles; Moira to Norwood, 

22 miles; Norwood to Massena, 13 miles: total $3 miles. 

(c) Geology - The deposit at Santa Clara consists of aqueo-glacial 
materials which were washed off the last glacier into the valley of the St. 
Regis River. The deposit is quite extensive and is composed of mineral aggre- 
gates derived directly from igneous and metamorphic rocks. The material is 
roughly stratified and lensed, with beds containing material of all sizes from 
boulders to fine sand. 

(d) Quantity represented - It was estimated that sufficient sand is 
available in this vicinity to supply the St. Lawrence River Project. This was 
based on geologic reconnaissance and field observations and should be substan- 
tiated by test-pitting and drilling. 

(e) Method of sampling - The exposed face of the pit, approximately 
!j0 feet vertically and 75 feet on a slope, was trenched by the "step" method 
in order to obtain representative samples. The samples were thoroughly mixed, 
quartered, sieved over a \ inch screen, and shipped to the Central Concrete 



-20- 



Laboratory, West Point, N.Y. The coarse aggregate was not tested, 

(f) Appearance of material - The sand was found to "be clean and 
fairly vie 11 graded, with numerous small veins of magnetite sand. Although the 
gradation of the composite sample shipped to Te st Point was too fine to meet 
Federal Specifications, it was considered probable that further exploration 
would reveal sufficient ooarse sand to satisfy specification requirements. 
The results of routine laboratory tests made on sand from this area are shown 
in Table S-A- 3/3 in this appendix. 

(g) Study of structures - Inspection of a concrete highway bridge 
near Brushton, N. Y. » and of conorete footings for the screening plant mentioned 
above, did not give any evidence of failure due to unsoundness of the sand. 

(h) Recommendations - The lack of railroad facilities in the vicinity 
of Santa Clara seems to preclude economical delivery of material from this 
deposit. Also, further exploration and laboratory tests would be required to 
prove the material. 

11. Mai one Sand and Gravel Deposit, Malone, New York. 

(a) Location - The Malone deposit is located 2 miles southeast of 
Malone, New York, on the New York Central Railroad t approximately /j.0 miles by 
highway and 5"2 miles by railroad from Massena, New York. There are three pits 
in this deposit: The Paro pit (Pit #202)» the N. Y. C. RJl. pit, and the 
Nichol pit. At the time of the inspection there was a small washing and screen- 
ing plant located at the Paro pit. The location of this deposit is shown on 
map S-A-3/7 in this appendix. 

(b) Transportation facilities - Railway would be the most economical 
means of transporting this material to the sites of construction. Traffic would 
be over the N. V .C R.R. to Malone, 2 miles; the Rutland Railroad to Norwood, 

N. Y.t 37 miles; and the N.Y. C . R.R. to Massena, N.Y., 13 miles ; total, 52 miles. 

(c) Geology - During the recession of the last glacier, the drain- 
age in the St. Lawrence River was blocked by ice. The lake impounded behind 
this ice barrier is known as Glacial Lake Iroquois. At the time when the lake 
occupied the valley near Malone, which lies in the borderland between the Pre- 
Cambrian Adirondack Highland and the St. Lawrence Valley Paleozoic plain, 

the outlet for the lake was at Covey Hill, Quebec, Canada. The ancestral Sal- 
mon River, flowing northward from the Adirondack Highland, built a large delta 
out into Lake Iroquois. This delta has been dissected by postglacial erosion, 
so that only fragments of th.- original form remain. Remnants of this delta in- 
clude the hills at the Paro, Railroad, and Nichol pits. At the Paro pit a 
complete section through the delta has been revealed. At the bottom is the 
glacial till on which the delta was deposited. Above this occur the clayey 
bottom-set beds of typical delta structure, with the progressively coarser ma- 
terial extending upward to the top of the deposit. 

(d) Estimated Quantity - It v^as estimated that there are over 2 mill- 
ion cubic yr.rds of sand and gravel in the entire deposit. This was based on 
exploration at the Paro Pit' and observation of the exposed pit faces in the 
Nichol and Railroad pits. In order to obtain more accurate knowledge of the 
extent of this deposit, it would be necessary to drill at various points. 

(e) Method of sampling. - Only the Paro Pit was sampled, as it was 
believed the material in this pit was representative of the area. The pit was 
sampled by excavating a series of 6 ft. by 7 ft. steps in the pit face. Thir- 
ty-four steps with a total rise to the top of 1.54 feet were excavated. A 400- 
pound sample was taken from each step, and, after quartering and sieving the ma- 
terial over the i|», 2", 1", and ^"screens, the separated sizes of gravel and 
sand were shipped to the Central Concrete Laboratory, West Point, New York. 



-21- 



(f) Appearance of Material - In general the material from "this depe- 
it was clean and fairly vrell graded. There -was a high percentage of silt in 
some strata. Some disintegrated and /otten stone were enoountered. The de- 
posit is variable, grading from fine sand on the south to ooarso gravel on 
the north. The whole deposit has an average gravel/sand ratio of approximately 

60 Ao. 

(g) Laboratory tests - The results of the routine tests made on sand 
and gravel are shown in Tables S-A-3/3 and S-A-3/4t and the results of special 
tests on these materials are shown under the heading "Special Tests on Aggre- 
gates, Cement and Concrete" in this appendix. Ho studies of cono'rete in whioh 
material from these pits "was used were made beoause of the meager data avail- 
able. 

(h) Recommendations - The results of durability tests showed this 
material to be unsound and therefore its use for concrete is not recommended. 

12. Parishville Sand Deposit, Parishville, New York* 

(a) Location - The Parishville deposit (Pits 12QQ to I203) comprises 
about 14 square miles. Its location is shown on map S-A-3A7 in this appen- 
dix. Two small pits, 3/8 mile north and £ mile west of Parishville, respec- 
tively, have been used to supply aggregate for local construction. There is 
no railroad within 10, miles of this deposit, and the distance from Massena by 
highway is approximately 23 miles. 

(b) Geology - The region in the vicinity of Parishville is a large 
delta originally developed by a large stream which flowed into glaoial Lake Ir- 
oquois. The delta has since been dissected by streams and headv?ard erosion and 
has in spme places been cut to bedrock. 

(e) Quantity represented - A very large quantity of fine to medium 
sand is available in this area. Subsurface investigations were made chiefly 
to determine if sand of a coarser gradation could be found. 

(d) Method of sampling - A total of kk auger borings and small test 
pits, ranging in depth from k to 20 feet, were excavated. The location of the 
borings and pits are shown on a map, "General Plan, Parishville & Vicinity!, 
inin the district files. 

(e) Appearance of material - In general the aggregate in this deposit 
oonsisted of a uniform fine to medium sand, entirely too fine for use in oon- 
orete. Small deposits of dirty sand and gravel and of clean, coarse sand were 
located, but these were too limited for consideration. 

(f ) Laboratory tests - The results of routine laboratory tests made 
on sand from this area are shown in Table s-A-3/3 in this appendix. 

(g) Study of structures - Ho performance studies of concrete in whioh 
sand from this area was used were made because of the meager data available. 

(h) Recommendations - Ho further consideration of this area is be- 
lieved advisable, since the detailed exploration showed the region to be laok- 
ing in sand of the proper gradation for use as concrete fine aggregate. 



-22- 



EXPLORATION AND SAMPLING OF AGGREGATE SOURCES IN CANADA 

The area between the Ottawa and St. Pawrence Rivers, from Kingston, 
Ontario, to Joliette, Quebec, was explored for sources of suitable concrete 
aggregates. The exploration of the five most promising sources are described 
below: 

1. Mille Roches Limestone Deposit (Black River formation) . 

(a) Location - This deposit, owned by the Gypsum, Lime, and Alabas- 
tine Company, Limited, Paris, Ontario is located one mile north 
of Mille Roches, and is shown on map S-A-3/17 in this appendix. 
Construction of one mile of track on an existing road-bed would 
permit rail transportation over the Canadian National Railroad 
to Cornwall Junction, a distance of 5 miles. There are 7 small 
quarries in this' area, but at the time of the inspection no 
material was being removed. Stone from these quarries was used 
for masonry along the Cornwall Canal, 

(b) Geology - The limestone in this vicinity belongs to the Black 
River formation. Although both this formation and the Beek- 
mantown dolomite f oration are Ordovician in age, the former 
is considerably the higher stratigraphically . This stone is 
nearly horizontally bedded, with many thin stylolite seams and 
fossils. It appears to be generally sound and unweathered. It 
is dark gray in color and has an apparent specific gravity of 
2.71« Numerous outcrop of Black River limestone were located 

in this area (see map 3-A-3/33) i Q this appendix). Many of these 
are not owned by the Gypsum, Lime, and Alabastine Company. In 
the Mille Roches vicinity there is a sufficient quantity of 
limestone, with shallow overburden, to furnish coarse aggregate 
for the St. Lawrence River Project. 

(c) Method of Sampling - Samples of the limestone were crushed to 
2- inch maximum size and shipped to the Central Concrete Labo- 
ratory, West Point,. New York. The locations of three drill 
holes made in this area are shown on drawing S-A~3/3» Sheet 135 
Folio of Subsurface Investigation, Appendix B-l . 

(d) Laboratory tests - The results of routine laboratory tests are 
shown in Table s -^-3/4» aacl the results of special tests are 
shown under the heading "Special Tests on Aggregates, Cement and 
Concrete" in this appendix. The results of 34 cycles of freez- 
ing and thawing on 59 core samples indicated this material to be 
amply resistant. The description of these tests and photographs 
showing appearance of cores before and after freezing are in the 
district files. 

(e) Study of structures - An examination of the masonry in the Corn- 
wall Canal indicated that, in general, this rock has satisfaetcr ■ 
ily withstood weathering for many years. A few of the masonry 
blocks showed appreciable disintegration obviously caused by a 
concentration of stylolite seams. 

(f) Recommendations - Limestone from this deposit is considered 
satisfactory for use as concrete coarse aggregate. It is pos- 
sible however, that selective quarrying will be necessary to 
avoid rock layers which contain an excessive amount of shale. 



-23- 



2. Richmond Sand and gravel Deposit. 'Richmond. Ontario. 

(a) Location - This deposit (Pit 405, 406, 407) is located 5 miles 
northwest of Richmond, Ontario.- The area investigated is 
approximately 3 miles long and i mile wide. There are three 
small pits from which sand and gravel for local use have been 
obtained. Rail shipment to Cornwall Junction, probably the most 
economical method of transportation, would be as follows: 1 
mile to the Canadian Pacific Railroad at Stittville; 18 miles 

to Ottawa via the C.P. R.R.; '55 miles to Cornwall Junction via 
the ^ew York Central Railroad; total distance, 74 miles. 

(b) Geology - This deposit is a typical marine beach which has been 
developed by wave action in the Champlain S e a. The material 
was derived from the underlying and adjacent Paleozoic rocks 
which outcrop extensively in that vicinity, 

(c) Quantity represented - It is believed that the deposit contains 
in excess of 4 million cubic yards of sand and gravel, having 
an approximate gravel/sand ratio of 25/75* This estimate is 
based solely on geologic reconnaissance and field observations, 
and should be substantiated by a limited test-pitting and drill- 
ing program. 

M) Method of sampling - Representative samples of sand were taken 
from the three small commercial pits. After combining and 
quartering this material, large samples were stored for use in 
concrete teats in Massena and small samples were shipped to the 
Central Concrete Laboratory, West Point, New York, for routine 
tests. The sand from this deposit was found to be clean and 
fairly well graded, with little shale, , rotten stone, or shale 
visible. 

(e) Laboratory tests - The results of the routing aggregate tests 
made on sand from the Richmond deposit are shown in Table 
S-A-3/3- an d the results of special tests on this material are 
shown under the heading "Special Tests on Aggregates, Cement 
and Concrete" in this appendix. 

(f) Recommendations - The Richmond sand is representative of the 
large beach deposits in Northern New York and Southern Canada. 
It should be tested further to determine what, if any, correla- 
tion exists between unsoundness as indicated by the magnesium 
sulfate soundness test and unsoundness as measured by the re- 
sistance of concrete to severe weathering tests. 

3. Grenadier ^aland Sand and Gravel nenoait. Grenadier Island. 

(a) Location - Grenadier Island is located in the s t. Lawrence 
River approximately 4 miles northeast of Alexandria Bay, ^ew 
York, and about 70 miles upstream from Barnhart Island. There 
are three main sources of aggregate on the Island: (1) Pit 
2001, in the northeastern part, owned by D u ff e rin Paving and 
Crushed Stone, Limited, Toronto; (2) Pit 2002, adjoining the 
Simpson property, owned by the Poole Estate, Grenadier Island; 
and (3) Pit 2003, in the southwestern part, owned by the Simp- 
son Sand Company, Brockville. There is no plant equipment or 
material producing operations on Grenadier Island. Simpson 
operates a small sucker dredge in Pit 2003 to obtain sand for 
use in Brockville. 



-24- 



(b) Transportation facilities - The most favorable method for trans- 
porting aggregate from Grenadier Island to the sites of the 
various construction projects would be by btrge. If a railroad 
haul were desired, material could be barged 15 miles to Brock- 
ville, Ontario, Canada, trans-loaded to the Canadian National 
Railroad, and shipped via rail 57 miles to Cornwall Junction. 

(c) Geology - Like all the islands in the vicinity, Grenadier is 

a bedrock island. The rock is a pink Algoman granite or gneiss. 
On this irregular Pre-Cambrian rock surface, aqueo-glacial 
deposits were laid down during the retreat of the last ice 
sheet. These deposits consist of material which was washed off 
the edge of the ice or into depressions in the surface of the 
ice and are now apparent in the long ridges at both ends of the 
island and in the two symmetrical, kame-like hills which are 
the most prominent topographic feature at the southwest end of 
the island. 

(d) Quantity represented - It is estimated that there are at least 
3,000,000 cubic yards of send and gravel on Grenadier Island. 
This figure is based on the results of the test pits previously 
excavated by the owners and on geologic reconnaissance. A 
detail map in the district files shows the location of proposed 
test pits, trenches, and drill holes which would be necessary to 
confirm this figure. 

(e) Method of sampling - In pit 2001, Gravel Bay, Dufferin property, 
a trench, 6 feet deep and 18 feet long, was excavated in the ex- 
posed pit face. Thirty-four cubic feet of aggregate were taken 
at various points in the trench- The remainder of the samples 
were obtained by clam shell to a depth of 5 feet below water 
level. All of the above samples were quartered, • screened on 4"» 
2", 1", and J* sieves, and the separated sizes shipped to the 
Central Concrete Laboratory, West Point, N. Y., for testing. 
Although Pit 2002 was sampled, no tests were made on the material 
because it was considered similar to that from pits Nos. 2001 and 
2003. As Pit 2003 was entirely under water, samples of sand 
were obtained at a depth of 3° feet by the use of a 3ucker dredge, 
The aggregate in this region is approximately 10 percent gravel. 

(f) Appearance of material - In general the sand and gravel from 
these pits were found to be clean and fairly well graded with 
considerable disintegrated and soft material. The gravel/sand 
ratio was estimated to be 5^/50 • with sizes ranging from boulders 
to fine sand. 

(g) Laboratory tests - The results of the routine aggregate tests 
are shown on Tables S-A-3/2 and S-A-3/4, and the results of 
special tests on these materials are shown under the heading 
"Special Tests on Aggregates, Cement and Concrete" in this ap- 
pendix. 

(h) Study of structures - Aggregate from Grenadier Island was 

reported to have been used in concrete in the following struc- 
tures i 

Prescott Grain Elevators, Prescott, Ontario. 
Phillips Wire Plant, Brockville, Ontario. 
Monitana Hotel, Brockville, Ontario. 
Lyons Grinding Co. buildings, Brockville, Ontario, 



-25- 



With the exception of the elevators, the concrete in these 
structures showed no appreciable evidence of structural weak- 
ness due to aggregate failure. Several "popouts" caused by 
weathered dolomite were found in the frescott Elevators. 
(I) Recommendations - The results of tests on this sand and gravel 
combined in concrete indicated a serious lack of durability; 
therefore the ma terial is not recojmnende-d^ Further tests on 
the sand from this deposit are recommended. 

4« Joliette Sand Deposit, Joliette, Quebec. 

^a) Location - This deposit, owned by the Standard Lime Company of 
Joliette, P.Q. , Canada, is located 10 miles northeast of 
Joliette, and l\5 miles north of Montreal. The Standard Lime 
Company is a subsidiary of the Gypsum, Lime, and Alabastine 
Company, Ltd., of Paris, Ontario. •Hie pit has been operated 
for 25 ^ears and during that time approximately 2 million tons 
of material have been removed. 

(b) Transportation facilities - Either rail or barge shipment of 
sand from this deposit to Cornwall would be possible. The sand 
could be hauled to Berthierville, Canada, a distance of approxi- 
mately 18 miles, on the Canadian National Railroad and then 

transferred to barges for water shipment to Cornwall. The distance, 
either by rail or by water, is about 125 miles. 

(c) Present operations - A screening and washing plant, capable 

of producing 1000 tons of sand every 24 hours, is now operating 
in this pit. Sand from this deposit has been used extensively 
in concrete construction in Montreal. 

(d) Quantity represented - It was, estimated that there is sufficient 
sand in this deposit to supply all concrete fine aggregate re- 
quirements for the St. Lawrence River Project. 

(e) Method of sampling - Representative samples were taken from 
stockpiles of processed sand. After thoroughly mixing and 
quartering, samples were shipped to the Central Concrete 
Laboratory, West Point. New York. 

(f) Appearance of Material - Processed sand from this deposit was 
found to be clean and very well graded, with little or no soft, 
friable, or micaceous particles. 

(g) Laboratory tests - The results of routine tests made on sand 
from this deposit are shown in T a t,le S-A-3/3 in this appendix. 

No performance studies of concrete in which sand from this region 
was used have been made by this office, 
(h) Recommendations - It is believed that this sand is satisfactory 
for use in concrete. 

5« Oka Sand Deposit, Oka, Quebec . 

(a) Location - This deposit, owned by the Consolidated Oka Sand and 
Gravel Company, Montreal, Province of Quebec, Canada, is located 
near Point Calumet in the Lake of Two Mountains, Ottawa River, 
approximately 8 miles northeast of Oka, Quebec. The sand is 
obtained at a depth of 25 feet below the lake surface. 

(b) Transportation facilities - It is probable that barge transpor- 
tation would be the most economical method of transporting sand 
from the Oka deposit to Cornwall. The distance by barge is about 



-26- 



70 miles. However, the send could be transferred from barges 
to railroad cars at Vaudreuil and. shipped to Cornwall over the 
Canadian National or Canadian Pacific Railroads. 
v c) Present operations - There have been dredging operations in 

this deposit for the past ^5 years. Over five million tons of 
sand have been removed. At the time of the inspection a large 
suction dredge, capable of producing 250 tons of washed sand 
per hour, was in use. The sand was taken to Montreal in L0OO- 
ton barges. 

(d) Geology - The deposit of sand laid down in the lake of Two 
Mountains is apparently alluvium carried into the lake by the 
Ottawa River. The material is composed chiefly of mineral 
aggregates derived from' Pre -Cambrian crystalline rocks. 

(e) Quantity represented - It was estimated by the superintendent 
of the pumping plant that this deposit contained approximately 

1 million tons of sand. No exploration of this area has b een 
• conducted by this office. 

(f ) Appearance of material - Samples taken at the pumping plant 
showed this sand to be clean with the exception of a small 
amount of minute micaceous particles, ^t did not comply with 
present Federal Specifications as to grading, since it was 
dificient in material passing the #5° and #100 sieves. *t is 
possible that the grading can be adjusted by a change in 
processing methods. « 

(g) Laboratory tests - The results of routine laboratory tests made 
on this material are shown in T a ble S A— 3/3 i n this appendix. 

(h) Study of structures - No performance studies jf concrete in which 

sand from this region was used were made, 
(i) Recommendations - More detailed investigation of this deposit 

is not recommended unless the material is offered specificly for 

the St. Lawrence River Project. 

6. Other Deposits - Aside from the five deposits described above, many 
other sand, gravel, and stone deposits in Canada were investi- 
gated. The location of these deposits are shown on Canadian 
Quadrangles S-A-3/I7 to S-A-3/28, and S-A-3/33 to S-A-36. The 
pit number, local name, type of material, estimated gravel/sand 
ratio, estimated quantity, location and estimated possibility for 
use are given in Tabulation S-A-3/37 in this appendix. Field 
inspection reports covering all aggregate deposits located in 
Canada are included in the file of field inspection reports in 
the district files. 



-27- 



Memorandum tot 

0. A. Lindsay, Esq. 
Chairman , Canadian Consul t tea 
St* Lawerence Deep laterway 
International Rapids Section. 

The following memorandum is submitted in response to the request made 
to the Testing laboratories of the Department of Public 'forks and to the 
Geological Surrey for assistance in locating possible supplies for concrete 
aggregates* 

Mr. E. Viens acted for the Testing laboratories, Hiss A. E. Wilson for 
the Geological Surrey. Mr. L. R. Stratton, engineer of the Department of 
Transport viewed all deposits selected. 

An area was covered extending approximately from 74° 25* lat. on the 
east to a line on the wast, drawn from 76° 42' to 73° 30' l*t. and from the 
margin of the Canadian Shield to the International Boundary on the north and 
south respectively; that is from Bawkesbury and Baudette River on the east to 
Renfrew, Mississippi Station and Brockville on the west. 

The areas selected as the most probable sources of aggregate are marked 
on the appropriate Canadian Quadrangles included herewith. 



The examination and selection of deposits suitable for testing resolved 
itself into three phases. 

1. The reason the natural gravels could not be used. 

2. Selection for large aggregate. 
3* Selection for fine aggregate. 

jL. An examination of the concrete forming the Prescott Terminal elevator and 
of the gravel pit from which the aggregate was taken revealed that the weath- 
ered Beekmantown dolomite caused "pop-outs". The dolomite is composed of cal- 
cium and magnesium carbonates. The calcium carbonate weathers first leaving 
an outer porous envelope of magnesium crystals which, within the interstices, 
retains water which cannot be absorbed. An area of many scores of miles is 
underlain by these dolomites. Any gravels formed by glacial action over 
Beekmantown dolomite will have this defect. 

A visit was made to gravel pits in areas underlain py the purer Black 
River-Trenton limestone. It was found that in them also, there is too high 
a percentage of weathered dolomite derived in part from Beekmantown dolomite 
exposures farther north transported by glacial action, and in part from the 
few dolomite layers within the limestones themselves^ 

Practically all the sand deposits in the Ottawa-St. Lawrence lowlands 
are of sea sand from the last post-glacial marine invasion. The sand is too 
fine for concrete purposes. 

Therefore it was realized that the natural deposits of gravel and sand 
would have to be abandoned for crushed rock for large aggregate and glacial 
sands derived from Precambrian rocks for fine aggregate. 

2. In selecting sources of crushed rock for large aggregate those outcrops 
of limestone suitable in nature and quantity were visited and the most pro- 
bable selected for later tests. Beekmantown dolomite in its unweathered 
condition was included as well as Black River-Trenton. 

Pending tests, possible sources for large aggregate near the project aret 
1) Trenton limestone hill, 2 miles long, Indian Lands, Cons. Till 



-28- 



& IX, Glengarry tp. and lots B. and C. Con. H, Roxborough tp., 
Glengarry co. - Pit #19, Cornwall Quadrangle, 
ii) Black River limestone, one mile north of Mi lie Roches, lots 24, 
25 and 26, Con. IV, Cornwall tp., Glengarry co. - see Cornwall 
Quandrangle . 
iii) Black River limestone, 3 miles north of Cornwall, lots 1 to 9 
Con. IV, Cornwall tp... Glengarry co. - see Pit #18, Cornwall 
Quadrangle. 
iv) Beekmantown dolomite, in an area one mile west of Cardinal, 
lots 9 to 12 Con. 1, Edwardsburg tp,, Grenville Co. - see Pit 
#108, Morrisburg Quadrangle. 
v) Beekmantown dolomite, 3 miles north of Johnstown, lots 25 to 
28, Con III, Edwardsburg tp., Grenville co. - see Pit #107, 
Morrisburg Quadrangle* 
vi) Beekmantown dolomite, just north of Spencerville, lots 27, 28 
and 29, Con VI and VII, Edwardsburg tp., Greenville Co. - see 
Pit #300 Merricksville Quadrangle. 
Several .Precambrian quartzite areas were also visited, west of Oxford 
Station and in the general area farther east, lots 20, 21, 29, and 3°. C° n « 
VIII, Oxford tp. and lot 11, Con. Ill, S. Gower tp., Grenville co. 

2.. In selecting sand for fine aggregates an inspection was made within the 
area of every known pit containing sand of desirable grading and sufficiently 
free from weathered dolomite. No pit with these requirements had a suffic- 
ient quantity of material. The sand had to be selected within or on the mar- 
gins of the Precambrian areas. 

Possible sourses for fine aggregates ares 

i) 2 miles east of Renfrew, lots 6 and 7i Con. Ill, Horton tp., 
Renfrew co. - Pit #1300, Renfrew Quadrangle, 
ii) 3 miles northeast of Lanark, lots 3 and k* Cons. IV and V, Lan- 
ark tp., Lanark co. - Pit #700,, Carleton Place Quadrangle, 
iii) 2\ miles south of Mississippi Station, lots 3 and 4 Con. VIII, 
Palmerston tp*, Lenox and Addington co. - see Pit #1400, Sh- 
arbot lake Quadrangle. 
iy) The Grenadier Island locality was not visited. The sand is in 
the river bed and no estimate can be made of the quantity with- 
out testing its depth. The sand was examined, however, in the 
yards at Brockville. 
With the exception of the fine aggregate deposit northeast of Lanark all 
localities mentioned for large and fine aggregate are either on railway lines 
or within four miles of a line. The Lanark sand deposit is some 10 or 12 
miles from Perth or Carleton Place. 

Visits were made to Massena to consult with the United States Army eng- 
ineers and to examine what they had found. 

The United States Army engineers and geologists interested in concrete 
materials were taken to see the selected rock exposures for large aggregate 
and sand supplies for fine aggregate. 



A. E. Wilson. 

Ottawa, December 20, 1941* E. Viens, 

COPY DS. 



-29- 



ST* LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 

CONCRETE AGGREGATE INVESTIGATION 

Held Inspector's Report and Record of Samples Taken 

QUADRANGUB Santa Clara FIT NO, 1401 TYPE OF MATERIAL Sand & gravel 

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OWNER A*H* Trotter. Friend Smith., Santa Clara, N.Y. , agent 

DATE INSPECTED 6-24-41 INSPECTED BY H.A.V. - S.M.M. 

TYPE OF DEPOSIT Aqueo-glacial. 

LOCATION AND DESCRIPTION OF PIT Near village of Santa Clara, N. Y. Pit 
overgrown by vegetation* Not used for 11 years. Gravel/sand ratio 30/70. 

EST. QUANTITY MATERIAL REMOVED 10.000 cu. yds. EST. WORKABIE DEPTH 50 feet 

APPEARANCE OF MATERIAL Clean* fairly well-graded sand and gravel. No shale, 
rotten stone or shells visible. Several veins of magnetite present. 

AVAILABILITY OF WATER St. Regis River nearby 

QUANTITY (CU. YDS.) EST. BY OWNER BY INSPECTOR 1,000,000 

DISTANCE FROM MASSENA^ BY R.R. «59 miles BY TRUCK 35 miles 

PLANT EQUIPMENT None (The Santa Clara Sand Co. used to operate in this pit. 
Concrete foundations made with this sand are still apparently sound). 

PROJECTS FURNISHED Bridge west of Brushton, N. Y. (1929) 

NO. SAMPLES & WHERE TAKEN 300 lbs. from trench cut in face of pit. 

INSPECTOR'S RECOMMENDATIONS Further investigations necessary to check the 
quality of the material and the extent of the deposit if economical trans- 
portation can be obtained. 



IAB. SAMPIE NO. DATE SUBMITTED DATE TESTED REMARKS 

STL-S-35 6/27/41 7/28/41 MgSO^ loss (11.9*) 



Necessary to construct an 18-mile R.R. from Santa Clara to Moira over exist- 
ing roadbed. 



-30- 



ST. LAWRENCE BITER IR07ECT 

CONCRETE AGGREGATE INVESTIGATION 

Field Inspector 'a Report and Record of Samples Taken 

Canada 

QUADRANGLE Cornwall PIT NO* Mi lie Roches TYPE OF MATERIAL Limestone 

NAME & ADDRESS OF OWNER Gypsum, Lime & Ala bas tine Co., Ltd., Paris, Ontario, 
Canada. 

DATE INSPECTED 7/2/41 INSPECTED BY J.L.R. - H.A.V. 

TYPE OF DEPOSIT Limestone, Black River formation. 

LOCATION AND DESCRIPTION OF PIT Approx. 2 m. N. of Mi lie Roches, P.O. Canada. 
Seven small quarries scattered in area one mile long* 

EST. QUANTITY MATERIAL REMOVED 50.000 Cu. Yds. EST. WORKABLE DEPTH 100 Ft. 

APPEARANCE OF MATERIAL Clean, fossi lifer ous limestone with many stylolite 
seams. 

AVAILABILITY OF WATER Ground Water near surface. 

QUANTITY (CU. YDS.) EST. BY OWNER BY INSPECTOR unlimited 

DISTANCE FROM CORNWALL JUNCTION BY RR After 1 m. spur to BY TRUCK- 3 miles 

Mi lies Roche is from Long 

built, 4 miles* Sault Dam S. 

PLANT EQUIPMENT None 

PROJECTS FURNISHED Masonry in Cornwall Canal; Canadian National R.R. 

NO. SAMPLES & WHERE TAKEN 1-ton sample sent to Central Concrete Lab., West 
Point, N. Y. 

INSPECTOR'S RECOMMENDATIONS Petrographic analysis, physical tests, and dur- 
ability studies indicated satisfactory quality. 



LAB. SAMPLE NO. 
STL-G-1 

STL-G-36 
STIrG-37 



DATE SUBMITTED 
1/20/41 
8/12/41 
8/12/41 



DATE TESTED 
2/10/41 
8/15/41 
8/15/41 



REMARKS 
0,% loss after 25 
cycles of Freezing 
and Thawing. 



-31- 



TABLE NO. 1. RESOLT OF LABORATORY TESTS ON FINE AGGREGATE 
(Central Concrete Laboratory, West point. New York) 



v — - 



Serial 
Desig. 


Pit 

No. 


Sieve Analysis-^ 
Sieve Size 

h 8 16 go 


' passing 
No. 
50 100 


Sp. 
Or. 


Per Cent 
Absorption 
24 48 7d 


unit 
ITt. 


% 
Voids 


Comp. 

Str. Ratio 

3d 7d 


MgSOlt 
% loss 
10 eye . 


Decant. 

l£>33 % 


Type of 

Material 


STI^S-1 
S-2 
S-3 

s-4 
s-5 


1203 
1203 
202 
202 
9 


99 
100 
100 

94 
98 


97 
92 
72 
70 
86 


91 
77 

40 
52 

60 


63 
42 

12 

36 
31 


17 
5 

4 

17 

9 


2 
1 
2 
6 
'3 


2.64 
2.63 
2.67 
2.66 
2.69 


0.6 - 
0.6 - 
0.6 - 
0.4 - 
0.9 - - 


101 
100 

109 

114 

107 


39.0 
39-3 
34.6 
31.3 
36.3 


75 
70 
79 
87 
79 


67 
90 
84 
89 
80 


' 8.1 

7-9 

23.6 

22.1 

15.9 


1.0 
0.5 
1.1 
1.0 
1.0 


Sand 

4 


STL-S-6 »2001 
S-7 »2003 

S-8 11 

s-9 11 
s-io loo 


100 
100 

loo- 

1P0 
100 


79 
99 
82 
89 
83 


46 
95 
60 

77 
64 


21 

74 
4P 
54 
46 


8 
22 
22 
16 
27 


4 
4 
8 
7 
15 


2.69 
2.70 
2.67 
2.63 
2.67 


1.0 - 
1.0 - 
1.0 - 
1.0 - 
0.8 - - 


107 

101 

114 

108 

117 


36.6 

40.3 
31.7 
34-4 
29.7 


96 
100 

91 

88 
96 


94 

104 

94 

95 

100 


16.3 
26.4 
25.7 
14.9 
24.2 


1.2 

1.8 

4-4 
5-0 
7-4 


Sand 

■ 
• 

■ 


STL-S-ll 
S-12 
S-13 

s-14 
s-15 


10 
8 
8 
8 
8 


100 
100 
100 
100 
100 


84 
68 
76 
67 
76 


67 
42 
50 
41 
47 


48 
27 
33 
26 
30 


18 
18 
22 
17 
21 


7 

12 
15 
12 
15 


2.64 
2.82 
2.82 
2.82 
2.82 


1.3 - - 
0.3 - - 
0.3 - - 
0.3 - - 
0.3 - - 


111 

120 
120 
121 
126 


34-1 
32.0 
31.6 

31-3 
28.4 


89 
106 

98 
104 

94 


84 

103 

100 

92 

90 


48.5 
2.7 

5-4 


6.2 
1.8 
2.2 

0.0 
0.0 


Sand 

Dolomite 

■ 

1 


STL-S-16 

s-17 

S-18 
S-19 
3-20 


8 

1600 

200 

803 

1000 


96 
77 
100 
89 
93 


38 
17 
84 
71 
80 


15 
3 
55 
57 
63 


7 
1 

17 
43 
35 


5 
1 
6 

14 
11 


4 

5 
3 
6 


2.82 
2.96 
2.71 


0.3 - - 
0.3 - - 
1.9 - - 


111 


36.8 


94 

88 


96 

88 


2.8 
46.2 
14.1 

9-4 


0.0 


Dolomite 
Sy eni te 
Sand 

■ 


STL-S-21 
S-22 

s-23 ' 

S-24 < 
S-25 * 


900 
5400 
'2001 
'2002 
'2003 


97 
95 
94 
99 
92 


74 
74 
72 
92 
68 


50 
54 
40 
71 
36 


27 
39 
16 

41 

13 


7 

18 

5 

9 

5 


3 
3 
2 
2 
2 


- 


- - - 


- 


- 


- 


- 


9.0 
18.4 


- 


Sand 

t 

■ 
• 


STL-S-26 
S-27 
S-28 
S-28A 

s-29 
s-30 


.(a) 
• (b) 
»(o) 
*(d) 
7 
707 


93 
100 

88 

94 
91 


87 
97 
79 

79 
75 


75 
71 
66 

54 
59 


46 
22 
49 

23 

36 


15 

6 

27 

7 
11 


4 

1 
10 

4 
3 


- 


- - . 


- 


- 


- 


- 


4-3 

11.6 
8.6 

50.7 
38.0 
16.3 


- 


Sand 

t 

* 
Sandstone 
Sand 

■ 


STL-S-31 
S-32 ' 

S-33 ' 
s-34 ' 
s-35 


.(e) 
>2001 
>2001 
>2003 

1401 


93 
91 
91 
99 
97 


67 
57 
62 
83 
90 


41 
35 
38 
49 

81 


23 
24 
27 

19 
62 


9 

11 

13 

4 

22 


3 

4 
4 
1 
5 


2.64 
2.65 
2.64 
2.65 
2.65 


0.9 0.9 1.0 

1.0 1.2 1.2 
1.2 1.3 1.3 

1.1 1.2 1.2 
0.5 0.7 0.7 


113 
115 
117 
106 
106 


31.7 

30.8 
28.9 

35-7 
36.0 


95 
92 
98 
96 
103 


92 
93 
92 
91 
102 


27.7 

3L.0 

20.6 

23.5 
11.9 


2.7 
3.8 
3.6 

0.8 
0.8 


Sand 

i 
■ 
■ 


STL-s-36 
s-37 
S-38 
s-39 
s-40 


202 
202 
202 
202 
202 


91 
88 
86 
91 
88 


65 
59 
48 
62 
53 


46 
39 
23 
37 
33 


32 
26 

12 
21 
23 


17 

13 

6 

9 

12 


8 
6 
3 
4 

5 


2.64 
2.64 
2.65 
2.65 
2.65 


1.1*1.2 1.2 

1.0 1.1 1.1 
0.9 1.0 1.0 
0.8 0.9 0.9 
0.7 0.9 1.0 


116 
117 
115 
116 
117 


29.6 
29.4 
30.5 
30.0 
29.6 


92 
80 
78 
77 
83 


92 
79 

76 
85 
88 


27.8 
28.9 
25.7 
26.3 
28.3 


5-1 

5.4 

2.8 
2.2 
2.9 


Sand i 

■ 
■ 
■ 


STL-S-41 
s-42 
s-43 
s-44 
s-45 


202 

202 

202 

1600 

. 8 


89 

87 

90 

100 

100 


64 
56 
65 
99 
93 


47 
39 
52 
73 
45 


35 
30 
41 
48 

10 


20 
18 
26 
16 

3 


9 
9 
13 
3 
2 


2.66 

2.65 
2.63 
2.94 
2.79 


0.7 0.8 0.9 
0.7 0.7 0.8 
0.8 0.8 0.8 
0.1 0.2 0.2 
0.2 0.3 0.3 


116 
116 
116 
111 
98 


30.3 
30.0 
29.6 
39.6 
44.1 


92 
125 

88 

99 

101 


87 
114 
90 
95 
87 


29.9 

27.0 

29.0 

9.1 


5-8 
5.4 
8.2 
0.6 

2.6 


Sand 

w 

■ 
Syenite 
Dolomite 


STL-s-46 
S-47 
S-48 

s-49 
3-50 


8 
• 900 
♦405 
•300 
1501 


100 

100 
100 

100 
99 


loo 
92 
88 
77 
86 


100 
74 
63 
55 
68 


91 

34 
46 
37 

42 


68 
15 

25 

13. 
13 


51 
4 
6 
4 
3 


2.78 
2.65 
2.65 
2.74 
2.67 


0.3 0.3 0.4 

0.7 0.9 1.0 

0.6 1.0 1.0 

0.5 0.7 0.7 

0.4 0.5 0.5 


112 

112 
109 


35.6 

34-6 
34.9 


101 
96 
94 
99 

85 


87 
94 
92 
96 
91 


22.1 

18. 7 

24.0 

9.7 


1.6 

2.4 
1.8 
1.6 
0.2 


Dolomite 
Sand 

• 
• 
■ 


STL-s-51 
s-52 
s-53 
s-54 
s-55 


.802 
6001 
6002 
2600 
6003 


99 
96 
98 

83 

94 


92 
90 
95 
60 

84 


80 

73 

82 
38 
73 


40 
36 
43 
24 

54 


6 

9 

13 

12 

24 


2 

3 
2 

7 
6 


- 


- - - 


- 


- 


- 


- 


17.2 
9.0 
6.0 

-21.4 
7.7 


- 


Sand 

1 
■ 
■ 
■ 


3TL-S-56 
STL-S-57 
STL-S-58 

STL-S-59 

STL-S-60 


1209 

(O 

1000 

900 
6005 


94 
100 
95 
92 
95 


86 
100 
83 
80 
89 


78 
95 
76 
66 
77 


61 
43 
47 
35 
46 


21 

3 

14 

10 

14 


2 

5 
2 
3 


- 


- - - 


- 


- 


- 


- 


14.7 
10.6 
20.2 
15.7 
5.7 


. 


Sand 


- 


■ 
■ 

■ 


STL-s-61 

01 S-62 

f s-63 

u> s-64 
C? s-65 


5200 
5201 
5202 

5203 
5204 


98 
98 
97 
98 
98 


90 

94 
88 
95 

91 


70 

69 
70 
80 
69 


34 
22 
51 
42 
27 


6 
4 
17 
7 
8 




1 
2 
1 
2 


- 


- - - 


- 


- 


- 


- 


4-9 
5.4 
4.2 
5-9 
4.4 


- 


Sand 

« 

■ 


STL-S-66 

s-67 


.1400 
.700 


95 
92 


81 
72 


59 
48 


35 
32 


14 
15 


5 
4 


- 


- - - 


- 


- 


- 


- 


13.3 
24.8 


- 


Sand 

■ 


• Canadian 


aggregate 


deposits. 

n a +■ a ™1 a y*A 1W* 


d-.hnd 


of Test 


for Unit WeiKht 


of Agm 


regate. 


ASTM Desig. 


029-39" 







(a) 
0=) 
(<0 

w 

(<0 
(f) 

Not 



Deposit located 10 miles northwest of Joliette, P.Q., Caneda. 
Deposit located in Ottawa Hiver, 8 miles northeast of Oka, P.Q.. Canada. 
Old stockpile. Chute-a-caron Dam. Arvida. P.O.., Canada. Boauharnoi3 . p. a ., Canada. 

Old stockpile of crushed Potsdam sandstone. Beauharnois. Dam. Beauharnois. P.O... w> 
Composite sample. Pits 2001 and 200 3 . Grenadier Island. T^sport Company. 

Sand from Lake Ontario, delivered to Ogdensburg, N. Y. b y barge, by the Tees Tx P ^ 

„ Oolorimetric Teat. A.S.T.M. desig. C40-33. made on these sands showed satisfactory 
STL-S-1 and STL-S-2. .32. 



TABLE NO. 2. RESULTS OF LABORATORY TESTS ON COARSE AGGREGATE 
(Central Concrete Laboratory, West Point, New York) 



Pit 

WO. 



STL-G-1 
G-2 

0-3 

g-4 

o-5 

STL-G-6 

0-7 

0-8 

0-9 
0-10 

STL-O-11 
0-12 
0-13 
9-14 

0-15 

STL-G-16 
0-17 
G-18 

0-19 
G-20 

STL-G-21 
G-22 
G-23 
G-24 
G-25 

STL-G-26 
G-27 
G-28 
G-29 

0-30 

3TL-0-31 
G-32 
0-33 

G-34 
0-35 



(a) 
(b) 
(c) 



•(a) 

202 

8 

•(b) 

•(e) 

904 
9 

♦2001 



Sieve Analysis-* Passing 
Sieve Size No. 
2" li' 1" 3/4* i' 3/8' 



H 



100 

10 

♦2001 

•2001 

•2001 

•2003 
•2003 
•2003 

202 
202 

202 
8 

8 
8 
8 

1600 
1600 
1600 
1600 
30 

•900 
•405 
•300 
1501 
1501 

•(a) 
•(a) 



Ungraded Material 
100 90 85 71 59 39 30 

Ungraded Material 
Ungraded Material 
Ungraded Material 

Ungraded Material 

- - 100 71 28 42 

- 100 84 81 69 53 41 
100 93 88 66 51 31 21 

- - 98 88 73 49 36 



- - 97 

- - 99 

- 100 70 
100 - 



85 65 

97 86 

100 82 

4 



- - - 100 89 

- 98 58 4 1 
100 - - - 

100 80 

- 100 58 3.5 



31 20 
62 46 

54 27 



61 33 

49 31 



100 



- 



- 100 81 



- - - 99 

- - 100 58 
80 34 83 

7 1 - - 



- - 100 

- - - - 99 67 

- - 98 64 2 
100 87 50 - - 

Ungraded Material 



JL 






1 



20 





44 




Sp. 
Gr. 



2.65 

2.83 
2.81 
2.81 

2.76 
1 2.72 






2.64 
2.67 

2.68 

2.66 
2.66 
2.62 
2.65 

2.66 

2.62 
2.82 
2.84 
2.84 
2.84 

2.87 
2.92 
2.88 
2.89 
2.81 



Per Cent 
Absorption 
24 48 7d 



Unit 
Wt. 



0.5 - 

1.2 - 

0.3 - 

0.7 - 

0.6 - 

0.5 - 

0.7 - 



101 



l.l 1.3 1.4 104 
0.7 0.7 1.0 102 
0.7 0.9 0.9 



0.9 l.l 1.2 
0.6 0.8 0.8 
0.7 0.8 0.9 
l.o l.o l.l 
0.8 0.9 0.9 

0.8 0.8 0.9 
0.7 0.7 0.7 
0.3 0.3 0*3 
0.4 0.4 0.4 
0.2 0.2 0.2 

0.2 0.2 0.2 
0.2 0.3 0.4 
0.3 0.3 0.3 
0.5 0.5 0.5 
0.5 0.5 0.5 



103 
102 

106 
103 



99 
91 
97 

96 

102 
102 
100 

lei 



Insufficient sample for Tests; Sand Phase (STL-S-47) Tested. 



Insufficient sample for Tests; 
100 81 72 51 40 26 19 

- - - loo 84 51 35 
19 3 2 - 



- 100 71 



99 80 



99 63 26 16 
11 2 - - 



Sand Phase (STL-S-48) Tested. 
- - 

5 2.68 0.8 0,8 1,2 88 
2.68 0.6 0.6 0.6 86 

2 - 0.2 0.2 0.3 73 

0.1 0.1 0.2 71 



% 

Voids 



40.6 



37.2 
38.8 



37.8 
38.6 

35.8 
38.4 



43-6 
49-0 
45.6 
46.1 

43-4 
44.1 
44-4 
44.2 



% Loss 
10 eye. 25 eye. 



MgSO), 



1* T 



14.6 



6.2 



20.7 
8.7 
0.0 

15.8 
7.6 

9.5 

16.1 

5.6 
3.9 



2.4 

0.7 
5.1 
5.0 

1.3 



0.2 
0.1 



Type of 
Mat erial 

Limestone 
Gravel 

Dolomite 



Dolomite 
Cr. gravel 

Gravel 



Gravel 

■ 
■ 
■ 
t 

Gravel 

■ 
■ 
* 
■ 

Gra vel 
Dolomite 

1 
» 
n 

Syenite 









Dolomite 

Gravel 


47.3 
48.9 


5-5 
2.2 


™ 


■ 
■ 
« 


58.6 
59.9 


1-3 
1-5 


0.4 
0.7 


Limestone 

• 



Canadian aggregate deposits. 

In accordance with "Standard Method of Test for Unit Weight of Aggregate, ASTM desig. C29-39». 

Limestone quarries, Black River Formation, 1 mile north of Milles Roches, P.O., Canada 

Windmill Point quarry, dolomite rock, Beekmantown Formation, 1 mile northeast of Prescott, P.0.# Canada. 

Railroad quarry, dolomite rook, Beekmantown Formation, Prescott, P.O., Canada. 



-33- 



SPECIAL TESTS ON AGGREGATES, CEMENT AND CONCRETE 

SERIES A - Testa for Strength, Staining and Crazing, Density, Thermal 
Properties, and Chemical Reactivity at West Point, N» Y. ; 
and Concrete Exposure at Treat Island, Maine. 

1. General * - The following is a report on the concrete testing 
program conducted s.t the central Concrete Laboratory, West Point, 

New York. Only materials which were representative of some of the 
major available sources of supply were included in this group of 
tests. The program included: 

(a) A study of the relative durability of the various com- 
binations off ine end coarse aggregate in concrete when subjected to 
weathering tests a t Treat Island, Maine. 

(b) A study of the effects of the different aggregates on 
the mix design, strength, staining and crazing, density, thermal 
properties, and chemical reactivity. 

(c) Study of the influence of Vinsol resin, interground 
with the cement, upon the workability, economy, and durability of 
the concrete. 

(d) Study of the influence of absorptive form lining on 
the durability of the conrete. 

2 . Materials . 

(a) The aggregates used and their physical properties, as 
measured by standard laboratory tests, are shown in Table I and their 
mineral composition in Table II. The various types of fine aggregate 
were dried to a room-dry condition and were well mixed to insure 
uniform grading in all specimens. In proportioning for concrete, 
allowances were made for the absorption of moisture by the sands. 
The various types of coarse aggregate were drisd to a room-dry 
condition, evacuated under 29 inches of vacuum for one hour, and 
then covered w ith water for a minimum period of 5 days. The speci- 
fic gravity of the coarse aggregate was determined in the evacuated- 
saturated condition. In batching for concrete the coarse aggregates 
were weighed under water. 

(b) Cement. The cements used met the requirements of 
Federal Specification SS-C-206a. The chemical and physical charac- 
teristics of the cements are given in TableslIIa and Illb. The 
entire quantity of cement for the program was obtained from one lot, 
well mixed at the laboratory and stored in closed containers. 

3. Preparation of Concrete . 

(a) Mixing of Batches. - All batches were mixed for 5 min- 
utes in a mechanical mixer after a "butter" batch of the same concrete 
had been mixed and discarded. 

(b) Molding of Specimens. - All specimens were molded by 
hand-rodding, augmented by hammer-tapping on the surface of the mold. 

(c) Curing. - All specimens were cured for 14 days in 
limewater at a temperature of 72° F. , ♦ or - 3° F. The specimens 
were stored in laboratory air after the curing period until time of 

test, except as noted. 



-"34- 



4« Series A - Test Data . 

(a) Mix Design. - With an untreated cement and a water- 
cement ration fixed at 6.0 gallons par sack, the proportions of fina 
and coarse aggregate were varied to produce concrete mixtures of 
equal consistencies as measured by slump test (2£» slump). The mix- 
tures determined under these conditions for the different combinations 
of aggregates are shown in Table IV. 

(b) Compressive Strength. - The compressive strengths 
developed by these mixtures are given in Table VI* All specimens 
were cured in limewater until time of tests. The results of com- 
pressive strength tests on specimens made with the treated cement and 
absorptive form lining are also shown in Table VI. 

(c) Flexural Strength. - The strengths developed by the 
mixtures shown in Table TV are given in Table VII. All specimens 
were cured in. liaewater for 14 days and then in laboratory air until 
tested at 28 days. The flexural tests were made with a concentrated 
load at the midpoint on an 18 inch span. 

(d) Stain and Crazing. - The tendency of the aggregates 
to stain concrete surfaces and their influence upon crazing were 
observed by testing y by 20" by 20" slabs (plywood lined forms) 
prepared from the mixtures shown in Table IV. The tests consisted 
of subjecting 60-day-old slabs (14 days limewater followed ly 46 
days laboratory air) to repeated sudden immersion in warm water 
(125 F. 4 or - 5 F-) followed 15 minutes later by drying and 
cooling in dry air at a temperature of 4° F. f or - 5 F» This 
cycle was applied once daily for 20 days. No indication of stain- 
ing or crazing developed on any of the slabs. The slabs were then 
placed out-of-doors where they were subjected to low temperatures 
during the night and sudden superficial warming by being doused 
with warm water (approx. 120° F») each morning. During 3 2 days of 
this type of exposure the temperature dropped below 26 F. on 14 
occasions. No signs of staining or crazing were apparent. The 
test was continued. 

(e) Density. - The absorption, specific gravity, voids, 
and unit weight of the top and "bottom sections of 6" by 6" by 48" 
columns of concrete made from the mixtures shown in Table IV are 
given in Table VIII. 

(f ) Cement Aggregate Alkali Reaction. - The tendency of 
any of the reactive minerals (opaline silica or feldspars) in the 
aggregates to react with the alkalies (Na and K) in Portland cement 
with resultant expansion of the concrete was studied as described 
below: 

1_. Beams (4" by 4" by 16" ) were molded from concrete 
containing each type of aggregate and a Portland cement containing 
l.Og (considered a high value) of alkali. The beams were cured in 
limewater for 30 days and then were sealed hermetically in the 
presence of water. They were measured for length and modulus of 
elasticity (sonically) at the end of the curing period and at 180 
days. There was no evidence of undue expansion nor was there a 
decrement in modulus of elasticity. The latter, if found, would 
have indicated incipient deterioration. As a matter of record, 
the modulii of elasticity are shown in Table DC. 

2. Sections cut from the beams (described in 1 above) 
at 30, 60, 90, and 180 days were examined microscopically for evidence 



-35- 



of reaction between the aggregate matrix. No such evidence was 
detectable up to 180 days. 

(g) Thermal Properties. 

^1. Diffusion Constant. - The coefficients of diffusion 
of heat through concrete made with these aggregates (Table TT mixtures) 
are given in Table Xa. The coefficient of diffusion (h ) is a constant 
used in the calculation of heat flow through concrete. It may be cal- 
culated by the formula given below or it may be measured-direetly as 
was done in this investigation. Diffusivity constant (h ) = K 
in square ft. per hour. "~C~P~ 

K ■ Conductivity in B.T.U./ft.Ar./°F. 
C m Specific Heat in B.T.U./lb./ F. 
P x Density in pounds per cubic foot. 
The normal range of diffusion constants for concrete lies between 
0.03 and 0.60 Sq. Ft. per hour. Theoretically a concrete mass 
possessing a low diffusion constant will cool more slowly than one 
with a high diffusion constant. 

2* Coefficient of Thermal Expansion. The coefficients 
of thermal expansion of the Northern Quarries dolomite, the Lyon 
Mountain syenitic rock, and certain minerals from the glacial gravel 
were determined for this office by the National Bureau of Standards 
by use of an optical interferometer. The coefficients are shown in 
Table Xb. The coefficients are given for heating and cooling. In 
cases where the expansion is essentially a straight line, only one 
figure for either heating or cooling is given. In cases where in- 
flections occur, the ranges for the linear portions of the curves 
and their corresponding coefficients are given. 

It is worthy of note that the red granite, the diabase, and 
the dolomite each have distinctive inflections in the "heating" 
curves. 

It is worthy of particular note that the quartz and quartzite 
have coefficients roughly twice that of normal hardened Portland 
cement paste (6.0 to 8.0 x 10 )• 

The thermal coefficient of expansion of aggregate is of im- 
portance in its effect upon the coefficient of expansion of the 
concrete. 

(h) Abrasion. - The surfaces of 6 x 12 inch concrete 
cylinders were sandblasted to determine the relative resistance to 
abrasion. A few specimens made with absorptive form lining showed 
greater resistance than did companion specimens molded against 
steel forms. 

5« Accelerated, Field Durability, Stories A . - The resistance 
to accelerated weathering of four combinetions of aggregate in 
concrete made with plain SS-C-206a cement and with Vinsol resin 
treated SS-C-206a cement, and with plain and absorptive forms was 
determined by installing 6" by 6» by 48" columns of each combination 
in the permanent exposure wharf at Treat Island (Eastport), Maine. 

The following aggregate combinations were tested : 
Symbol N - Crushed dolomite fine and coarse aggregate from Northern 

Quarries. 
■ L - • syenite » ■ ■ • ■ Lyon Mt. 

" P - Glacial sand and gravel from Paro Pit. 
• G - " •■• ■ Grenadier Island. 

The characteristics of the aggregates are shown in Tables I, II, and 



-36- 



Xb, and the mixtures used are given in Table TV, 

(a) Specimens. - The specimens used were 6 f x 6* x 48" 
columns placed vertically in continuous one-foot courses to simulate 
a four-foot lift of concrete construction. 

(b) Curing. - The specimens were cured in limewater for 
14 days and in laboratory air until tested or installed on the Maine 
exposure rack at an age of approximately 45 days. 

(c) Exposure. - The exposure rack at Treat Island is located at 
mean-tide elevation in a zone where the tide fluctuation varies from a mini- 
mum of 13 feet to a maximum of 26 feet. The mean tide fluctuation is 18 feet, 

The sea-water attains a minimum temperature of 35 degrees Fahrenheit 
during the winter (never freezes). The atmospheric temperature varies from 
a normal minimum of -14° F« , to a normal maximum of 4°° F« during the winter. 
During the greater portion of the winter the air temperature ranges between 
10° F. and 25° F. 

The weather and tide conditions described above induce a reversal of 
freezing and thawing in an object at mean tide elevation twice daily on 
most days during the severe winter weather (December lOth-March 10th). The 
sudden immersion of the horizontally-placed concrete specimens with the 
rapidly rising tide and similarly sudden emersion with the ebbing tide induce 
sudden changes in temperature in the specimens of considerable magnitude, 
thus combining severe thermal shock with severe frost action. 

(d) Measurement. - The modulus of elasticity was determined 
electro-sonically just prior to the initial freezing and after thawing at 
the periods shown in Table XIII • The modulii of elasticity of the specimens 
at the various inspection periods were compared with the modulii at the time 
of installation and the results are expressed in terms of the percent of the 
original modulii. The results are given in Table XIII. 



-37- 



SERIES B - Accelerated Laboratory Freezing and Thawing Tests at West Point, 
N.Y. 

6. Series B Test Procedure* - The resistance to a special accelerated 
freezing and thawing test of six combinations of aggregate and plain SS-C- 
206a Portland Cement was determined. 

(a) Aggregate Combinations. - The following combinations of ag- 
gregate were tested : 

Symbol Fine Aggregate Coarse Aggregate 

N Crushed Northern Quarries dolomite Crushed Northern Quarries dolomite 

MN Crushed Northern Quarries dolomite Crushed Mills Roches limestone 

Mo Owls Head glacial sand Crushed Mills Roches limestone 

No Owls Head glacial sand Crushed Northern Quarries dolomite 

6 Grenadier glacial sand Grenadier glacis 1 gravel 

P Paro glacial sand Paro glacial gravel 

Characteristics of the aggregates are shown in Tables I and II. 

(b) Preparation of Concrete. - The preparation of the aggregate 
and cement, the mixing of batches, and the molding of specimens were as 
described in Paragraphs 2 and 3 above. 

(c) Specimens. - ^-he specimens used were 3i* by 4i" by 16^ beams 
molded with the 2fe* by l6« faces lying horizontally. 

(d) Mixtures. - A cement factor of 5*5 sacks per cubic yard was 
used for all combinations of aggregates except those in which crushed dolo- 
mite sand was used. In the latter case the cement content was increased to 
5»75 sacks per cubic yard. The proportions of aggregate and wdter were 
varied to obtain the same consistency in all mixtures. The data for the var- 
ious mixes are given Table V. 

(e) Curing. - The specimens containing specially saturated ag- 
gregate were kept saturated at all times by curing in a limewater solution 
until subjected to freezing. 

(f) The Freezing and Thawing Cycle. - The specimens were placed 
in an atmosphere of -10° F«, in a dripping condition at the age of 14 days. 
They were reduced in temperature from 40° F. to 0° f. in 3i hours snd were 
left in the low -temperature atmosphere for 5 hours; at which time they were 
removed and placed in water to thaw. The temperature of the specimens was 
permitted to rise to 40° F. after which they were again placed in the low- 
temperature atmosphere in s dripping wet condition. The freezing period of 
each even numbered cycle was 16 hours, at night. Freezing and thawing were 
repeated until the specimens developed indications of serious deterioration, 
or until 130 cycles were completed. 

(g) Measurement. - The modulus of elasticity of the concrete was 
determined electro-sonically prior to the initial freezing and after thawing 
at the end of the numbers of cycles indicated in Table XI. The modulii of 
elasticity of the test specimens were compared with the modulii of identical 
control specimens stored continuously in water 70° F. 4 or - 3° j 9 «phe 

results; expressed in terms of the percentages of the values for the control 
specimen st equal ages, are given Table XI. 

Another test of resistance was a comparison between the flexural strength 
of each freezing and thawing specimen and its companion control specimen. 
The results, including comments on the general appearance of the specimens at 
the end of the test, are given in Table XII. 



•38- 



The data in Tables XI and XII indicated that the glacial aggregates from 
Grenadier Island and the laro pit are low in resistance in this type of test. 
The combination of crushed Northern Quarries dolomite sand and stone appeared 
to be the most highly resistant of all the combinations. 

The crushed dolomite stone with ©wis Head sand (NO) and the crushed 
Mille Roches limestohe with Owls Head sand (M(J§ appeared to be satisfactory. 



-39- 



SSPIES C - Concrete Freezing and Thawing Teat at Massena, N» Y* 

7» Series C Test Procedure * - The durability tests in Series A and B 
described abota included aggregates from only a few of the larger deposits 
and did not provide sufficient comparisons between different fine aggregates* 
With further developments of the aggregate survey it appeared advisable to 
test several other fine aggregates and to compare them on the basis of their 
influence on the resistance ofconcrete to freezing and thawing* Information 
was sought concerning the relative effects of eight different sands (six na- 
tural, and two of crushed stone) each used in combination with crushed dolo- 
mite coarse aggregate* Ninety concrete beams were made and tested at the 
U* S* Engineer's warehouse at Massena, N. Y* 

(a) Aggregates used: The fine aggregates Used in making the 
specimens are shown in the following tabulation* 

Source Pit No* 

Dolomite (manufactured from quarried rock) 8 
Dolomite screenings (tailings from coarse 

egg* mfg*) 8 

Premo natural sand (15*9* loss in MgS04) 9 
Ha rtford natural sand (20.3* loss in MgS04) 11 
Grenadier Isl., Canada, natural sand (23«6£ in 

MgS04) 2001 

Richmond, 0nt* ( natural sand (i8*75C loss in 

MgSO 4) 405-407 

Lowville, N. Y., sand (4*5% loss in MgSQ4) 5200-5205 
Owls Head. N. Y*. sand (9.7% loss in MgS04) 1501 
Crushed dolomite coarse aggregate was used with each of these sands and, in 
addition, Owl Head gravel was used with the Owls Head sand* This gave a 
total of nine aggregate combinations. 

(b) Preparation of Aggregates* - The aggregates were washed and 
screened, and proportioned so that all batches had approximately the same 
gradation* The Owls Head gravel was immersed in water and let stand for 
seven days so that the pore space within the particles would be more nearly 
filled with water and cause the material to be in a condition least resist- 
ant to the freezing tests. The dolomite coarse aggregate was not soaked in 
water for this series of tests because this material had been found to have 
very low absorption. Previous tests had shown it to be thoroughly resistant 
even though completely saturated by the evacuation method prior to freezing* 
The gradations of all of the aggregates used are shown in Table XIV* 

(c) Specimens* - Ten 3-5/8" x 4i* x 18" beams were made for each 
aggregate combination* The concrete for the ten specimens in each group was 
mixed by hand in onebatch and molded in paraffined wood molds* 

(d) Mixtures* - Controlling features of the concrete mixtures 
were as follows t 

Cement factor '5*5 seeks per cubic yard. 

Sand - 40 percent of total aggregate* 

Slump - 2-3 inches* 

Water - approximately 6 gallons per sack, 

but varied for the different materials 
in order to maintain equal consistency* 
Other data on the concrete mixes are shown in Table XV* 

(e) Curing* - The specimens wBre covered, with wet burlap shortly 
after molding and kept wet for five days* The forms were then removed and 
wet burlap curing continued for one week longer, after which time the beams 
were cured in water until 28 days old. 

-40- ) 



(f) The freezing and thawing. cycle, - The freezing was accom- 
plished during cold weather by placing the specimens on a rack outside, near 
the U* S« Engineer Warehouse. The beams were thawed by placing in a tank of 
water at 50° '• " °°r F. inside the building. The temperature of the speci- 
mens when removed from the thawing tank was between 38° F. and 48° IV Two 
hours were permitted for thawing while the freezing time was dependent on 
the ambient atmospheric temperature. One half of the specimens of each group, 
or a total of forty-five beams, were subjected to freezing and thawing be- 
ginning at the age of 28 days. 

(g) Flexure tests. - At the end of the 28-day curing period, one- 
half of the beams, companion specimens to those that were reserved for freez- 
ing and thawing, were tested in flexure. After 53 cycles had been completed 
the remaining beams were broken. The flexural strengths in pounds per square 
inch are given in Table XV. The facts and principal indications obtained 
from these tests are presented under appropriate headings in paragraphs 8 
and 9. 

8. Discussion of Results from Test Series A. B. and C . - Notwithstand- 
ing the limited scope of the laboratory studies and concrete exposure tests 
described above, considerable information of value was obtained and is dis- 
cussed • 

(a) From the results of the exposure .tests on 12 colums (6" x 6" 
Xsiid") at Treat Island, Maine (See Table XIII), it was found that the crushed 
syenite (iron ore tailings) was the only aggregate represented in the test 
which continued to gain in modulus of elasticity up to 95 cycles. The speci- 
mens made with natural sand and gravel failed completely between 37 and 95 
cycles. The concrete prepared with crushed dolomite fine and coarse aggre- 
gates, but also failed between 37 and 95 cycles. Three out of four of the 
specimens containing the treated cement showed greater resistance to weather- 
ing than companion specimens made with untreated cement. The four columns 
molded with absorptive form lining did not show any outstanding results 
attributable to this feature. 

(b) The natural sand and gravel aggregates from Grenadier Island 
and Malone produced concrete of very low resistance to freezing and thawing 
tests. Concrete made with dolomite fine and coarse aggregate was found to 
be much more resistant to this type of test (See Table XI and XII). This 
was also true for concrete made with Owls Head sand in combinations with 
dolomite and limestone coarse aggregates. However, the results of the latter 
are not directly comparable because in order to approximate equal workability 
for all mixtures, the concrete made with natural sands contained 0.25 bbl. 
per cu.yd. less cement than the crushed sand mixtures. In all Of the labora- 
tory tests for concrete durability, it was found that the losses in flexural 
strength were in direct proportion to the reductions in modulus of elasticity, 
a fact which lends credence to the recently developed sonic modulus test for 
concrete specimens. 

(c) The exposure tests at Massena (Tables XT7 & XV), made especial- 
ly to compare different fine aggregates in. concrete, gave the following re- 
sults! 

(1) Of the eight mixtures containg the same coarse aggregate, 
the same cement content, and having the seme slump, the one made with dolomite 
sand gave the highest beam strength both before and after 53 cycles of freez- 
ing and thawing. 

(2) The average strengths for other mixtures compared to that 
of the dolomite sand concrete, the latter taken as the base, ranged from 

0.70 to 0.89, for the specimens not subjected to freezing and thawing. Simi- 
lar comparisons for the companion groups that were frozen and thawed (53 cycles) 



-41- 



showed strength ratios ranging from 0.67 to 0,88. 

(3) Each of these eight mixtures showed a gain in fiexural 
strength during the 43-day period while the freezing and thawing treatment 
was in progress. The amount of gain was 10*4 per cent for the dolomite sand 
specimens and ranged from 2.7 per cent to 14*7 per cent for the other groups 
in which different sands were used. 

(4) The single group of specimens made with Owls Head gravel 
and sand exhibited the lowest strength both before and following the ex- 
posure treatment* It was the only group which showed a loss in strength. As 
compared with the beams made of dolomite fine and coarse aggregates, these 
specimens gave strength ratios of 0.60 at 28 days (without freezing), and 
0.51 at the age of 71 days following the 53 cycles of freezing and thawing. 
The lower 28-day strength of the Owls Head gravel concrete, and the small re- 
trogression in strength attributable to the effects of freezing and thawing, 
were indication that this aggregate was in some measure inferior to the 
crushed dolomite. 

(5) These tests were discontinued on February 25, 1942* be- 
cause of a change in weather conditions and a lack of freezing temperature. 
As a result, the number of cyeles of freezing and thawing obtained was in- 
sufficient for an adequate measure of the durability of the concrete. A 
greater number of cycles and more severe conditions of the tests probably 
would have shown greater difference among the several groups of specimens. 

(d) The tests at the laboratory in which different aggregates 
were compared for their relative influence on mix economy, workability, 
strength, and density of the concrete, gave rather indecisive results. In 
retrospect it appeared that finer and more nearly equal gradations of the 
sands for the different mixtures would have been advantageous. It is possi- 
ble that this would have permitted the used of equal cement factors for 
more, or perhaps all, of the aggregate combinations and thereby provided a 
better basis for the comparisons of concrete quality. 

(e) From the results of all three of these concrete durability 
studies one significant fact was brought out and appears to warrant special 
mention. It was evident that the concrete in which all of the aggregate 
particles consisted of the same type of stone, or mineral, showed higher 
flexural strength and greater resistance to deterioration by freezing and 
thawing. It was true for the Lyon Mountain Syenite in the columns tested 

at Treat Island, Maine and also, in every instance-, for the crushed dolomite 
fine and coarse aggregate mixtures. This observation conforms to the theory 
that uniformity in respect to physical properties, such as thermal coefficient 
and modulus of elasticity, in structural concrete is an important factor to 
consider in the selection of materials. 



-42- 



SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER INVESTIGATION 

1. In the summary of field explorations, limited data were furnished 
on several aggregate deposits which were noted as requiring further inves- 
tigation. By this it was meant that more information was needed regarding 
the quality* the quantity, or the distribution and accessability of the ma- 
terial within the deposit before definite advice could be given regarding 
its possibilities for use in producing acceptable concrete aggregate. It 
will be apparent, in each instance, what principal items of information are 
lacking from the field inspector's reports for individual deposits. 

2. No further field exploration for locating possible sources of con- 
crete aggregate is recommended. However, it is believed that large samples 
of aggregates from ten or more different sources will be needed for use in 
making concrete durability tests and aggregate gradation studies, 

3. Any additional large deposits which may be reported within reason- 
able distance from the project should be inspected and sampled, 

4« Concrete durability tests including freezing and thawing, sonic 
modulus and flexural strength should be made for a number of fine aggregates. 
Similar tests should be made to compare concretes containing different 
coarse aggregates, particularly, dolomite, limestone, and natural gravel, 

5* A series of laboratory tests should be made to determine the rela- 
tive effects of different gradation of crushed and natural aggregates on the 
economy and quality of concrete mixtures. It is believed that considerable 
advantage may be gained by determining the optimum practical gradation for 
a crushed stone fine aggregate and comparing it with natural sands on the 
basis of equal cement content in concrete. 



-43- 



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i oo 
I • 

oo 
oo 



6 4 

ON 



CO I 

• I 

CO I 

rH I 



CO 

& 



8 



00 I 

• I 

So ' 
to! 

• I 

CO I 
On I 



I o 

I • 

I o 

I o 

I rH 



o 



00 



ON 

• 
CM 
rH 

CO 

CO 



»o 

tfN 

o 



NO 

• 
ON 
ON 



CO 

CO 



• 

CM 
rH 

to 

nO 
CO 

NO 

00 



to 

00 
On 



a 



rH rH rH rH <Q 9 

© rH © © rH CO © 4» 

•H(D<H <H CO -H .3 <r4 

o> o<oo t» o -d ad 
©co©3©©©3:3© 



<3 © rH 

© a © 

4 Or) 

3 © « d 

6838 





>> 














CM 






fc 


© 
















d 

•H 


3 


rH 
» © 


■ 




-•: 






© 

© 


^-N 

CM 

N»> 


60 
«H 


o» 


U 












jd 
o 


"3 


s 


a 


© 




4* 




• 




o 


© 


(4 


•H 




•H 


• 


% 




K 


© 




s 


"3 




Pi 




• 




W 




J3 


© 












© 






4* 


3 




O 




d 




rH 


© 




rH 


• © 


a 


I 




o 




rH 


rH 




£ 


s 




* 


a 


■ 


2 


s 


H 
O 
JO 


I 


CO CJ 


CO 


A 


CO 
1 

04 


s 


co e 


W 
1 

o 



© 
© 



8 



i 

3 



O 
I 



© 




4* 




© 




u 


• 


o 


>> 


3 


rH 


8 


d 
o 


rH 


© 





© 


u 


ri 


+> 


U 


d 


© 


© 


© 


o 






s 


Vi 


4» 


o 


•H 




rH 


© 


•H 


© 


J3 


rH 


. © 




a 


O 


•3 


o 

rH 


b 




o 


^ 


4» 

© 


4* 


u 


%4 


o 


© 


^ 




© 


M 


rH 


5 


d 

•H 


© 


•3 


© 


© 


a 


§ 



CM 



TABLE II.— JGOBSGATE MINSUL COMPOSITION 



Miner 


al 


Limestone 
Coarse 
% 


















Svenite 




Glacial 






C 


oarse 


Fine 


Coarse Fine 
% % 


Grenadier 
Coarse Fine 


Par£ 

Coars 


se 


Fine 


0»ls Hflj 




Fine' 




* 










% 


s 


* 




* 


% 


Quartz 


1 


1 


Tr 


— 


1 


—• 


13 


— 




10 


30 


Quart izite 


— 


— 


m»mm 










28 




— 


3 


Sandstone 


~ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


45 


25 


56 




43 


19 


Granitic 


— 


— 


~ 


— 


— 


22 


7 


3 




2 


37 


Feldspar t 
























Soda 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


4 


— 




2 


— 


Potash 


Tr 


Tr 


Tr 


~ 


10 


— 


6 


— 




3 


6 


So da- lime 


— . 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




— 


Tr 


Syenite(l) 


»m 


— 


— 


6o 


65 


■— 


— 


«*» 




— 


— 


Gabbro 


~ 


— 


~ 


— 


— 


10 


~ 


— 






3 


Gneiss 


~ 


— 


















1 


Schist 


— 


~ 


— 


«— 


Tr 


— 


mmmm 


— 




— 




Basalt 


— 


— 


— 


34 


9 


~ 


— 


-- 




— 


— 


Magnetite 


— 


— 


— 


Tr 


Tr 


— 


— 


— 




— 


— 


Pyroxenite 


— 


— 


— 


6 


U 


— 


— 


— 




~ 


— 


Amphibole 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


~ 


Tr 


~ 




— 


— 


Mica 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Tr 


-- 


Tr 


~ 




— 


— 


Chlorite 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Tr 


~ 




— 




~ 


~ 


Calcium 
























Carbonate 


— 


— 


98.5 


— 


— 


6) 




2 


) 




— 


Magnesium 












) 


44 




) 33 




Carbonate" 


-92 


92 




— 


— 


Tr) 




— 


) 






Argillaceous 






















Limestone 


— . 


— 


— 


— 




13 


— 


-- 




— 




Shale 


~ 


ww 


1 


— 


— 


— 


Tr 


8 




7 


1 


Muds tone 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


m 


— 


3 




— 


— 


Iron Oxide 


Tr 


Tr 


Tr 


— 


— 


— 


— 


«— 




— 


— 


Organic 


Tr 


Tr 


Tr 


-- 


«•- 


— — 


Tr 


— 




Tr 


Tr 


(1) 
























Quartz syenit 


e 20% 




















Augite 


■ 


l&% 





















-45- 



TABLE III a.— CEMENT CHEMICAL DATA 



CONSTITUENTS 



STL-C-1 
SS-C-206a 



CEMENTS * 

STL-C-2 
SS-C-206a f Vinsol Resin 



C2S 
CoA 
CfcAF 
CaS04 



SIO2 

A*2°3 
Fe203 
CaO 

MgO 
SO3 



MQ2O3 
PgOc 
Na20 
K 2 



Free CaO 
Ignition Loss 
Insoluble Residue 
Chloroform solubility 



Water Soluble Na20 
Water Soluble K20 
Alkalinity 
Free Alkali 
Sugar Test-End Point 
Clear Point 
Floe Test 



CaO Saturation 
Al20^/Fe203 

8102/11203 
Cao/Si02 
Colony 1 3 Ratio 



Calculated Compounds 

47.3* 

29.9 

5-5 
11.0 

2.1 

Major Oxides 

22.85? 

A. 40 

3.63 
63.68 

1.37 
1.21 

Minor Qtlflgg. 
0.065? 

0.18 

0.40 

0.21 
Other Constituents 

0.3ft? 
1.11 
0.08 
0.006 

Special Tftats 

0.02j? 
0,095? 
3*5 OC 
1.8 cc 
3*0 cc 
3.0 cc 
2.OI5? 



Ratios 



71.3 
1.21 

2.85 

2.79 

2.54 



* The above are the analyses for cements used in Series A & B only 



51.25? 
26.6 

5.1 

11.3 

2.0 



22.63* 
4.29 
3.71 

64.10 

1.37 
1.19 



O.O65? 

0.19 

0.42 

0.16 



0.465? 

1.05 

0.09 

0.027 (V.R.) 



0.04$? 
0.11s? 
3*5 cc 

2.0 cc 
2.9 cc 
2.9 cc 
I.065? 



70.7 
1.16 

2.83 
2.83 

2.58 



-46- 



TABLE III b.— CMENT PHfSICAL DATA 



TEST 



200 Mesh Sieve-£ Bet* 
325 Mesh SLere-% Pass 
Surface Ar ea-sq.au/gm 

Heat of Solution-cal/gja 
Heat of Hydration - 

cal/gai, 7 day 
Heat of Hydration- 

cal/gm, 28 day 

Initial Set 
Final Set 

Penetrometer Drop 1 hr. 
• ■ 3 hrs. 

Soundness-St earn 
Autoclave Expansion 

Specific Gravity 

% Flow 

Normal Consistency 

Tensile Strength, P.S.I. 
3 day 
7 day 
28 day 

Compressive Strength 

1 day 

3 day 

7 day 
14 day 
28 day 

Sulfate Expansion 

7 day 1)6 mortar 

14 day 1:6 mortar 



cmmrs 



STL-n-l 
(Plain) 


STIr -? 
(Vinsol Resin) 


0.60 

96.31 
I89O. 


G.63 

96.45 
1918. 


597.28 


606.21 


58.9 


68.4 


80.3 


83.2 


4:05 

5:45 


5:00 
7:00 


341 

6 


343 
8 


CK 
+0.018 


OK 
f0.026 


3.164 


3.162 


81.25 
24.50 


100.0 
24.50 


231 

399 
439 


216 

353 
434 


448 
1615 

3033 

4200 

5408 


410 
1382 

2675 
3692 

41S1 


.0282 
.142* 


.013* 
.0222 



-47- 






X xi 

M -P 



1-1 
CO 



CO 
<B 

^1 

o 

c 

•H 

CM 

-(-» It 
d 

CD (J) 

fi p 

CD CO 

d P. 

-rH W) 

<D CO 

re 
a) 

CO 

o u 

co to 
a o 

.rH O 

oy n 

•H 
$3 CO 
•H 
CO S 

a, s 



? rH 



t*0 

CJ *-* 

•H CO 

0) V? 
<D 
rH 

CQ 



On 



to 



*0 

-3" 



to 



ON 

• 



o 
to 



CO 

co 



x> 

CO 

c 

O -P 
H Xi 

-p eo 

o <c 
p- £ 
o 

Pi 
P. 



N- 


Os 


ON 


rH 


• 


• 


rH 


co 


1 


1 


CO 


vO 


O 


o 


• 


• 


rH 


rH 


1 


1 


C— 


vO 



CM 



re co 



I 



CM 

I 



CM 
tO 

• 

CM 
I 

CM 

tO 

• 

CM 

I 

O 

I s - 

• 

CM 
I 



on 
to 

• 

CM 
I 

cn 

in 

CM 

I 



CM 
I 



ON 



I 

ON 
ON 



I 
ON 

vO 

• 

CM 
I 



CM 
CM 

• 

i 

00 

o 

• 

rH 

I 

ON 

tO 

• 

CM 

I 



r- 
to 

• 

CM 
I 

(N- 

tO 
CM 

I 



CM 

I 



*0 



tO 



o 



ON 



vO 



OO 



[N- 



CO 

ON 



CN- 

CM 
I 

tn| 

CM 
I 



CM 
I 



CO 







CM 


CM 


CM 


CM 


CM 


CM 


CM 


CM 






\ 


\ 


\ 


\ 


\ 


*Ss 


>N 


\ 


& 




rH 


r-i 


rH 


rH 


r-\ 


rH 


rH 


rH 


E • 




















a c 




CM 


CM 


CM 


CM 


CM 


CM 


CM 


CM 


rH -H 




















to 




















X, 




















o 




















cc 












to 


to 


O 


O 


CO 




C 


O 


C 


O 


c- 


[N- 


vD 


vO 


fev; 




NO 


vO 


NO 


vD 


to 


<o 


to 


>o 


CO 




















t£ 


* 

■ 








• 








• 


-p 


3 


»A 


o 


)T> 


JO 


to 


o 


to 


to 


-P d ^ 

d <D *V 


IN- 

• 


to 

• 


• 


CN- 

• 


(N- 

• 


to 

• 


CN- 

• 


C- 

• 


CD P 

fi d 


co 


»0 


*n 


-3- 


-ir 


to 


to 


Jt 


^t 


<D O 


o 


















o o 


CO 

CO 


















<r-"v 

rH 












cr> 








<-i 












o 








O d 












• 








CO -r-4 

C CO 




O 


o 


o 


o 


o 


s 


c 


c 


•rH <U 




















t> re 






CD 




r-\ 

CO 




<D 




rH 
CO 






CD 


P 




•H 


CD 


4-> 




•<-1 






P 


•rH 




o 


H J 


•ri 




o 






•<-t 


fi 




CO 


•rH 


fi 




CO 






d 


o 


r-i 


rH 


PI 


o 


rH 


rH 


© 




(D 


r-i 


CO 


O 


CD 


r-H 


CO 


C5 


CO 




>> 


O 


•H 




S* 


o 


•rH 




<D U 




CO 


P 


o 


u 


CO 


n 


o 


M 


-U CO 








CO 


CD 






CO 


CD 


CO O 




"3 


•a 


t~H 


•rH 


T3 


"D 


f~\ 


•rH 


tH) O 




CD 


CO 


o 


t) 


CD 


CD 


C3 


rrH 


CD 




.G 


xi 




CO 


X\ 


.r 




CO 


Ph <D 




CO 


cc 


O 


d 


03 


CO 


o 


f! 


fiC d 




3 


-1 


Pi 


<D 


3 


3 


fn 


CD 


J#r H 




tl 


Pi 


CO 


rH 


rH 


u 


CO 


fn 


<C fc 




o 


o 


p. 


O 


O 


o 


ft. 


C3 







-p 






CJ 






CD 






-P 






£3 






O 






O 






U 






CD 






P 






CO 






£ 






r-i 






CO 




• 


c 




CO 


•H 




T3 


t& 




C 


•i-l 


• 


o 


u 


H-> 


o 


o 


rt 


CD 




CD 


CO 


1"^. 


fi 




o 


© 


c' 




o 


•H 


-p 
43 


CD 


H-> 


M 


J3 


u 


•H 


-P 


o 


CD 




c_ 


£ 


C^H 


<v-. 




o 


CD 


<K4 

o 


-p 


tHj 




£■ 


c 


CO 


m 


•H 


fi 


-H 


TJ 


u 


CD 


^H 


CD 


P 


o 


P 


>j 


£ 


d 


CQ 


cc 


n 



I 

OO 

^* 
I 



CM 



ON, 






TABLE V— KIXOTRE DATA 

Relative Water Demand 
Plain Cement 
(Maximum size coarse aggregates 1 1/4 in. 



Fine 
P-S 


Aggregate 
Coarse 

P-G 


W/C 

Gal/sack 

5.5 


Cement 
Content 
sacks/cu.yd. 

5-5 


G-S 


G-G 


5-5 


5-5 


0.3 


N-G 


6.0 


5-5 


0-S 


M-G 


6.0 


5-5 


N-S 


N-G 


6.0 


5-75 


N-S 


M-G 


6.0 


^ 



Slump 


in. 


2 3/4 


2 1/2 


2 1/2 


2 1/2 


2 3 A 


2 1/2 



R.E.^1) Proportions by 
sec- Weight 

11.5 1-2.47-2.02-2.03 

12 1-2.47-2.02-2.0/1 

28 1-2. 39- 0.87-3. 46 

20 1-2.39-2.15-2.15 

18 1-2.54-0. 77-?. 10 

19 l-2.54-l.92-l.92 



(1) 



Remolding effort in seconds. 






-49- 






XI 
•p 
bC 
G 
CD 
U 
P 
CO 

<D 
> 

CG 

to 
fl) 

!■ 

o 
o 



CO o 

•O r-l 

" ^ <M 

• o 

p >> 

fl ti lp, 



cu 

CM 



CO 



>5 
CO 

o- 





a-i 




>> 




• 




3 




a 




\ 




co 


• 


M 


fc 


O 


• 


co 


a 


CO 



o 



CO 
P 



Cw 

o 

CO 
<D S 
P. fn 
>> O 





fl 


c 


CD 


■H 


fc= 


'CO 


CD 


CD 


O 


PC 






C 


iH 


o 


o 




CO 


• 


c 


H-> 


•rH 


r£ 


> 






>> 




^- 





<D 


CD 


CO 


4-: 


>-l 


01 


01 


ta 


o 


Q> 


CI 


fl 




fc 




Wi 




<J 






CD 




c 



CU 
On 



o. 

vO 
vO 
On 



o 

o 

CM 

CM 



O 

c 

en 

vO 



o 

in 



o 
o 



o 

vO 

CM 

.-=t 



o 

in 



o 

on 



o 

on 



o 

vO 

r- 

CM 



d 

vO 



*0 



vO 



LP 

I s - 

cr> 

in 



vO 



in 



£ 



in 



£ 



\rs lp, \ry lp, 



£ 



£ 



vC 



vO 



in 



C 
CD 

-p 

co 



p 
o 

CO 



co 

CD 

-P 

tn 



^n 



p 
a 
o 

CO 



on 
o 



CO] 

o 



o 



CD 
■P 

c 

CD 

>> 

CO 



T5 


X. 
0, 
-1 
fl 

o 



o 


o 


O 


in 


CTN 


o 


co 


-«t 


O 


on 


r-t 


o 


>n 


»n 


I s - 


ON 


-=t 


in 


in 


vO 


m 


vO 


■=$ 


in 



in 


in 


O 


in 


m 


r-( 


t-\ 


CX 


o> 


-=* 


vf> 


o 


O 


en 


vO 


-3- 


vO 


-=f 


vO 


en 



o 


in 


rH 


o 


cu 


CM 


on 


in 


in 


o 


cm 


I s - 


o 


r- 


en 


-=t 



o 

vO 



C 

I s - 

vO 

o> 



o 

CM 

in 



o 
o 

CM 

in 



o 


o 


o 


o 


>n 


i 


vO 


LP 


r— 1 


rH 


cK 


i 


(• . 


vO 


<— 1 


on 


co 


i 


-J- 


LP 


in 


I s - 


-cj- 


i 



o 

IS- 

r- 

CM 



in 
o-> 
on 

CM 



o 

I s - 

-3- 



o 

on 



o 
c- 

vO 
CM 



cu 

O-N 



o 
o 

CM 



O 

>n 
on 

CM 



O 

o 

0^ 



o 

CM 

cr- 

0r> 



CM 
ON 



in in 



LO 



in 



in 



in in 



m 



o 



rO 



JQ 



vO 



vD 



in 



in 



CD 
CD 
-P 
CO 



p. 
u 
o 

CO 



CD 
-P 
CO 



p 
u 
o 

CO 



o 



fcp 


V° 


on 


0T-. 


c 


o 


• 


• 


o 


o 



CD 
-P 
•H 

i= 

o 
o 



CD 
O 



P 



un 
o- 



P 



P 



-=1" -^ 



-cT 



O 

CM 
CM 



O 
I s - 

0r> 



O 

vO 
CO 
CM 



O 

-=t 
CM 
NO 



in 

o 

in 



o 
co 

3 



o 

o 

O" 



in 

i— i 

o^ 



o 
in 
m 

CM 



P 



in 
I s - 



P 



o 

VO 



O 

vO 



vO 

in 



in 



CD 

,® 
«P 
CO 



p. 
u 
o 

CO 

X- 



CD 
CD 
-P 
CO 



• 

p 
u 
o 

CO 



O 



en o^ 

o o 

• • 

o o 



o 

vO 



o 

vO 



vO 

in 



CD 
CD 
P 
CO 



p 
u 
o 

CO 



CD 
CD 
P 
CO 



o 

in 
in 



o 

in 



LP 



LP 
I s - 



>n 



p 
o 

CO 



6 

in 

i 



o 



V 


*= 


on 


on 


o 


c 


• 


• 


o 


o 



CD 

O 
CO 
r-t 

o 

u 

o 

•rH 
fj 

fl 

CD 

U 

O 





■r-t 
V 

cC 

r-t 
C5 



o 
u 

cr 
Cu 



TABLE VII.— FLEXURAL STRENGTH OF CONCRETE 
6" by 6" by 4§" Column Specimens 



Aggregate 

Fine Coarse 



Vinsol Resin Lining 
by wt. of cement type 



W/C <3.T. FleTural(l) 

g.p.s. sax^cu.yd. Strength 
p.s.i. 



Crushed Syenite 



Crushed Dolomite 



Grenadier Glacial 



Paro Glacial 





0.03^ 



0.03^ 



0.03^ 



6.035? 



Steel 



6.0 


5.75 


630 


5.75 


5.75 


675 


6.0 


5-5 


840 


5.75 


5-5 


820 


6.0 


4-75 


610 


5.6 


4.75 


520 


6.0 


4.75 


540 


<5.6 


4.75 


575 



(1) 



At 28 days. 









-51- 








• 

























cO 


-ct 


O) 


NO 


NO 




U- 


co 


• 


-^j 


-^f 


LP 


LP\ 


-^J 


-ct 




LP 


LP 


p 


rH 


i-H 


rH 


1— 1 


rH 


rH 




rH 


rH 


• 

> 




















-a 




















m 




in ip 








IP IP 








-P 




• • 








• * • 








S? 


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OJ OJ 


NO NO 


IPivO 


NO 


O 


co CO' 




-=t^ 


-=t-^ 


LP, LP 


LP LP, 


-=f-Ct 


-^3" ^J 


LP) NO 


LP, LP 


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VH rH 


rH rH 


rH rH 


rH rH 


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3 






















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O O 





O 


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• 




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ex • 


JC 


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> ^ 


CD 


^ > 






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-p 


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4- -*■ 


CD 




• * 


i 




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-u 




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> > 


B « 


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m 


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o 




o 


m 


c 


c 


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c 


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to P 


h 


-^ -+ 


f-H 


rH 


CD 


CD « 


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• 


to cc 


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o 


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u 


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>> 




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m 


Pw « 


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to 




to 



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LP> 



TABLE IX.— MODULUS OF ELASTICITY 





ST. LAWRENCE 


ALKALI EEAMS 






Specimen 
Number 


30 Days 
E-p.s.i. xl(T D 


180 Days 
E-p.s.i . 


xlO -6 - 


Relative 


Paro 
PA-1 


5.60 


5.77 




103 


Dolomite 
NA-1 


6.77 


7.21 




lOo 


Grenadier 
GA-1 


5.27 


5.77 




109 


Syenite 
LA-1 


6.06 


6. hi 




106 * 



-5> 



.TABLE X a . --THERMAL DATA 
Thermal coefficient of diffusivity 
(Each value is the average of h runs) 



Aggregate Diffusion constant in ft. 2/hr. 
Fine Coarse Plain cement Vinsol Resin Cerr.ent 

Paro glacial 0.055 0.054 

Dolomite 0.0i|8 O.050 

Grenadier glacial 0.050 O.OJil 

Syenite 0.0l|2 0.031 



~5hr 



TABLE X b. — Thermal Expansion Data 



No* 



Description Coeff. of thermal exp. xlO 



Heating Cooling 

-20° to 60° C. 60° to 0° 



Separate Minerals in Glacial Aggregate 

2-1 White or milky quartz I3.5 I3.8 

2-2 Yellowish quartz 11.8 11. 7 

* 

2-3 Colorless quartz 11.7 12.4 

2-4 Red granite -25° to 2©c 2° to 6o° C. 6.0 2.8 

6.6 5.6 

2-5 ftrkosic quartzite 7.0 7.5 

2-6 Chlorite schist 6.7 7.5 

2-7 quartzite ; 12.2 12.8 



Lyon Mountain Stone 



6.7 7.7 

5.3 6.1 

6.7 6.7 

7.0 

-25 to 5.5°C, 9.1 7.0 7-7 

5.5 to 9.5°c, -7.5 

10 to 60°C, 6.5 

-25 to 4°c 7*4 
k-l Dolomite \ to 7°C -5.7 6.6 8.1 

3 to 60°C 6.4 



3-1 


Q,uartz 


3-2 


Augite 


3-3i 


Easalt 


3-32 


a 


3-4 


Diabase 



-55- 



W 



OT 



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CO 

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fn. 



NO 

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r- 1 cm 

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HHO 
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[n- d- C\J 

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On ON ON 



00 On On 

• • • 
vO vO NO 



<M -^J-CVJ 
On ON ON 



CO ON ON 

• • • 
nO nO nO 



CM UN,rH 
ON ON ON 



[N- ON 00 

• • • 

NO NO NO 



CVJ IT^H 
On On ON 



IN" ON CO 
• * • 

NO NO NO 



COlO<0 
On On On 



CO On On 
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m :.!»• 



I'KPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
FliANKUN K I.ANT?, SECRETARY 
U. i*.«EOl.t>l>lCAL SURVEY 
JtiUUGE OTlrt SMITH. PLRECTOK 



TOPOGRAPHY 

STATE OF NEW YORK 
REPRESENTF.D BY THE 
3TATF. ENGINEER AND SURVEYOR - 



ni-;w Vtvy. 

trfAT.MENA ',)! 'Ai *i*>v!:' •(■'■'. 




J M j a nmn|a. in charge a* MCtion 

foniifaphj by CC e»i»err- and Me'aa* Mumo. 
Omtr©l and »hor»l'na by U 5 Lake Survey »ndtLMcNn' f\ 



'-.'■'- of --0' -»r ■ ■- f 9<S 



.J„i 



S-A-3/5 

MAKSENA 



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
TJ. 3. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 



STATE OF HEW YORK 
REPRESENTED BT THE 

EFT OF FUBLIC WORKS 



NEW YORK 
MO IRA QUADRANGLE 




J MBMarahell.Chief Geographer. 

/y frank Su^On. Geographnr in charge. 
Topography by Gfenn S. Smith and C.H Dave/. 
A"" Control by International Boundary Survey. 



P-^OHt.;,.',,,,:.. 



UNITED STATES 

DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 



S.E.D. 



dTATE OF NEW YORK 

REPRESENTED BY THE 

DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC "WORKS 



NEW YORK 
(FRANKLIN COUNTY) *)'H ( I l<tfl 

MALONE QUADRANGLE 

Mis* 




1 6 Marshall. Chief Geographer, 
franli Sutton. Geogropher in charge. 
Topography by Glenn S.Smith ond TFSIaughter. 
Control by International Boundary Surv*/. ELMoNair, 
C.S.He.-dall.Geo.T He*liino.H.S.Soneeney 
and A.J.Kavanagh. 

In l9l*-iSI5 



S-A-3/7 V 



MALONENY 



C - 640/tO 



UNITED STATES 

DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 



STATE OFNEWYOSK 

REFRESEITTED BY THE 

DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WOB2S 



NEW YORK U.O.-Cj.U. 

1ST LAWRENCE COUNTY! &?% j T - v 

WADDLNGTON OUADRANGLE 




S-A-376 s - 






DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

AIEERT BEFALL, SECRETARY 1 

US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 

GEORGE OTE SMITH. DIRECTOR. 

7S-30- 



TOPOOHAPHY 

STATE OPKEWYOHK 

REPRESENTED BT THE 

STATU ENGINEER AND SURVEYOR 



s E-.: 



NEW YORK 
(ST. LAWRENCE COUNTY) 
RED MILLS QUADRANGLE 



m i 



i w\ 




Control and shoreline by U.S. Lake Survey and LLMc Na 



RED MILLS GQ-64&/6 

Edii.onofl906 ^ 



DEPARTMENT ; E 1 EERIOR 

us :-t: _ _: sical survey 

.7S--5 



STATE OF NEW YORK 

HZPPCEszirr zr BY THE 

nBPATyiww? OF PUBLIC WDBXS 



NEW YORK „ 

ST LAWRENCE COUNTY .<& 



I) () M I N I. () X () F r A X A n A . 




■ I 



S-A-3/10 



UNITED STATES 

DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 

7S'3ff 



STATE OF NEW YORK 

REPRESENTED BT THE 

DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS 

fro*/ MOi#) 



NEW YORK ., 

(ST. LAWRENCE CO) fl 

OGDENSBTJRG QUADRANGLE ^ 

75- 1 6